Kada bi svećenici misije u Kaliforniji mogli izvršiti krizmu?

Kada bi svećenici misije u Kaliforniji mogli izvršiti krizmu?

Franjevački svećenici u misijama u Kaliforniji bili su ovlašteni fakultetima za obavljanje sakramenata poput krštenja i vjenčanja. Stroži standard koji se primjenjuje u slučaju fakulteta za potvrdu - da ga izvode biskupi. Kalifornijski biskup bio je nedostupno daleko u Sonori.

U doba Serre i Lasuena svećenici su uživali potvrdu, koja je nekako istekla 1795. Payeras se požalio na njezinu dvadesetpetogodišnju odsutnost 1820. Je li fakultet ikada ponovno odobren prije nego što je 1840. osnovana biskupija Monterey?


Prema Zephyrin Engelhardt, Lasuén je napisao da je "fakultet za upravljanje sakramentom potvrde" dodijeljen nekim od podova na deset godina, a zatim obnovljen za još deset (ali da je više od polovice proteklog vremena izgubljeno čekajući dokumente) . Lasuén se slaže s Payerasom da je fakultet prestao 1795., pa je možda počeo 1775. Međutim, prema Boltonovim Vodič kroz materijale za povijest Sjedinjenih Država, 1787. fakultet je dodijeljen Lasuénu.

Prema Payerasu, potvrde su 1820. još uvijek bile nemoguće. Od 1835. "vice-comisario" fra. Moreno je uspio potvrditi ljude. Kalifornija je dobila svog prvog biskupa (inherentno sposobnog vršiti krizmu), Garcia Diega, 1840. Obišao je državnu administrativnu potvrdu i nije posjetio Donju Kaliforniju, ali je imenovao neke od posljednjih misionara tamošnjim vikarima kako bi i oni mogli vršiti sakrament.

Dakle, možda je u Kaliforniji postojao četrdesetogodišnji jaz bez potvrda; jaz je trajao najmanje dvadeset pet godina. Nedostatak valjanih svetih ulja bila je još jedna velika prepreka za obavljanje krizme.


Španjolski kralj smatrao je misije najjednostavnijim, najbržim i najjeftinijim načinom za rješavanje granice. Umjesto da plati mnogo novca za vojnike i doseljenike iz Španjolske i Meksika, vlada je htjela misije pretvoriti Indijance u lojalne španjolske podanike koji bi mogli zadržati Kaliforniju za Španjolsku. Međutim, Katolička crkva i misionari smatrali su prevođenje Indijanaca na kršćanstvo kao svoju glavnu svrhu.

Španjolci su prisilili Indijance na koje su naišli da se presele u misije gdje su ih svećenici preobratili na kršćanstvo, poučili ih španjolskom i obučili u poljoprivredi i rukotvorinama u europskom stilu. Život na misiji bio je težak. Svećenici su odredili stroge rutine za rad, posjećivanje crkve i jelo. Također su koristili oštru disciplinu za kršenje pravila. Prema Resursnom centru California Missions, 10 do 15 posto Indijanaca pobjeglo je. Svećenici su Indijance vidjeli kao djecu kojoj je potrebno vodstvo u načinima civiliziranog ponašanja. Obično su vojnici garnizirani u misijama bili okrutni prema Indijancima, pokušavajući im ukrasti žene i tući ih.


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Santa Clara, CA 95053
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Samovođen. Peta crkva misije, izgrađena 1825., potpuno je uništena u požaru 1926. Sadašnja crkva dovršena je 1929. i služi sveučilišnoj zajednici.

Crkvene službe

Nedjeljom 10:00 od ponedjeljka do petka 12:05

Vjenčanja i druge posebne usluge

Subotom
10:00 do 12:30
15:00 sati 18:00 sati

Nedjeljom
13:00.

Vjenčanja se moraju zakazati pozivom u ured Misije na broj 408-554-4023.

Toplo se preporučuje otkaz od godinu i pol dana. Ovo su popularno mjesto za vjenčanja onih koji su pohađali Sveučilište Santa Clara, a njima se daje prednost.

Jedinstvene atrakcije

Santa Clara je najstarije sveučilište u Kaliforniji, a razvilo se iz misije osnovane 1777. godine.

Crkva je privlačna "moderna interpretacija" crkve iz 1825. godine.

Desno od crkve nalazi se atraktivan, dobro održavan ružičnjak. Ovo je bilo mjesto groblja od 1820.-1846.

U blizini crkve nalazi se mali dio jednog od izvornih zidova misije misije. Informativni znak pruža pojedinosti.

Visoki križ, podignut 1777. godine, sada u zaštitnom omotaču, stoji preko puta ulaza u crkvu.

Savjeti za posjetitelje

Uživajte u Santa Clari zbog njezine jedinstvene povijesti, dobro uređenih terena i živahnog duha velikog katoličkog sveučilišta gdje je misijska crkva središte života u kampusu.

Ova misija može biti zanimljiva za posjet tijekom Božićnog tjedna, drugih vjerskih blagdana i posebnih sjećanja, poput Dana duša.

Knjižara u kampusu ima malu zbirku materijala o misiji. Ovo nije dućan sa misijama misije.

Iako se misija i njezina dobro uređena područja mogu posjetiti za sat vremena, istraživanje ovog velikog sveučilišta može potrajati mnogo duže. Muzej de Saisset koji se nalazi u blizini crkve vrijedan je posjeta.

Ostale povijesne atrakcije

Moguće je posjetiti misije Santa Clara, San Jose i Santa Cruz u jednom punom danu ako započnete rano.


Kada bi svećenici misije u Kaliforniji mogli izvršiti krizmu? - Povijest

Uvod

Zaklada Misije Kalifornije zalaže se za potpuni i točan prikaz povijesti u ranoj Kaliforniji. CMF će nastaviti surađivati ​​s kalifornijskim indijskim znanstvenicima, vođama i kulturnim stručnjacima na razvoju ove stranice u robustan izvor informacija o kalifornijskim indijskim iskustvima. U budućnosti će ova stranica sadržavati poveznice na povijesne izvore i povezivati ​​posjetitelje sa suvremenim kalifornijskim indijskim zajednicama. Slijedi kratki uvod u kalifornijska indijska iskustva prije, tijekom i nakon ere Misije.

Kalifornijski Indijanci prije kolonizacije

Kalifornija je oduvijek bila jedno od kulturno najrazličitijih područja svijeta. Pojam kalifornijski indijanac previše je pojednostavljen. Plemenske skupine koje su živjele u Kaliforniji od pamtivijeka nisu se nazivale kalifornijskim Indijancima. Umjesto toga, poznavali su sebe po bezbrojnim seoskim i obiteljskim vezama.

Rani europski istraživači opisali su Kaliforniju kao zemaljski raj u kojem su domaći stanovnici jednostavno "preživjeli" od onoga što je priroda dala. Ali kalifornijski Indijanci svoju hranu nisu prepustili sudbini. U cijeloj državi domoroci iz Kalifornije pažljivo su upravljali svojim okruženjem. Kontroliranim spaljivanjem očistili su šikaru i potaknuli novi rast važnih biljaka. Podigli su tlo berbom lukovica, što je uzrokovalo umnožavanje takve vegetacije. Ubrali su sjeme iz trave i pritom nenamjerno, a ponekad i namjerno, širili biljne vrste na nova područja. Takve prakse ne samo da su osigurale obilje hrane, već su osigurale i sirovine za instrumente korisnosti i umjetnosti, poput regalija, košara i predmeta za kućanstvo.

Unatoč suprotnim europskim stavovima, kalifornijski Indijanci razvili su složene kulture i tradicije tisućljećima prije dolaska španjolskih misionara.

Misije: Vrijeme malog izbora

Iako je Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo 1542. tvrdio da je Kalifornija Španjolska, Španjolska je pokušala zauzeti zemlju sve do kasnih 1700 -ih. Okupacija Nove Španjolske zračila je prema Mexico Cityju. Primarna strategija španjolske kolonizacije bila je pretvaranje domorodačkih naroda u lojalne španjolske građane. Misionizacija, čin pretvaranja Indijanaca putem kulturnog i vjerskog poučavanja, bila je središnja točka španjolske kolonijalne strategije.

Sredinom 1700-ih Španjolska je već osnovala misije u Donjoj Kaliforniji. Osjećajući pritisak suparničkih carstava, poput Rusije i Velike Britanije, Španjolska je zabrinuta da zadrži svoja potraživanja nad zemljom u sjevernim krajevima Nove Španjolske. Ruski hvatači krenuli su prema jugu duž pacifičke obale, a britanski brodovi izviđali Altu California. 1769. Španjolska je naredila vojnu ekspediciju za istraživanje i zauzimanje Alte California. Predvođeni kapetanom Gasparom Portolom i ocem Juniperom Serrom, ovo početno istraživanje postalo bi poznato kao Sveta ekspedicija. Ekspedicija je rezultirala osnivanjem Misije San Diego, prve u lancu od 21 misije koja će se na kraju protegnuti sve do Sonome.

Osim podova i vojnog osoblja, misije su bile zatvorene indijanske zajednice. Padres je općenito nalazio misije u blizini postojećih indijanskih zajednica. Indijanci su došli u te zajednice iz različitih razloga. Nedavna povijesna istraživanja sugeriraju da su španjolske bolesti i brza degradacija okoliša, uzrokovane invazivnim vrstama koje su donijeli Španjolci, dramatično promijenile okoliš i tradicionalne društvene strukture. Kako su izvorni izvori hrane postali manje pouzdani i kako je bolest harala kalifornijskim indijskim zajednicama, misije su predstavljale mogućnost u vrijeme velikih preokreta.

Misije su stvorile nove vrste zajednica, iako često neugodnih. Bio je to život kojim su upravljali padres. U misijama su domoroci Amerikanci primali vjeronauk i od njih se očekivalo da obavljaju poslove, poput izgradnje i poljoprivrede za održavanje zajednice. Bio je to život koji se dramatično razlikovao od života koji su poznavali prije ere Misije. Sustav misije bio je vrlo prisilan i kad su Indijanci iz Kalifornije ušli u zajednicu, od njih se očekivalo da žive na način koji su padrei i vojni dužnosnici smatrali prihvatljivim. Misionari su obeshrabrivali aspekte izvorne religije i kulture. Američkim domorocima koji su krštenjem ušli u misijske zajednice nije bilo dopušteno odlaziti bez dopuštenja. Tjelesno kažnjavanje, poput šibanja, za domoroce Amerikance koji nisu poštovali pravila bilo je učestalo, a ponekad i strogo. Iako takve kazne nisu bile neuobičajene u suvremenom španjolskom društvu, bile su prilično odstupanje od tradicionalnih domorodačkih običaja.

Nisu svi domoroci u Alta California došli na misije, a nisu svi oni koji su to učinili doživjeli misijski život na isti način. Španjolci su uspostavljali misije na velikoj zemljopisnoj udaljenosti i tijekom dugog vremenskog razdoblja. Junipero Serra osnovao je prvu misiju u San Diegu 1769. Otac Jose Altimira osnovao je posljednju misiju Alta California, San Francisco de Solano, 1823. Iako je postojao sustav misija i Padres koji su njima upravljali činili su to prema utvrđenim smjernicama velike regionalne varijacije. Ova je varijacija odražavala Indijance koji su činili misijske zajednice i osobnosti misionara.

Bez obzira na suvremeni pogled na misije, jedno je jasno: kalifornijski Indijanci izgradili su svaku misiju, a kalifornijski Indijanci su u njima živjeli, radili i umirali. Jasno je da je život u misijama često bio težak. Misijske zajednice često su harale bolesti. Ali čak i u ovim vremenima velikih teškoća, kalifornijski Indijanci živjeli su najbolje što su mogli. Vjenčali su se i dobili djecu, prenijeli tradiciju i kulturno znanje te su doživjeli trenutke velike radosti, koliko god kratke bile. Iznad svega, oni nisu bili „misijanski Indijanci“, to su bili ljudi.

Kalifornijski indijski kulturni kontinuitet

Iako je misionalizacija zauvijek promijenila kalifornijske indijske kulture, nije ih mogla izbrisati. Kalifornijski Indijanci središnji su dio suvremenog života. Posjeduju poduzeća, rade kao javni službenici i obnašaju političke dužnosti u cijeloj državi. No, mnogi također nastavljaju aspekte svoje predkolonizacijske kulturne tradicije. Starješine uče mlađe generacije kako biljke nastoje dati tradicionalnu hranu i materijale za tkanje košara. Više generacija obitelji nastavlja plesati i pjevati na načine koji su dugo prethodili španjolskoj kolonizaciji. Tamo gdje se nit sjećanja prekinuo, kalifornijski Indijanci oživljavaju tradiciju istraživanjem i praksom. Doista, kalifornijske indijske kulture su neizbrisive.

Odabrana bibliografija

Anderson, M. Kat, Tending the Wild (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.).

Hackel, Steven, Djeca Kojota, misionari svetog Franje: indijsko-španjolski odnosi u kolonijalnoj Kaliforniji, 1769.-1850 (Williamsburg, Virginia: Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2005).

Jackson, Robert H. i Edward Castillo, Indijanci, franjevci i španjolska kolonizacija: utjecaj misijskog sustava na kalifornijske Indijance (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.).

Margolin, Malcolm, „Uvod“, u Život u misiji u Kaliforniji (Berkeley: Heyday Press, 1989.).

Milliken, Randall, Vrijeme malog izbora: raspad plemenske kulture na području zaljeva San Francisco, 1769.-1810. (Banning, CA: Ballena Press, 1995.).


Devet raste broj franjevačkih svećenika optuženih za zlostavljanje

Na slici je desetak svećenika koji su prije bili poznati kao navodni zlostavljači. (Slijeva nadesno, odozgo prema dolje) Bernard Connelly, Gus Krumm, Owen Da Silva, Gerald Chumik, Robert Van Handel, Marty Gates, Josef Prochnow, Mario Cimmarrusti, David Johnson, Sam Cabot, Stephen Kain, Tom Thing

Podijeli ovo:

Po prvi put javno, franjevci iz Provincije Svete Barbare identificirali su 50 svećenika optuženih za seksualno zlostavljanje djece u svojim službama od 1950. Više od polovice - 26 - raspoređeno je u sjemenište sv. Antuna ili Staru misiju Santa Barbara u u nekom trenutku svoje karijere, često nakon što su bili optuženi za zlostavljanje u drugom ministarstvu, a zatim preraspoređeni u područje Santa Barbare.

Iako su mnogi od tih 26 svećenika od ranije bili poznati odvjetnicima, policiji i zagovornicima žrtava, devet imena nikada prije nije prijavljeno, kaže odvjetnik Tim Hale, koji je 2006. godine dobio značajni slučaj protiv franjevaca i pomno je pratio sljedeće slučajeve, kao i nedavna otkrića Katoličke crkve. Svih devet svećenika je umrlo. Njihova imena, lokacije i datumi objavljivanja u Santa Barbari su sljedeći:

Bilješka: Ti datumi ne moraju nužno odražavati kada se navodna zloupotreba dogodila, samo kada su optuženi svećenici bili raspoređeni ovdje.

Camillus Cavagnaro-Stara misija Santa Barbara, 2005.-2006

Philip Colloty-Stara misija Santa Barbara, 1973.-1975

Adrian Furman-Stara misija Santa Barbara, 1989.-2001

Martin Gates-Sjemenište svetog Ante, 1965.-1966

Gus Hootka-Stara misija Santa Barbara, 1993.-2006

Mark Liening-Stara misija Santa Barbara, 1941-1942, 1985

Kenbar Kenbar-Stara misija Santa Barbara, 1939.-1940. Sjemenište sv. Antuna, 1977.-1991.

Felix “Raymond” Calonge - Sjemenište svetog Ante, 1965. godine

Felipe Baldonado-Više misija CA (Oakland, Stockton, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles i San Francisco), 1953.-1964.

Otac David Gaa, provincija čelnice svete Barbare, objavio je priopćenje uz cijeli popis koji je tiho objavljen na web stranici reda kasno prošlog petka. "Popis se objavljuje kao dio naše stalne predanosti transparentnosti i odgovornosti", napisao je. "Odlučni smo pokazati, kroz ovu akciju, da smo predani pomaganju preživjelima i njihovim obiteljima u ozdravljenju."

Hale, među ostalima, tvrdi da je oslobađanje zapravo samokorisna strategija franjevaca kako bi se preventivno zaštitili red od potencijalne kaznene odgovornosti nakon što je porota u Pennsylvaniji prošlog kolovoza objavila oštro izvješće protiv Katoličke crkve. Bila je to do sada najopsežnija istraga američke vladine agencije o zlostavljanju unutar te organizacije. "Svaka rimokatolička biskupija u cijeloj zemlji strahuje od izvješća Velikog porote i što bi to moglo značiti za njih", rekla je Hale.

Prošlog prosinca, na sličan način kao i franjevci, Nadbiskupija Los Angeles i zapadna isusovačka provincija Katoličke crkve sami su objavili popis od 200 svećenica optuženih za zlostavljanje djece, od kojih je 12 dugo radilo u Santa Barbari još od 1950-ih .

Gaa je rekao da je povećana svijest javnosti o kriminalnim aktivnostima unutar njegova reda "došla početkom 1990 -ih iz Sv. Antuna, našeg manjeg sjemeništa u Santa Barbari. Od tih prvih dana fratri su radili kako bi pomogli u procesu ozdravljenja onih koji su bili zlostavljani i radi zaštite djece. ” Red trenutno nadzire 136 svećenika u službama diljem Kalifornije, Arizone, New Mexica, Oregona i savezne države Washington. Sjedište ima u Oaklandu.

‘Uvjeren sam da ovo nije cijela priča. ” - Odvjetnik Tim Hale

Naredba, koja nije vratila pozive na komentare, smatrala je navod vjerodostojnim ako je nakon interne istrage postojalo "prevladavanje dokaza da je navod [vjerojatnije] istinit nego ne", navodi se na njezinoj web stranici. Imenovani su i svećenici koji su na sudu osuđeni ili priznati u zločinima. Identificirano je više od 120 žrtava, rekli su fratri. Tvrdili su da su u mnogim slučajevima optužbe iznesene nekoliko godina ili desetljeća nakon što se navodna zloupotreba dogodila, često nakon što je svećenik umro.

Popis, objavljen u cijelosti ispod, osvjetljava kada su određeni svećenici optuženi za zlostavljanje maloljetnika i kada su smješteni u Santa Barbari. Na primjer, Gerald Chumik dodijeljen je misiji Santa Barbara 2003. unatoč tome što je 1990. optužen da je prisilio dječaka na oralni seks. Franjevci su priznali da su prvi put zaprimili izvještaj o nedoličnom ponašanju Gusa Krumma 1980., no ipak su mu dopustili da nastavi služiti u Santa Barbari do 1982., a opet od 1985. do 1988. godine.

Od ukupno 50 imenovanih svećenika, samo su četiri živa. Tri od njih - Chumik, Stephen Kain i Josef Prochnow - držali su položaje u Santa Barbari. Kain je imenovan u tužbi 2004. zbog napada na najmanje jednog studenta dok je sredinom osamdesetih radio u sjemeništu sv. Antuna. Ponovno je imenovan u Los Altosu 2001. Prochnow je optužen za zlostavljanje maloljetnika u sjemeništu sv. Antuna od 1971. do 1978. godine. Sva trojica, tvrdi red, sada žive u "ustanovama za skrb za starije" prema onome što naziva Sigurnosnim planom, svojevrsnom nadziranom probacijom za svećenike uvrede kojom upravlja interni Odbor za razmatranje reda. U naredbi nije navedeno gdje se ti objekti nalaze.

Hale je rekao da ima razloga vjerovati da se barem jedan od njih nalazi u rezidencijalnoj kalifornijskoj četvrti "s obiteljima u blizini koje nemaju načina znati tko su ti muškarci niti rizik koji predstavljaju za djecu". Hale je rekao: "Jedini razlog zašto se franjevci mogu izvući iz ovoga je taj što nikada nisu prijavili počinitelje policiji, ili ako su to učinili, prošlo je mnogo nakon što je istekla kaznena zastara." Kao rezultat toga, rekao je, muškarci su izbjegli kazneni progon i morali su se registrirati kao seksualni prestupnici. Opis "ustanove za skrb o starijim osobama" također može biti pogrešan, rekla je Hale. "Stvara lažni dojam da su ti ljudi narušenog zdravlja, a možda i manje prijetnje." Ali samo je prošlog mjeseca, saznao je, Prochnow služio preko puta škole. "Volio bih vidjeti državnog odvjetnika da uđe i provjeri jesu li franjevci prekršili svoje dužnosti obveznih izvjestitelja", rekao je Hale. "Možda je prekasno, ali vrijedi istražiti."

Hale je rekao da će, iako će nova imena pomoći javnosti da bolje razumije sam opseg zlostavljanja koja su počinili franjevci, vjerojatno izostaviti sve informacije koje bi ih mogle otvoriti pravnoj odgovornosti. "Ovo su franjevci koji štite svoje", rekao je. “Noge su im prislonjene uz vatru, i to je jedini razlog zašto objavljuju ove informacije. Ali uvjeren sam da ovo nije potpuna priča. ” Prema njegovom prebrojavanju, Hale je rekao: "37 franjevačkih grabežljivaca raspoređeno je, boravilo ili redovno obavljalo svoju službu u Santa Barbari." Franjevci osporavaju taj broj, rekao je.


Kako mogu izabrati sponzora?

Dobro razmislite o nekome koga poznajete tko zadovoljava gore navedene kriterije. Crkva nas potiče da svoje kumove smatramo sponzorima za krizmu. Snažna povezanost potvrde s krštenjem čini kumstvo prirodnim izborom ako ta osoba ispunjava gore navedene zahtjeve. Ako ne poznajete nekoga tko zadovoljava gornje kriterije ili nije u mogućnosti sponzorirati vas, razgovarajte o svojim mogućnostima s koordinatorom za potvrdu u vašoj župi kako biste vidjeli može li pronaći nekoga prikladnog. Često će članovi župe volontirati za one koji ne mogu pronaći odgovarajućeg sponzora.

Sakrament potvrde put je za katolika da stekne punopravno članstvo u Katoličkoj crkvi. To je prekrasan sakrament koji će u vas uliti Božju milost kako bi vas ojačao i podržao na vašem putu vjere.


Sakramenti krštenja i potvrde

Od početka kršćanske povijesti, krštenje i krizma bili su vrlo blisko povezani.

Do danas katolici koji pripadaju istočnom obredu primaju oba sakramenta u djetinjstvu. Papa sveti Lav I. vrlo jasno daje do znanja ovaj odnos. On uspoređuje prirodni život naših tijela s natprirodnim životom naše duše. Krštenje, kaže, odgovara našem tjelesnom rođenju. Potvrda odgovara našem tjelesnom rastu.

Kako bismo učinili pravdu za svaki od ova dva sakramenta i otkrili kako su oni međusobno povezani, tretirat ćemo ih u nizu, prvo krštenje, a zatim krizma. Uvijek treba imati na umu da kao vjernici kršćani i katolici imamo dvije razine života. Imamo prirodni život tijela, kada Bog stvara besmrtnu dušu i ulijeva tu dušu u tijelo koje primamo od oca i majke. Imamo nadnaravni život duše kada Bog kod krštenja stvara posvećujuću milost i ulijeva ovu dušu duše, na jeziku svetog Augustina, anima animae, u besmrtni duh primljen u trenutku našeg tjelesnog začeća u utrobi naših majki.

Ali ovaj nadnaravni život duše treba ojačati kako bi se nosili s kušnjama koje nam Bog šalje kako bismo rasli u svojoj milosti, tijekom našeg boravka u ovoj suznoj dolini.

Krštenje, sakrament nadnaravne regeneracije

Više je nego prolazno vrijedno primijetiti da se u navodno katoličkim krugovima sve više širi zabluda o značenju sakramenta krštenja. Na temelju toga što je došlo do razvoja nauka u Crkvi, autor Doors to the Sacred potvrđuje da, suvremena teologija i tekstovi vjeronauka sada govore o krštenju kao uključivanju osobe u Kristov život koji se nastavlja u Crkvi , i razgovor o tome da uzrokuje oproštenje istočnog grijeha polako nestaje.

Dok prolazimo kroz svoja razmišljanja o krštenju, vidjet ćemo kako se nositi s tim domaćim i vanzemaljskim kritičarima onoga za što vjerujemo da je sakrament regeneracije i nadnaravnog života.

Krštenje nije samo prvi od sedam sakramenata, već je i osnovni sakrament. Kako? Osim ako je osoba krštena, ne može se primiti niti jedan od ostalih šest sakramenata. Samo se krštena osoba može potvrditi. Samo krštena osoba može primiti odrješenje u sakramentu ispovijedi. Samo krštena osoba može primiti sakrament ženidbe. Samo kršteni čovjek može biti valjano zaređen za svećenika.

Krštenje prvo osobi daje nadnaravni život, dok drugi sakramenti omogućuju obnovu, rast, ozdravljenje ili komunikaciju nadnaravnog života. Kao što ćemo vidjeti, u trenutku kad smo začeti u majčinoj utrobi, primamo princip prirodnog života našeg tijela, koji se naziva duša. Kad smo kršteni, naša duša prima svoje načelo nadnaravnog života. Temelj nadnaravnog postojanja dat je sakramentom krštenja.

Krštenje jasno pokazuje što Katolička crkva pod sakramentima razumije. Oni zapravo daju, ako hoćete, milost koju označavaju. Ne treba biti namjeran doprinos novorođenog djeteta. Sam sakrament daje milost od Boga samo zato što je dijete kršteno.

Krštenje se može definirati kao sakrament nadnaravnog ponovnog rođenja ili regeneracije. Trebamo naglasiti prefiks re kada govorimo o krštenju kao ponovnom rođenju ili regeneraciji. To otkriva zapanjujuću činjenicu da, iako smo doista stvoreni ili prirodno rođeni od naših ljudskih roditelja, krštenje nam daje novi život. Ovo je viši život, natprirodni život koji nam je potreban iznad našeg prirodnog postojanja. Zašto nam je potreban ovaj život? Zato što se nadamo da ćemo dosegnuti nebo nakon što nam prirodni život istekne kad umremo. Apsolutno govoreći, nitko od nas nikada neće umrijeti. Ono što obično nazivamo smrću samo je odvajanje naše besmrtne duše od našeg tijela. Ali duša je namijenjena da dvaput bude živa. Kao duhovna stvarnost, naša duša nikada neće prestati postojati. Ali ako naša duša nije oživljena milošću koju smo primili pri krštenju, umrijet ćemo dvostrukom smrću i tijela i duše.

Isus Krist nam je rekao o krštenju u svom razgovoru s Nikodemom. Ovaj je farizej upravo pohvalio Isusa. Spasitelj je odgovorio: "Nitko ne može vidjeti kraljevstvo Božje ako nije rođen odozgo. Na to se Nikodem usprotivio: Kako se čovjek može ponovno roditi? Može li se vratiti u majčinu utrobu i ponovno roditi? Ovo je bilo savršeno pitanje za predstavljanje Kristova otkrivenog učenja o krštenju. Rekao je: Svečano vas uvjeravam da nitko ne može ući u kraljevstvo Božje a da nije rođen od vode i Duha.

Ni za petnaest stihova Isus objašnjava značenje onoga što je upravo rekao Nikodemu. Temeljno učenje Krista je činjenica da je krštenje potrebno. Toliko je istina da Katolička crkva priznaje obred krštenja koji prakticiraju druge kršćanske crkve, pod uvjetom da se sakrament daje uranjanjem u vodu ili izlijevanjem ili prskanjem vode, dok ista osoba izgovara riječi, ja vas krstim u ime Oca, Sina i Duha Svetoga.

Koliko je potrebno krštenje? Apsolutno je potrebno primiti krštenje vodom ili barem želju, što može biti implicitno, pod uvjetom da osoba vjeruje barem u Boga i njegovu dobrotu te je vjerna milostima koje mu Bog daje.

Prema Katekizmu Katoličke crkve, Što se tiče dojenčadi koja su umrla bez krštenja, Crkva ih može samo povjeriti na milost i nemilost Božju, kao što to čini u svojim pogrebnim obredima za njih. Doista, veliko Božje milosrđe koje želi da svi ljudi budu spašeni, i Isusova nježnost prema dojenčadi zbog koje je rekao: Neka mališani dođu k meni, nemojte ih ometati, dopuštaju nam da se nadamo da postoji način spas za dojenčad koja su umrla bez krštenja. Tim je hitnije Crkve poziv da ne sprečavaju dojenčad da dođu k Kristu kroz dar svetog krštenja.

Svi učinci krštenja su nadnaravni kako bismo trebali očekivati. Ti su učinci uglavnom pet i mogu se sažeti u pet riječi: grijeh, život, moć, Crkva i karakter.

Uklanjanje krivnje i kazna za grijeh]

Prvi i najpraktičniji učinak krštenja je uklanjanje krivnje za istočni grijeh i vraćanje odgovarajućeg naslova u nebesku slavu. Što to znači? To znači da se skida sva krivnja za sav grijeh koji osoba može imati na duši. Kršteno dijete koje nije navršilo dob razuma, ako umre, ima neposredni naslov blažene vida. Nakon dobi razuma, krštena osoba oslobađa se ne samo istočnog grijeha, već i svih počinjenih grijeha, i sve kazne zbog čak i doživotnih osobnih grijeha.

Trebamo, međutim, odmah dodati da dvije kazne za istočni grijeh nisu uklonjene krštenjem. Naši praroditelji izgubili su za sebe i sve svoje potomstvo dar tjelesne besmrtnosti i slobodu od iracionalnih želja. Krštenje ne obnavlja niti jedan od ovih, kako mi zovemo, nadnaravnih darova koje bismo naslijedili da nismo naslijedili palu ljudsku prirodu.

Adamovim grijehom čovječanstvo je izgubilo svoj udio u božanskom životu. Smrću Krista, drugog Adama, ovaj se život sada može obnoviti. Krštenje obnavlja ono što nazivamo našim nadnaravnim životom.

Ovo je novo rođenje o kojem je Krist razgovarao s Nikodemom, kada je rekao da se moramo ponovno roditi od vode i Duha Svetoga.

To je onaj život o kojemu sveti Ivan piše u uvodnom poglavlju svog Evanđelja, kada kaže da smo djeca Božja, koja nisu rođena krvlju, niti tjelesnom željom niti čovjekom koji to želi, već Bogom (Ivan 1 : 13). Budući da imamo ovaj Božji život u duši, postajemo baštinici neba.

Jedini uvjet koji Bog zahtijeva je da ostanemo duhovno živi kad nam tijelo umre. Pod uvjetom da smo u milosti Božjoj kada, kako kažemo, umremo, naše duše neće samo preživjeti, već će imati pravo na nebesku slavu. Drugim riječima, ovaj nadnaravni život primljen pri krštenju predodređen je da se, nakon naše tjelesne smrti, nastavi u nebesku vječnost.

Imamo ime za izvor ovog nadnaravnog života. Mi to zovemo posvećujuća milost. Sveti Augustin to naziva dušom duše. Ono što je naša duša našem tijelu, dajući mu prirodan život, posvećujuća milost duši, dajući joj natprirodan život.

Treba napomenuti, međutim, da je posvećujuća milost već stvoreni učinak prebivanja u Svetom Trojstvu. Stoga možemo reći da je najvažniji učinak sakramenta krštenja imati Presveto Trojstvo, Oca, Sina i Duha Svetoga, koje obitava u našim dušama. Ovo prebivalište naziva se nestvorena milost koju smo primili prilikom krštenja i koju trebamo zadržati kad nas Gospodin pozove u našu vječnu sudbinu.

Krštenje ne samo da daje duši natprirodan život, već i daje duši natprirodne moći, instinkte i radosti koje obično identificiramo kao vrline, darove i plodove Duha Svetoga.

Drugi naziv za vrline unesene pri krštenju su natprirodne moći da čine ono što je nemoguće samo ljudskoj prirodi. Tri najvažnije od ovih moći su vrline vjere, nade i milosrđa.

Vjerom smo ovlašteni vjerovati u sve što je Bog otkrio: da je Bog vječna zajednica Presvetog Trojstva, Oca, Sina i Duha Svetoga da je Bog postao čovjekom u osobi Isusa Krista, Sina Marijina kojega je Isus Krist, Bogočovječe, pretrpio i umro za naše grijehe što je Isus Krist sada, stvarno i uistinu, stvarno i tjelesno prisutan na zemlji u svetoj Euharistiji da je Crkva koju je Krist utemeljio naš put do spasenja i da je vidljiva glava ove Crkve Rimski biskup, nasljednik svetog Petra, kojeg je Krist napravio stijenom, tako da ono što Papa poučava univerzalnoj Crkvi, to je nauk samoga Krista.

Nadamo se da smo ovlašteni pouzdano vjerovati da ćemo postići sve dobro što nam je Bog obećao da nikada nećemo ostati bez svjetla i snage potrebne za ispunjenje Božje volje da nijedna kušnja koju nam Bog šalje neće biti veća od, Njegovom milošću možemo podnijeti to pod uvjetom da surađujemo s Božjom milošću, nebo je naše. Uvjereni smo u Njegovo milosrđe, koliko god naši životi bili grešni. Jedini uvjet je da se pokajemo, dobro ispovjedimo i odlučimo promijeniti svoj život.

By charity we are empowered to love God above all things to love Him more than ourselves to love Him even, or especially when He sends us sufferings and the cross to love Him in all the circumstances of life, no matter how demanding His love may be.

By charity we are empowered to love others not only as much as we love ourselves. We are enabled to love others more than ourselves to love others even as Christ has loved us, by suffering and dying on our cross out of love for others to love others out of love for God constantly, patiently and generously beyond all human power and expectation.

Membership in the Church

The Sacrament of Baptism incorporates a person into the Church founded by Christ. What does this mean? In the words of the Second Vatican Council, it means that All who have been justified by faith in Baptism are incorporated into Christ they therefore have a right to be called Christians, and with good reason are accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church.

Here we must distinguish. Every validly baptized person belongs to the Catholic Church no matter how unaware the person may be of belonging to the Mystical Body of Christ, which is the Church militant here on earth. However, we distinguish between belonging to the Church and being a member of the Church founded by Jesus Christ. To be an actual member of the Catholic Church, the baptized person must also be ready to profess what the Catholic Church teaches, and accept her laws and obligations with an open heart.

To belong to the Catholic Church further means that Baptism is the door to obtaining such graces as only baptized persons have a claim to. Certainly the Church is the universal sacrament of salvation and sanctification. All the graces that anyone receives from God are channeled through the Catholic Church. Those who are baptized have a special right to these graces to which no one else has a claim.

The final and most mysterious effect of Baptism is to receive a permanent, irremovable character or seal. Baptism imparts a likeness to Christ, especially to Christ the priest. The seal will remain throughout our lives on earth and into the endless reaches of eternity. The baptismal character grafts a person into Christ the

Vine so that all the baptized share in a unique way in the graces of Christs humanity. As a result, Jesus Christ has a claim on the baptized that no one else enjoys and they have a claim on Him that no one else on earth can share.

The baptismal character is permanent because it is timeless it is indelible because nothing, not even the loss of faith can remove it. Therefore a baptized person always remains a Christian. Why? Because the baptismal seal confers a permanent relationship with Christ.

How to Grow in the Gifts of Baptism

Gone is the day when a Catholic can simply possess the gifts of grace received at Baptism. These gifts must grow and develop at the risk of losing the divine blessings which Baptism confers. I would single out especially the need for growing in the most fundamental gift we received when we were baptized, namely the gift of faith. Either we grow in our faith or we risk losing not only the virtue of believing in Gods revealed truth, but even the prospect of eternal salvation.

We are living in the most critical century of Christian history. Only firm believers who have grown in their faith will survive. Only firm believers will be used by Christ as channels of His grace to others.

How do we grow in our faith? We grow in our faith by studying our faith, by praying our faith and by putting what we believe into generous, even heroic practice.

By studying the faith, I mean that no Catholic today, no matter what his age or state in life or previous education, can be excused from learning more and more deeply what Christ has revealed and what the Church He founded teaches about the faith.

A word of warning, however make absolutely sure that in studying the faith you read authors who support the faith, and consult people who themselves are staunchly Catholic, and listen to speakers and attend conferences and discuss with those who will fortify what you believe. Let their faith nourish yours and your faith nourish theirs. Never has it been more necessary to choose your close friends and companions. Studying the faith must be done with faithful persons, using faithful sources, and its purpose should be to acquire a clearer understanding, a deeper certitude and a greater appreciation of what the Holy Spirit has revealed. He wants the seed of His Word to grow. The first means for assuring that growth is study.

Study has to be joined with prayer. This can be meditation on the mysteries of faith, or petition for more light on the meaning of faith. It should always be a humble recourse to God if only with a moments aspiration whenever a difficulty in the faith arises or when, as so often happens these days, we are faced with malicious attacks against our beliefs or forced to witness some conduct or read some writing or hear some statement that betrays the true faith.

In order to grow in the faith, we must use it. The duty is that simple, but also that necessary. Let me illustrate we believe that nothing happens by chance, but that everything that occurs is part of the mysterious Providence of God. If we believe it, and we do, let us act on our belief no matter how painful the things God sends us ah, but we must believe that God sends it or (how painfully) He takes pleasant things away. And no matter how unwelcome a duty, we do it doing it infallibly strengthens the faith. We believe that Christ is really, truly and entirely present in the Holy Eucharist. We should act accordingly by visiting Him often in the Blessed Sacrament where we adore Him, telling Him how much we love Him and asking Him for whatever we need. That is why He is there, the same Jesus who raised the dead.

If He worked miracles then, trust Him, He will work miracles now.

Confirmation, the Sacrament of Spiritual Strengthening

When the Roman Catechism was published in 1566, the faithful were warned regarding the Sacrament of Confirmation, There are found in the holy Church of God many by whom this sacrament is altogether omitted while very few seek to obtain from it the fruit of divine grace which they should derive from its participation.

The same could be said today. Only the Lord really knows, but in my judgment, Confirmation is the most ignored sacrament of our faith.

The biblical grounds for our faith in Confirmation are Christs promise to send the Holy Spirit on the apostles. Not surprisingly, it is the evangelist St. Luke who records the Saviors promise. Just before His ascension, Jesus told His disciples, I am sending down to you what the Father has promised. Stay in the city, then, until you are clothed with the power from on high (Lk 24:49). On the same occasion, the Lord promised His followers, You will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you, and then you will be my witnesses, not only in Jerusalem, but throughout Judea and Samaria, and indeed to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8).

In the same context, we are told that converts to the faith were first baptized, and then the Apostles laid hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:17).

Immediately we see that the basic reason why Christ instituted the Sacrament of Confirmation was that His followers would witness to Him, even to the ends of the earth. The original revealed Greek term for witnesses, as quoted by St. Luke, is martyrs. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit on Pentecost Sunday to enable His disciples to be His martyrs until the end of time.

Divinely Conferred Effects

There is a mountain of implications hidden in this precious sacrament. We shall therefore concentrate on the effects of Confirmation and our responsibility to live as not only baptized, but confirmed Christians in our day.

We define Confirmation as the sacrament of spiritual strengthening, in Latin, roboratio spiritualis. Our English word robust comes from the Latin robur, which means oak wood or hardwood.

More concretely, Confirmation strengthens the supernatural life we receive in Baptism. Confirmation increases our sanctifying grace in every way, but mainly in deepening our capacity to remain spiritually alive. It gives us the power of resistance, the ability to resist dangers, and the strength to become more Christ?like until the dawn of eternity.

Confirmation gives us, even before the age of reason, the title to such fortitude as no one else except confirmed believers can claim. It does nothing less than provide us with superhuman strength against hostile forces from within our own fallen nature and from the world and the evil spirit who is literally hell-bent to destroy us.

There are three sacraments that give a person what we call an indelible character. They are Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders. Confirmation confers the character of assimilation to Jesus Christ, the priest, teacher, and king.

On each of these levels, the assimilation is associated with Christs role as Savior. As we know, the priesthood of Jesus is the mission that He came into the world to fulfill by offering Himself in sacrifice on the cross. We cannot repeat too often what sacrifice means. Sacrifice is the voluntary surrender of something precious to God. On Calvary, Jesus offered His human life for our salvation. But the heart of His bloody sacrifice was in His human will, freely surrendering Himself to the Father.

On this first level of assimilation to Jesus Christ the priest, Confirmation gives us the strength to bear suffering (passively) in union with Him and the courage to sacrifice pleasant things (actively) out of love for the One who died on the first Good Friday out of love for us.

Confirmation assimilates us to Christ the teacher. We acquire a strong will in adhering to the faith in the face of obstacles, a strong mind in not doubting the truths of faith, a strong humility of spirit in professing the faith, and a strong wisdom that knows how to communicate the faith to others effectively.

Finally, Confirmation assimilates us to Christ the King. It gives us a quality of leadership that can direct others on the path of salvation. It gives us a strong character that can withstand the ravages of bad example or the snares of seduction, and a strong personality that will attract even the enemies of Christ to His standard.

We might describe the sacramental character of Confirmation by calling it the sacrament of witness to Christ, in the Church and before the world.

In other words, Confirmation is the sacrament of fearless apostolic zeal. Having said this, we are ready to spell out in as clear words as possible what this sacrament gives us the grace to do. In the words of the new canon of law, issued by Pope Jolu1 Paul II on the first Sunday of Advent in 1983, we are told that by the sacrament of Confirmation, the baptized are made strong and more firmly obliged by word and deed to witness to Christ and to spread and defend the faith.

Immediately we see that Confirmation is exactly what its name implies. It is the supernatural, which means superhuman, courage we receive to be apostles of Jesus Christ.

To witness means to testify to others of what we are absolutely sure is true. It is no mere cliché to say that not every believing Catholic is unqualifyingly sure of what he believes. To be sure of the faith means to be certain that what God has revealed is unchangeably true. Certitude of faith is in the mind, convinced that the mysteries of our faith cannot be questioned because they are revealed by the all?wise and truthful God.

We get some idea of what Confirmation does by what happened on Pentecost Sunday. In the Churchs tradition, it was on Pentecost that the disciples received the graces of their Confirmation when the Holy Spirit descended on the disciples, gathered with Mary, awaiting the coming of the power that Jesus had promised to send them.

Remember, it was just over fifty days before that Peter, the coward, three times denied that he even knew Jesus Christ. Yet now he stood before several thousand people in Jerusalem and spoke to them with such courageous conviction as he never had before.

Men of Israel, listen to what I am going to say: Jesus the Nazarene was a man sent to you by God. Miracles and portents and signs God worked through Him when He was among you, as you all know. This man, who was put into your power by the deliberate intention and foreknowledge of God, you took and had Him crucified by men outside the law. You killed Him, but God raised Him to life (Acts 2:22-24).

The result was that some three thousand Jews were baptized that very day.

The lesson is obvious. No less than what the Holy Spirit did to Peter on Pentecost Sunday, the same Spirit has done to us when we were confirmed on our Pentecost day. We have received nothing less than miraculous power to witness to Jesus Christ.

Confirmation develops our sense of mission and inflames our desire to share with others what others had so generously shared with us.

According to St. John Chrysostom, on the Last Day, we shall be judged mainly on our practice of charity in spreading the faith. The number of ways of spreading the faith is beyond human reckoning. But the one way that has been most effective from the dawn of Christian history has been by living a life of selfless charity. The charity of which we are speaking is not only, or even mainly, the charity of the corporal works of mercy. Certainly, as Christ tells us, we are to do everything we can to feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, clothe the naked, visit the sick, and care for those who are in physical need. However, the principal form of charity, which is nothing less than a miraculous means of spreading the faith, is the interior charity of selfless love for others. No one has improved on the description of charity of Pope Clement I, writing in 90 AD. Charity, he says, bears all things. Charity is longsuffering in all things. There is nothing mean in charity, nothing arrogant. Charity knows no schism, does not rebel, does all things in concord. In charity, all the elect of God have been made perfect.

Is it any wonder that by the end of the first century of Christianity, over one hundred dioceses were established along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea? Without exception, the Church spread because Christians were confirmed by the Holy Spirit to love others with heroic charity. They loved those who hated them. They loved those who persecuted them. Like Jesus, they even loved those who crucified them.

We are talking about spreading the Faith as one of the gifts of the sacrament of Confirmation. It is especially by our love of others that we communicate our Faith to them. This spreading of the Faith is not only evangelizing unbelievers or converting sinners estranged from God. Confirmation so deepens the faith of a sincerely believing Catholic that he is the conduit for deepening and strengthening the faith of others in the measure of his own practice of self-sacrificing love.

How misguided we can be! We see all around us millions who either do not believe in Christ at all, or whose Christianity is confused, or whose faith in the Churchs teaching is shallow at best and make?believe at worst.

How to bring to this ocean of souls the fullness of the true faith? Surely, our understanding of the faith is important. Our ability to prove the truth of our faith is imperative. But, the infallible talisman for spreading the faith, far beyond our wildest dreams, is living a life of loving surrender to the will of God and of selfless generosity in our dealings with everyone who enters our lives.

In one sentence, the key to putting the gift of our Confirmation into practice is to share with others the treasure of our Catholic Faith.

Here we could begin all over again. The Sacrament of Confirmation provides us with nothing less than miraculous power to defend the faith that we profess.

We cannot defend what we do not understand. Nor can we defend what we are not ourselves convinced is true. On this basic level of defending the Catholic Faith, there is no substitute for knowing what we believe.

But, to know what we believe means more than just understanding what God has revealed. Strange to say, we must also know how to cope with the prevalence of so much erroneous teaching that pervades our society like the air we breathe.

In an age like our own, when heresy is so pervasive and error has been elevated as master of human thought, we confirmed Catholics had better know why God permits heresy in the first place and how we are to benefit from the prevalent errors in faith and morals.

There are two statements of St. Cyprian, bishop and martyr of the third century, that deserve to be memorized. The first statement is his description of heretics. Says Cyprian: Whoever has been separated from the Church is yoked with an adulteress, is separated from the promises made to the Church. Nor shall he who leaves Christs Church arrive at Christs rewards. He is a stranger, he is sacrilegious, he is an enemy. He who has not the Church for mother can no longer have God for his Father.

But then Cyprian goes on. Nevertheless, he explains, the Lord allows and suffers these (errors and evils) to be, while each .mans will remains free. Why? So that while our minds and hearts are tested in the crucible of truth, the sound faith of those who are approved may shine forth more clear and undimmed (On the Unity of the Catholic Church, 6, 10).

What are we being told? We are being told that heretics and enemies of the Church, dare I say it, are necessary. Strengthened by the Sacrament of Confirmation, we are enabled to become more convinced of the truth of our faith, because we have to defend what we believe against the errors among which we live.

Once again, what are we being told? We are being told that hostility to our faith convictions is Gods mysterious way of making us more firm in holding on to what we believe, even though this perseverance may cost us our blood.

Confirmation is the Saviors great blessing for both our minds and wills. Our minds become more convinced that what we believe is really true. And our wills become more courageous in protecting this truth, even with our bodily lives.

The Churchs literature is filled with statements that might be called aphorisms. In every language since the dawn of Christianity, believing Catholics are encouraged to imitate the saints whom we honor as martyrs. Let me just mention a few of these mottos: The ashes of martyrs drive away demons. The blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians. Heaven is opened to martyrs. All times are the age of martyrs. The martyrs were bound, imprisoned, scourged, burnt, rent, butchered and they multiplied. The death of the martyrs blossoms in the faith of the living. The Lord has willed that we should rejoice even over persecutions because, when persecutions occur, then the faith is crowned.

So the litany of these proverbs could go on. They teach us one thing, the most important thing we need to believe in this valley of tears. Christ instituted the sacrament of spiritual strengthening so that His followers might follow Him on the road to Calvary. The Savior is now glorified, but only because He had been crucified. Our own glorious eternity depends on the courageous witness of our faith, made possible by our Confirmation by the Holy Spirit.


Baptism

Baptism by immersion in water by one having authority is necessary for a person to become a member of the Church and receive the Holy Ghost. All who seek exaltation must follow the example of the Savior by receiving these ordinances. (See Matthew 3:13–17 John 3:3–7 Acts 2:37–38 2 Nephi 31:5–10.)

Approval for a Person to Be Baptized and Confirmed

Children Who Are Members of Record

The bishop holds the priesthood keys for baptizing 8-year-old members of record in a ward. These children should be baptized and confirmed on or as soon after their 8th birthday as is reasonable (see Doctrine and Covenants 68:27). These are children for whom Church membership records already exist (see 33.6.2). When they reach age 8, the bishop makes sure they have every opportunity to accept the gospel and be baptized and confirmed.

For information about baptizing and confirming a person who has an intellectual disability, see 38.2.1.8 and 38.2.3.5.

The bishop or an assigned counselor conducts interviews for the baptism and confirmation of:

Children age 8 who are members of record.

Children age 8 who are not members of record but have at least one parent or guardian who is a member.

Members of record ages 9 and older whose baptism was delayed due to intellectual disabilities.

Instructions for interviews are provided in 38.2.3.3. For information about filling out the Baptism and Confirmation Record, see 18.8.3.

Bishops give special attention to 7-year-old children in the ward, ensuring that their parents, their Primary leaders and teachers, and those who minister to their families help them prepare for baptism and confirmation. Elders quorum and Relief Society leaders also encourage parents to prepare their children for these ordinances.

Converts

The mission president holds the priesthood keys for baptizing converts in a mission. Convert baptisms are defined as baptisms of:

Persons ages 9 and older who have never been baptized and confirmed. See 18.7.1.1 for an exception for those with intellectual disabilities.

Children ages 8 and older whose parents (1) are not members or (2) are being baptized and confirmed at the same time as the children.

Full-time missionaries interview converts for baptism and confirmation. Instructions are provided in 38.2.3.3. For information about filling out the Baptism and Confirmation Record, see 18.8.3.

Baptismal Services

A baptismal service should be simple, brief, and spiritually uplifting. It may include the following:

A brief welcome from the brother who is conducting the service

An opening hymn and prayer

One or two short messages on gospel subjects, such as baptism and the gift of the Holy Ghost

A time of reverence while those who participated in the baptism change into dry clothes (hymns or Primary songs may be played or sung during this time)

The confirmation of 8-year-old members of record the confirmation of converts if determined by the bishop (see 38.2.3.2)

Bearing of testimonies by new converts, if desired

A closing hymn and prayer

When a baptismal service for 8-year-old children who are members of record involves only one ward, a member of the bishopric plans and conducts it. He may ask Primary leaders to help with planning.

When a baptismal service for these children involves more than one ward, a member of the stake presidency or an assigned high councilor plans and conducts it. He may ask Primary leaders to help with planning. A member of the bishopric from each ward with a child being baptized should attend.

Members should not request individual times for the baptism of a child. Nor should they prescribe the content of the service.

Baptismal services for converts should be scheduled as soon as they have met the qualifications in 38.2.3.3. Baptism of a family member should not be delayed until a father can receive the priesthood and perform the baptism himself.

Under the bishopric’s guidance, the ward mission leader (if one is called) or the member of the elders quorum presidency who leads missionary work in the ward plans and conducts baptismal services for converts.

Who Performs the Ordinance

The ordinance of baptism is performed by a priest or Melchizedek Priesthood holder. The person who performs a baptism must be approved by the bishop (or by the mission president if a full-time missionary is performing the baptism).

A bishop may allow a father who is a priest or a Melchizedek Priesthood holder to baptize his child even if the father is not fully temple worthy (see 18.3). Bishops encourage fathers to prepare themselves to baptize their own children.

To perform a baptism, a person who is outside his own ward must show a current temple recommend to the presiding leader. Or he may show a Recommend to Perform an Ordinance signed by a member of his bishopric.

Where to Perform the Ordinance

Baptisms should be performed in a baptismal font if one is available. If there is not a font, a safe body of water may be used. It should be large enough for both the person performing the ordinance and the person being baptized to stand in. Water is not dedicated for baptisms.

If a font is used, it is scheduled through an assigned member in the agent bishop’s ward.

For safety, a responsible adult must be present while a font is being filled and remain until it is drained, cleaned, and secured. The font should be drained immediately after each baptismal service. The doors to the font should be locked when it is not in use.

Clothing

A person who performs a baptism and a person who is being baptized wear white clothing that is not transparent when wet. An endowed person wears the temple garment under this clothing while performing a baptism. Local units purchase baptismal clothing with budget funds and do not charge for its use.

Baptismal clothing may be ordered at store.ChurchofJesusChrist.org.

Witnesses

Two witnesses, approved by the presiding leader, observe each baptism to make sure it is performed properly. Baptized members of the Church, including children and youth, may serve as witnesses.

A baptism must be repeated if the words are not spoken exactly as given in Doctrine and Covenants 20:73. It must also be repeated if part of the person’s body, hair, or clothing is not completely immersed.

Upute

To perform the ordinance of baptism, a priest or Melchizedek Priesthood holder:

Stands in the water with the person being baptized.

Holds the person’s right wrist with his left hand (for convenience and safety). The person being baptized holds the priesthood holder’s left wrist with his or her left hand.

Raises his right arm to the square.

States the person’s full name and says, “Having been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen” (Doctrine and Covenants 20:73).

Has the person hold his or her nose with the right hand (for convenience) then places his right hand high on the person’s back and immerses the person completely, including clothing. Immersion is easier if the person bends his or her knees.

Helps the person to come up out of the water.

Baptism Record

For information about making a record of a baptism, see 18.8.3.


When could California mission priests perform confirmation? - History

The Spanish eventually realized that the Valley of the Bears had a large amount of food and other natural resources and that the local tribe, the Chumash, were friendly. They decided that it would be a good location for another Mission. The Mission is located a few miles from the coast in a protected valley with good land for farming.

After a chapel or church was finished where the Fathers and Neophytes could hold Mass they would start building the Convento. The Convento was where the Fathers would live. Next would come workshops and the Monjerio. The Monjerio was where unmarried girls and women would live and be locked in at night. The Fathers didn’t think that unmarried girls and women should live near single men. Eventually there would be enough buildings for four sides of a square or quadrangle. The Mission complexes weren’t perfect squares because the Fathers didn’t have a way to measure distance other than walking off distances. Most Missions included a fountain. The fountain was used for washing, laundry, and water. The more fancy the fountain the more successful the Mission.

The Mission prospered and became quite large with many work areas and sleeping rooms. The Mission also had aqueducts to carry water to the gardens, ranchos for farming and keeping livestock, and two smaller branch churches or asistencias. The Mission has suffered damage from earthquakes in the past, including one in 1830.

Father Cavaller died in 1789 and Father Miguel Giribet was appointed to take his place. Eventually Father Luis Antonio Martinez joined Father Giribet. Father Martinez was well liked by the Chumash but not well liked by the military. In 1830 the military decided they had had enough and accused him of treason. He was forced to leave Alta California.

Those that lived at the Mission went by a strict schedule. The Fathers were used to this type of lifestyle, but the neophytes were not. The structure of Mission life was one of the reasons many Native Californians tried to leave. A French explorer, Jean Fran ois de La P rouse, visited Mission San Carlos is 1786 and wrote a detailed account of what he observed. Events at the Mission were signaled by the ringing of the Mission bells. Each day started around sunrise (about 6am). The Mission bells would ring to wake everyone and summon them to Mass and morning prayers. Prayer lasted for about an hour and then everyone would go to breakfast. Atole, a type of soup made from barley and other grains, would be served. Breakfast took about 45 minutes and then it was time for everyone to go to work.

The Fathers were responsible for running the Mission and instructing the new converts and children in the Catholic faith. Most of the men went to the fields to tend to the crops or to help with the animals while women stayed at the Mission and worked on domestic chores such as weaving cloth and making clothes, boiling down fat to make soap and candles, and tending to the vegetable gardens. Children often helped at these chores around the Mission once their religious instruction was over. Depending on the particular industry at the Mission there also might be neophytes leatherworking, metalworking, wine making, and pressing olives for olive oil.

At noon the bells would ring again for everyone to gather for dinner, what we would call lunch. Lunch was normally pozole, another thick soup with beans and peas. After an afternoon break everyone returned to their work for another two to four hours depending on how much work there was to be done. A last bell would be rung to end the work day. Another serving of Atole would be served and the neophytes would be able to rest until it was time for bed (Margolin, Pg. 85). Women were usually expected to go to bed by 8pm and men by 9pm. Most of the Fathers allowed their neophytes to continue to hunt and gather additional foods and to cook some of their traditional dishes.

Living at the Mission was often difficult for new converts. They were used to working when work needed to be done and resting when they were tired. The Mission lifestyle was different. The Neophytes were the main source of labor for the Missions. It was their hard work along with the soldiers’ and Fathers’ that built the Missions and their outbuildings. Agriculture and ranching required constant tending to the crops and animals. Without this labor the Missions would not have been able to survive. Many neophytes missed the freedom of their tribal life and would try to leave the Mission. The Fathers wouldn’t allow neophytes to leave and would send soldiers to search for them and bring them back. Runaways were usually punished for breaking the rules.

The Chumash didn’t like the Spanish Missionaries taking their land and telling them how to live. The Spanish found it difficult to convince the Chumash to convert to Christianity and live at the Mission. Unlike at other missions, the Chumash that had converted were allowed to visit their families and friends at the village about once every 5 weeks. The Fathers hoped that the visitors would convince other tribe members to come to the Mission, but the Chumash didn’t need the Mission’s help to survive.

By 1780 the Spanish decided to allow the Natives to appoint an alcade. The alcade, a Native tribe member, talked to both sides and tried to help settle disputes.


Junípero Serra's brutal story in spotlight as pope prepares for canonisation

Generations of American schoolchildren have been taught to think of Father Junípero Serra as California’s benevolent founding father, a humble Franciscan monk who left a life of comfort and plenty on the island of Mallorca to travel to the farthest reaches of the New World and protect the natives from the worst abuses of the Spanish imperial army.

Under Serra’s leadership, tens of thousands of Native Americans across Alta California, as the region was then known, were absorbed into Catholic missions – places said by one particularly rapturous myth-maker in the 19th century to be filled with “song, laughter, good food, beautiful languor, and mystical adoration of the Christ”.

What this rosy-eyed view omits is that these natives were brutalized – beaten, pressed into forced labour and infected with diseases to which they had no resistance – and the attempt to integrate them into the empire was a miserable failure. The journalist and historian Carey McWilliams wrote almost 70 years ago the missions could be better conceived as “a series of picturesque charnel houses”.

Little wonder, then, that Pope Francis’s decision to elevate Serra to sainthood during his visit to Washington this week has revived longstanding controversies and enraged representatives of California’s last surviving Native American populations. There have been protests outside some of California’s most heavily visited Missions, petitions, open letters written both to the pope and to California’s political leaders, and even an attempt by members of the state legislature to have Serra replaced as one of California’s two representative figures in Washington’s National Statuary Hall. Natives travelled to California and Washington this week to protest against Serra’s elevation in person.

Opponents point out that, from the time Serra arrived in 1769, the native population was ravaged by European diseases, including syphilis spread by marauding Spanish soldiers. Indians brought into the missions were not allowed to leave, and if they tried they were shackled and severely beaten.

They were used as forced labour to build out the Mission’s farming projects. They were fed atrociously, separated from close family members and packed into tight living quarters that often became miasmas of disease and death.

When the Native Americans rebelled, which they did on at least two occasions, their rebellions were put down in brutal fashion. When Native American women were caught trying to abort babies conceived through rape, the mission fathers had them beaten for days on end, clamped them in irons, had their heads shaved and forced them to stand at the church altar every Sunday carrying a painted wooden child in their arms.

Passions are riding high on both sides. While Serra’s critics say he was responsible for the near-eradication of California’s native peoples, the state’s governor, Jerry Brown, has defended him as “a very courageous man”, an innovator and a pioneer, and vowed that his statue will stay in Washington “until the end of time”.

In many ways, the issue is reminiscent of the Vatican’s campaign a few years ago to canonise Pius XII, the wartime pope accused in many quarters of failing to stand up to the Nazis and helping in their rise to power, but defended in others as a holy man who did his part to save many hundreds of thousands of Jews.

The push to canonise Pius XII (now on hold) came in the wake of a 1998 papal document that sought to atone for the church’s silence in the face of the Holocaust. Likewise, Serra’s sainthood follows an apology issued by Pope Francis in Bolivia this summer for the “grave sins … committed against the native peoples of America in the name of God”.

That, however, has only further raised the hackles of Serra critics, who say the apology means nothing if the Vatican simultaneously seeks to canonise a person exemplifying the actions for which the apology was issued. “Apologies that aren’t followed by a change of behaviour, in general, don’t carry a lot of weight,” Deborah Miranda of Washington and Lee University, who is of California Native American descent, said in a recent magazine interview.

Even mainstream Catholics have been surprised that Pope Francis has championed Serra without going through the usual four-step review process, including verification of two miracles. Serra has been credited with only one.

The cause of his sainthood, which was first proposed in 1930, was long ago assumed to have stalled because of the controversies surrounding his legacy.

But Francis, as the first Latin American pope, has an obvious interest in creating a role model for Latinos in the United States and the rest of the American continent – an interest echoed by the state of California, which can now look forward to a global wave of Serra-related tourism. The pope also appears to have an interesting theological take on Serra’s imperfections. Kevin Starr, widely regarded as California’s pre-eminent state historian, summarised the Vatican’s view this way: “Saints do not have to be perfect. Nobody is perfect. Sanctity is just another mode of imperfection.”

In other words, it is enough to state that the good outweighs the bad. José Gómez, the first Latino archbishop of Los Angeles and an enthusiastic Serra champion, wrote recently: “Whatever human faults he may have had and whatever mistakes he may have made, there is no questioning that he lived a life of sacrifice and self-denial.”

Gómez also argued that we cannot judge 18th-century behaviour by 21st-century standards – a form of historical relativism that the Serra critics find particularly galling. John Cornwell, a British journalist turned academic who has written extensively about the Vatican, including an acclaimed book about Pius XII, said the argument also clouded the important question of whether Serra was an appropriate exemplar for today’s faithful.

“For those who argue that we should not judge the values of the past by those of the present,” Cornwell told the Guardian, “one could, and should, object that it’s important to learn the lessons of history.”

To Native Americans like Valentin Lopez, the chairman of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band based in Sacramento, those lessons are not complicated. Serra, in his view, was part of a colonial enterprise whose goal was the complete subjugation of California’s native peoples. The mission system he set up was based on coercion, punishment and indifference to Indian suffering, against which his expressions of piety were no more than window-dressing.

“It’s amazing to me this is even a debate,” Lopez told the Guardian. “There is no debate – it’s like debating the pros and cons of the genocide of the Jewish people in world war two. The only reason this is not treated as a black and white issue is because of the lies that the church and the state of California have perpetuated from the time of the missions.”

Helen Hunt Jackson’s 1884 bestselling novel Ramona set the tone for a mythologised history of the Missions, giving the impression Spanish colonialism had been an idyll for settlers and Native Americans alike and that the natives only suffered after the gringos began arriving. Even the most ardent Catholic historians now accept this is flat-out wrong.

A flurry of recent Serra scholarship, however, suggests the politics of the Spanish conquest were complicated. Missions were established with much greater success and lesser suffering in other parts of the American continent – particularly by the Jesuits. Serra’s mandate only arose because the Vatican temporarily disbanded the Jesuits in 1767, and many of the mistakes he and the Franciscans made were the result of inexperience, according to Professor Starr.

“The perspective of Franciscans and Dominicans of that era was: God will punish us for the way we treat the Indians, so we’ve got to protect them as some kind of atonement,” Starr told the Guardian. “Serra knew he couldn’t keep California a Franciscan mission protectorate forever. He hoped that by the time Spaniards came in large numbers, Native Americans would be educated and competent to deal with it. That was the dream, but the dream never came true.”

The biggest philosophical divide among serious historians is whether Serra’s initiative was worth undertaking in the first place. Catholic scholars – including Professor Starr – tend to take an indulgent view of the church’s evangelizing mission, while Native American advocates like Lopez view the imposition of Catholicism as a violation of the Indians’ longstanding spiritual traditions, just as the Spanish conquest disrupted and violated their way of life more generally.

The Vatican would like to believe that Serra and the missionaries were somehow separate from the Spanish colonial enterprise, and that the army’s abuses should not in any way be laid at Serra’s door. Pope Francis said in May that Serra was one of a generation of missionaries “who … defended the indigenous peoples against abuses by the colonisers”.

Most historians, however, dismiss that interpretation as fanciful. While it’s true that Serra was often at odds with military commanders in the region, he travelled to the New World at the behest and direction of the same Spanish crown in command of the army. He couldn’t be against the colonisers, because he was one himself.

“The church and the army were partners,” Lopez said. “Junípero Serra’s own handwriting details the cruelties. His policy was to enslave the Indians – he didn’t let them leave the missions. You can’t blame that on Spanish soldiers.”

Out of deference to the papal visit, the push to have Serra’s statue in Washington replaced with the late astronaut Sally Ride – championed by LGBT advocacy groups as well as fans of space exploration – has been deferred until after Francis is back in Rome. But the sponsors of the measure, including a Latino state senator from Los Angeles and the speaker of the state assembly, have vowed to reintroduce it thereafter – paving the way for yet more showdowns over Serra in the foreseeable future.


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