Adolf Hitler - Povijest

Adolf Hitler - Povijest

Adolf Hitler

1889- 1945

Njemački diktator, masovni ubojica

Njemački diktator Adolf Hitler započeo je svoju karijeru kao nadobudni umjetnik. Bio je neuspješan u svojim umjetničkim nastojanjima, pa se na kraju prijavio u njemačku vojsku tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata.

Bio je ranjen i dobio je dva željezna križa. 1919. osnovao je Nacionalsocijalističku (nacističku) stranku. Njegov pokušaj svrgavanja bavarske vlade 1923. nije uspio i rezultirao je zatvorskom kaznom koja mu je dala priliku da artikulira svoju političku filozofiju u knjizi pod naslovom Mein Kampf ("Moja borba").

Godine 1933. preuzeo je vlast i započeo neposredno naoružavanje Njemačke. Hitler je također uveo niz antisemitskih politika koje su na kraju dovele do uništenja više od šest milijuna Židova u Europi.

Hitler je sam vodio Njemačku u Drugi svjetski rat. Do kraja rata i konačnog ruskog napada na Berlin, Hitler je zadržao strogu kontrolu nad svim aspektima njemačke vojske.

S osiguranim porazom Njemačke, Hitler je izvršio samoubojstvo u svom bunkeru.


Obiteljsko stablo Adolfa Hitlera

Obiteljsko stablo Adolfa Hitlera složeno je. Primijetit ćete da je prezime "Hitler" imalo mnogo varijacija koje su se često koristile gotovo međusobno. Neke od uobičajenih varijacija bile su Hitler, Hiedler, Hüttler, Hytler i Hittler. Adolfov otac Alois Schicklgruber promijenio je ime 7. siječnja 1877. u "Hitler" - jedini oblik prezimena koji je koristio njegov sin.

Njegovo uže obiteljsko stablo ispunjeno je više brakova. Na gornjoj slici pažljivo pogledajte datume vjenčanja i datume rođenja Hitlerove brojne rodbine. Nekoliko od ove djece rođeno je nezakonito ili samo nekoliko mjeseci nakon vjenčanja. To je dovelo do mnogih sporova, poput osporavanog pitanja je li Johann Georg Hiedler otac Aloisa Schicklgrubera (kao što je prikazano na gornjoj tabeli).


Adolf, njegova politička platforma, Dvadeset pet točaka,

Adolf Hitler bio je odgovoran za više zla i patnje nego bilo koji drugi čovjek u modernoj povijesti. Tijekom njegova života bilo je mnogo događaja koji su pokrenuli ishod onoga što će se dogoditi kasnije u povijesti.

Adolf Hitler rođen je u Braunau Am Innu u Austriji, 20. travnja 1889. Kao dijete nije uspio u učenju, nije završio srednju školu. Bio je veliki umjetnik i glumac.

‘Prijavio se za upis na Akademiju likovnih umjetnosti u Beču, ali je odbijen zbog nedostatka talenta. ’ (Andreas Dorpalen, enciklopedija Microsoft Encarta) Nije dopustio nikome da ga spriječi u onome što je želio postići. Bio je najveći govornik u svoje vrijeme.

Kasniji događaji otkrivaju da je Hitler bio zao i da je želio stvoriti svoju specifičnu kulturu i rasu. Od 1909. do 1913. Hitler je živio u siromašnijim okruzima Beča, seli se s mjesta na mjesto. ‘Kao mali dječak obožavao je svećenike i dvije godine ozbiljno razmišljao da i sam postane svećenik. ’ (http: // www.

historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/boyhood.htm) 1913. preselio se u München u Njemačku kako bi izbjegao vojnu službu u Habsburškom Carstvu, koju je prezirao. Adolf Hitler služio je za Njemačku u Prvom svjetskom ratu. Ozlijeđen je tijekom bitke za Sommu i hospitaliziran je. Nakon puštanja, raspoređen je na laganu dužnost u München, Njemačka.

Bio je šokiran nedostatkom zabrinutosti i antiratnim stavom među njemačkim civilima. ‘ Optužio je Židove za veći dio ovoga i smatrao ih je urotama za širenje nemira i potkopavanje njemačkih ratnih napora. Ova ideja o antiratnoj zavjeri u koju su bili uključeni Židovi postala bi opsesija kako bi se dodala druga antisemitska shvaćanja koja je stekao u Beču, što je dovelo do sve veće mržnje prema Židovima. ’ (http://www.historyplace.com /worldwar2/riseofhitler/warone.htm) Nakon što je rat završio i Njemačka je bila u ruševinama, desetniku Adolfu Hitleru je u rujnu 1919. naređeno da istraži malu skupinu poznatu kao Njemačka radnička stranka#8217, pa joj je prisustvovao i Hitler.

Jedan je čovjek predložio da se njemačka država Bavarska odvoji od Njemačke i formira novu južnonjemačku naciju s Austrijom. To je razbjesnilo Hitlera i on je predavao čovjeku petnaest minuta bez prekida. Jedan od osnivača prošaptao je “.

..he ’s je dobio dar od gaba. Dobro bi nam došlo.

” Članovi su primili Hitlera u svoju grupu 1919. i Hitler je to prihvatio. Ovo je bio jedan od prvih koraka koji je izazvao Drugi svjetski rat. Hitler je ubrzo postao središte privlačnosti u grupi, polako privlačeći ljude u svoju grupu. Bio je i glavni govornik Njemačke radničke stranke#8217. U svojim je govorima Hitler govorio protiv Versajskog ugovora i održao antisemitsko predavanje, optužujući Židove za probleme Njemačke. Njemačka radnička stranka#8217 razvila je svoju političku platformu, Dvadeset pet točaka, koja je uključivala odbacivanje Versajskog ugovora. Izjavio je dvadeset pet točaka na sastanku u Münchenu, na kojem je bilo dvije tisuće ljudi.

Hitler je postao vođa nacističke stranke početkom 1921. U ljeto 1920. Hitler je odabrao simbol koji je do danas ostao vjerojatno najzloglasniji u povijesti, svastika. Hitler je kasnije svoju stranku preimenovao u Nacionalsocijalističku njemačku radničku stranku, skraćeno nazvanu nacističku. Kako bi stekao veću popularnost za sebe i svoju stranku, otišao je u Berlin. U to su vrijeme članovi njegove stranke smatrali Hitlera izrazito arogantnim, čak i diktatorskim.

Hitler je požurio natrag u München i suprotstavio im se objavivši istupanje iz Partije 11. srpnja 1921. Shvatili su da će gubitak Hitlera značiti kraj nacističke stranke. Hitler je iskoristio trenutak i najavio da će se vratiti pod uvjetom da bude predsjedavajući i da dobije diktatorska ovlaštenja. Preostali članovi nacističke stranke na kraju su odustali i Hitlerov zahtjev stavljen je na glasovanje. Rezultat je bio 543: 1 u korist Hitlera. 29. srpnja 1921. Adolf Hitler predstavljen je kao fhrer nacističke stranke. U travnju 1921. godine, europski saveznici u Prvom svjetskom ratu predstavili su Njemačkoj prijedlog zakona kojim se traži plaćanje (33 milijarde dolara) za štetu nastalu u ratu, koji je Njemačka započela.

Njemačka je pala u kobni dug i izbili su neredi. Do studenog 1923. nacisti su s 55.000 sljedbenika bili najveći i najbolje organizirani. Nacistička stranka zahtijevala je akciju za koju je Hitler znao da mora djelovati ili je riskirao izgubiti vodstvo svoje stranke.

Njegova je stranka razvila plan. Plan je bio oteti vođe bavarske vlade i prisiliti ih da prihvate Hitlera kao svog vođu. U 20.30 sati 8. studenog 1923. trupe SA pod vodstvom Hermanna Gringa opkolile su to mjesto. Ovaj pokušaj preuzimanja bio je poznat kao nacistička revolucija. Hitler je naredio trojici najviših dužnosnika bavarske vlade da uđu u stražnju sobu i obavijestio ih da mu se pridružuju u proglašenju nacističke revolucije i da će postati dio nove vlade. Službenici su se nevoljko složili, ali potajno nisu bili iskreni.

Kasnije su njih troje tajno pobjegli iz zgrade. Sljedećeg jutra Hitler i njegovi nacisti očajnički su ušli u München i pokušali ga preuzeti, ali nisu uspjeli. Hitler je optužen za izdaju i osuđen. Kazna mu je bila pet godina, s uvjetnim otpustom za šest mjeseci. Dok je bio iza rešetaka, napisao je prvi tom knjige, Mein Kampf (“Moja borba ”), ocrtavajući njegove političke i rasne ideje u brutalno složenim detaljima, služeći i kao nacrt za buduće akcije i kao upozorenje svijet. U svojoj knjizi Hitler dijeli ljude na kategorije temeljene na fizičkom izgledu, uspostavljanju viših i nižih redova ili tipova ljudi.

Na vrhu je, prema Hitleru, Nijemac sa svijetlom kožom, plavom kosom i plavim očima. Hitler ovu vrstu osobe naziva Arijevcem. On tvrdi da je Arijevac vrhovni oblik ljudske ili gospodarske rase. “Najsnažniji pandan Arijevcima predstavlja Židov. ” Nekoliko dana prije Božića 1924. Hitler je pušten iz zatvora nakon devet mjeseci. Kad je Hitler imao 39 godina, zaljubio se u svoju nećakinju Geli Raubal (bila je kći njegove polusestre), koja je imala gotovo pola Hitlerove starosti#8217. Imali su romantičan život, ali kad je njihova veza imala problema, Geli se ustrijelila i umrla.

Hitler je postao izuzetno depresivan. Tijekom Velike depresije, Hitler je znao da su ljudi očajni i da će ga poslušati, pa se odlučio kandidirati za predsjednika. Na dan izbora 14. rujna 1930. nacisti su dobili više od osamnaest posto ukupnog broja, pa su tako imali pravo na 107 mjesta u njemačkom Reichstagu. Na predsjedničkim izborima održanim 13. ožujka 1932. Hitler je dobio trideset posto glasova, dok je Hindenburg dobio četrdeset devet posto. Hitler je postao njemački kancelar 30. siječnja 1933. Njegov je cilj bio prekinuti demokraciju i uspostaviti diktaturu, a kada je predsjednik Paul von Hindenburg u kolovozu 1934. Hitler je postao neprikosnoveni njemački diktator. Tisuće političkih neprijatelja uhićeno je, zaključano i mučeno.

Hitler je 1938.-1939. Preuzeo Austriju i Čehoslovačku i izgradio njemačku vojnu moć do te mjere da je bila spremna riskirati rat. Drugi svjetski rat konačno je izbio 1939. kada je Hitler napao Poljsku. Hitler je predvodio mnoge njemačke pobjede. Njegov najveći vojni pothvat od svih bila je invazija na Sovjetski Savez, koja nije uspjela. Hitler se odbio povući, zbog čega je izgubio već osvojene zemlje.

Adolf Hitler počinio je samoubojstvo 3. travnja 1945., kada su se ruske trupe već borile na uništenim ulicama Berlina. Njegova životna borba za dominaciju Njemačkom i ostatkom Europe, ubojstva milijuna Židova i njegov cilj da se osveti pobjednicima Prvog svjetskog rata bili bi duboko utisnuti u knjige povijesti.


Adolf Hitler ranjen u britanskom plinskom napadu

Među njemačkim ranjenicima u Ypres Salientu u Belgiji 14. listopada 1918. je i desetnik Adolf Hitler, privremeno zaslijepljen britanskom plinskom granatom i evakuiran u njemačku vojnu bolnicu u Pasewalku u Pomeraniji.

Mladi Hitler pozvan je u austrijsku vojnu službu, ali je odbijen zbog nedostatka sposobnosti dok je živio u Münchenu početkom Prvog svjetskog rata u ljeto 1914. godine, zatražio je i dobio posebno dopuštenje da se prijavi kao njemački vojnik. Kao pripadnik 16. bavarske pričuvne pješačke pukovnije, Hitler je u listopadu 1914. otputovao u Francusku. Vidio je teške akcije tijekom Prve bitke kod Ypresa, čime je tog prosinca zaslužio Željezni križ jer je ranjenog druga odvukao na sigurno.

Tijekom sljedeće dvije godine Hitler je sudjelovao u nekim od najžešćih borbi u ratu, uključujući bitku za Neuve Chapelle, drugu bitku za Ypres i bitku na Sommi. Dana 7. listopada 1916. godine u blizini Bapaumea u Francuskoj Hitler je ranjen u nogu eksplozijom granate. Poslan na oporavak u blizini Berlina, vratio se u svoju staru jedinicu do veljače 1917. Prema sugovorniku Hansu Mendu, Hitler je bio raspravljan o sumornom stanju morala i predanosti stvari na domaćem frontu u Njemačkoj: “He sjedio u kutu našeg nereda držeći glavu među rukama u dubokom razmišljanju. Odjednom bi skočio i uzbuđeno trčao uokolo, rekavši da će nam se usprkos velikim oružjem pobjeda uskratiti, jer su nevidljivi neprijatelji njemačkog naroda bili veća opasnost od najvećeg neprijateljskog topa. ”

Hitler je u sljedećoj godini zaradio više citata za hrabrost, uključujući Željezni križ 1. klase za ȁLičnu hrabrost i opće zasluge ” u kolovozu 1918. jer je sam zarobio skupinu francuskih vojnika koji su se skrivali u rupi od granata tijekom posljednje njemačke ofenzive na Zapadnom frontu. Ozljeda u listopadu, međutim, zaustavila je Hitlerovu službu u Prvom svjetskom ratu. Za njemačku predaju saznao je dok se oporavljao u Pasewalku. Bijesan i frustriran vijestima — ”I je zateturao i oteturao natrag na svoj odjel i zario svoju bolnu glavu između deka i jastuka ” —Hitler je osjetio da su njega i njegove kolege vojnike izdali njemački ljudi. 1941. Hitler je kao firer otkrio stupanj do kojega je njegova karijera i njezino strašno naslijeđe oblikovano Prvim svjetskim ratom, napisavši da je “I sa mnom vratio moja iskustva na frontu od njih sam izgradio svoj nacionalsocijalist zajednice. ”


Adolf Hitler - Povijest

Autor Charles Whiting

Adolf Hitler volio je djecu. Prije nego što je rat potrošio svu njegovu energiju, cijelo je vrijeme zabavljao djecu u svojoj kući za odmor na "planini". S godinama je njegov dvorski fotograf, profesor Heinrich Hoffmann, cijele albume punio slikama Učitelja i djece.

Naravno, jasno je da su morali biti plavokosi i pobjedonosno se smiješiti kad ih je uzeo za šetnju, sagnuo se kako bi razgovarao s najmanjima i potapšao ih po jarko žutoj kosi. Iako su Učitelj i većina njegovog divljenog dvora bili tamnokosi, njihov ideal bila je plavokosa arijevska rasa.

Volio je i pse, osobito njemačke ovčare. Neki od njegovih sudova tvrdili su da voli pse više nego ljudska bića. Čak i na vrhuncu svoje moći, kada je vladao gotovo cijelom Europom od Sjeverne Afrike do Norveške i od La Manchea do Kavkaza, osobno je trenirao svoje pse. Najmoćniji čovjek na kontinentu očito nije smatrao ponižavajućim vidjeti ga kako trči ispred jednog od njegovih štenaca, noseći štap u ustima kako bi mladom psu pokazao kako bi trebao nositi takav predmet.
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Doista, unatoč statusu jednog od četiri najmoćnija čovjeka na svijetu, ostao je jednostavan čovjek u narodu. Spavao je na spartanskom krevetiću, ne mnogo boljem od kreveta njegovih vojnika. Nosio je bijelu pamučnu spavaćicu, tijekom noći je za svoje potrebe koristio komorni lonac, a kad je na planini bilo jako hladno, navukao je staromodnu noćnu kapu kako bi zagrijao glavu.

Adolf Hitler pozdravlja obitelj ministra naoružanja Reicha Alberta Speera krajem 1942. Dvoje od troje djece su mladi Albert i Hilde Speer.

Mrzio se jakih voda, no povremeno bi mogao popiti čašu šampanjca ili za vrućih dana pivo. Isto je bilo i s hranom. Opet se nije upuštao u bogatu hranu i egzotična strana jela u kojima su uživali mnogi na njegovom uzvišenom položaju. Umjesto toga, bio je vegetarijanac, držeći se domaćeg povrća uzgojenog u vlastitim staklenicima na planini - mrkve, graška, poriluka i slično. Ali ako bi bio prisiljen, pojeo bi gulaš napravljen s najjeftinijim komadima mesa ili krišku šunke izrezanu ravno iz koljenice na seljački način.

Opsesija zdravljem

Neki su rekli da ima seksualnih problema. Zlonamjerni jezici tvrdili su da je neadekvatan i fizički i psihički. Ali imao je najmanje dvije poznate ljubavnice, a sluge koje su špijunirale njega i njegovu posljednju ljubavnicu, Evu Braun, na planini i pregledale njihov krevet ujutro nakon što su tamo spavale, uvijek su izjavljivale da imaju dovoljno dokaza iz plahti da dokažu odnos je bio sasvim normalan.

Oni koji su vidjeli Gospodara golog svjedočili su da je bio sasvim adekvatan u donjoj regiji. Kad je Učitelj odlazio na izlete s planine, što mu je bilo jedno od najvećih zadovoljstava, mokrio bi o drveće s ostatkom muške pratnje, koja je prirodno bila zainteresirana za Učiteljeve fizičke obdarenosti. Nitko od njih nikada nije prijavio da mu nedostaje u tom kvartalu.

Zapaženo je, međutim, da se jako brinuo za vlastito zdravlje - bio je nešto poput hipohondra. Patio je od vrtoglavice, nadutosti, bolova u želucu i prsima, pustula na vratu i restriktivne paralize, i na kraju je uzimao do 60 tableta dnevno. Istodobno, bio je i vrlo zabrinut za zdravlje svojih podanika.

Na fotografiji objavljenoj u propagandne svrhe, Hitler se sprema baciti štap tijekom sjednice s Muckom, jednim od njegovih njemačkih ovčara.

Rezultat je bio da je uveo mjere koje su neobično suvremene. Uveo je registre raka, koji su prvi zabilježili nove slučajeve bolesti (incidenciju, a ne samo smrtonosne slučajeve kako je to bilo uobičajeno u drugim zemljama). Zabranjeni su pesticidi koji sadrže arsen, koji može uzrokovati rak. Naravno, pušenje se mrzilo, a Njemačka je prva uvela kampanje protiv pušenja.

Majstorska ideologija promiče prehranu s manje šećera, masti i mesa te s manje konzervirane hrane. Prema zakonu, ta velika njemačka namirnica, kruh, morala je sadržavati minimalni postotak integralnog brašna. Cijevi paste za zube obložene olovom bile su zabranjene. Hitler je u osnovi bio vegetarijanac, kao i njegov šef SS -a, Heinrich Himmler, koji je čak imao i svoj povrtnjak.

Do 1941. godine opasnosti od pušenja učile su se u školama, a 60 gradova zabranilo je pušenje u svojim sustavima javnog prijevoza. Godinu dana kasnije, usred totalnog rata, Učitelj se brinuo o kitovima, napisavši: „Sve veća potrošnja kitovog ulja smanjuje populaciju kitova.“ Koliko ekološki prihvatljive možete dobiti?

Čovjek krajnjih kontradikcija

Što se može učiniti od takvog čovjeka, tako modernog u svom razmišljanju, koji na mnoge načine utjelovljuje osobine kojima smo naučeni da se divimo u svoje vrijeme - vegetarijanac, koji je pokrenuo kampanje protiv opasnosti od radijacije i duhana (Hitlerova Njemačka imala je prvi u svijetu Institut za istraživanje opasnosti od duhana na Sveučilištu u Jeni) koji je koristio svoje državne urede i istraživačke ustanove za zaštitu nacionalne „plazme klica“, preteče našeg vlastitog genetskog naslijeđa?

Je li to isti čovjek koji je Europi nametnuo veliki rat koji je rezultirao s oko 30 milijuna smrti? Može li ovaj ljubitelj pasa i male plavokose djece doista pokrenuti val masovnog antisemitizma koji je završio Holokaustom? Kako je Hitler, koji se gnušao lova i kritizirao vlastite sljedbenike, osobito načelnika Luftwaffea Hermanna Göringa, zbog toga što se upuštao u strijeljanje ptica i ubijanje divljih svinja, otjerao tisuće muškaraca, žena i djece, a na kraju stotinama tisuća koji će biti likvidirani u pećnicama njegovih koncentracijskih logora?

Hitler se saginje kako bi pozdravio njemačkog dječaka razrogačenih očiju koji nosi domaće lederhose na ovoj propagandnoj fotografiji, koja je bila široko rasprostranjena u Njemačkoj i u inozemstvu. Obratite pažnju na odrasle osobe koje odobravaju i sjede u pozadini.

Može li takva dobronamjerna modernost koja gleda naprijed ići ruku pod ruku sa ovom srednjovjekovnom, gotovo patološkom okrutnošću? U slučaju Adolfa Hitlera, novog gospodara Njemačke od 1933. godine, moglo bi. A u stvarnosti nije sve tako teško shvatiti. Hitler je, kao i mnogi drugi iz njegove generacije, četiri godine bio brutaliziran u rovovima u Prvom svjetskom ratu. Ranjen i privremeno zaslijepljen u tom ratu, pušten je iz premlaćene njemačke vojske, koja mu je bila prvi pravi dom, u kaotična nova Njemačka Republika. Kao i mnogi drugi iz te "Front Generacije", "strnjike", kako su sebe nazivali, osjećao je da su ga izdali socijalisti i židovski plutokrati za koje je vjerovao da sada vode ovu novu dekadentnu Njemačku.

Stoga su se Hitler i mnogi drugi vratili u okrutnu kulturu starija Njemačka. Do trenutka kada su Hitler i njegovi sljedbenici došli na vlast, postojao je svojevrsni polaritet dviju krajnosti koje su mnogi stranci smatrali zagonetnima, a zatim ih odbijali. Kako su nacistički čuvari u koncentracijskim logorima mogli dati djeci koja su bila zadužena za tipičan njemački Božić ispunjen svom osjećajnošću i kičem, a onda tu istu djecu poslati dan -dva kasnije u pećnice?

Buržoaski Berghof

Bilo je malo drugačije kada je Hitler sagradio svoju kuću za odmor u Bavarskim Alpama, koja je kasnije postala mjesto njegova dvora. Haus Wachenfeld, kasnije nazvan Berghof nakon što ga je Hitler preuredio, bio je bizaran spoj grandioznog - prirodne pozornice postavljene za jednu od Wagnerovih pompoznih opera - i svakodnevnog. Njegovi sjajni prozori pružali su panoramski pogled na okolne vrhove koji oduzimaju dah. No, njegova je arhitektura bila bavarsko prigradsko naselje: provjereni stolnjaci, drveni stolci s izrezanim srcima, kositreni tanjuri i šalice za piće na policama. Dekor je mogao biti raskošan, ali cjelokupni učinak nije bio palanački nego buržoaski.

U Berghofu, gdje se uglavnom držao njegov dvor, Führerov način života bio je na sličan način kontradiktoran. Tamo bi mogao primiti poznate političare, šefove država, čak i bivšeg britanskog kralja, a ipak između državnih poslova, Hitlerovi dani u Berghofu bili su monotona runda dosadnih obroka, glupih holivudskih filmova (majstorovi su favoriti bili Charles Laughton u Privatni život Henrika VIII i Gary Cooper unutra Životi bengalskog kopljanika) i zamorni satni monolozi.

“Analiza ličnosti Adolpha Hitlera ”

No, postojala je još jedna tajna strana Adolfa Hitlera, otkrivena 2003. Godine 1943., general William "Wild Bill" Donovan, voditelj američkog Ureda za strateške službe (OSS), preteča moderne Središnje obavještajne agencije (CIA), naručio strogo tajno izvješće o Hitleru. Trideset primjeraka izvješća koje je sastavio dr. Henry Murray pronađeno je na Sveučilištu Cornell u Ithaci u New Yorku, gotovo 60 godina kasnije.

Izvještaj je naslovljen "Analiza ličnosti Adolpha Hitlera". Murray predstavlja sliku Hitlera različitu od ljubazne, jednostavne osobe koja voli pse koju je predstavio predratnom svijetu. Na temelju psihoanalize i izjava Hitlerovih bivših bliskih osoba poput "Putzija" Hanfstaengla i Otta Strassera, koji su pobjegli u Sjedinjene Države, Murray je izjavio da je Hitler patio od neuroze, histerije, paranoje, edipovskih sklonosti i shizofrenije.

Hitler se opušta na terasi u Berchtesgadenu
sa svojim najpoznatijim ljubimcem Blondi. Njemački ovčar kasnije je otrovan tijekom ispitivanja djelotvornosti Führerova cijanida.

Dvije godine prije Hitlerova samoubojstva Murray je s nevjerojatnim predviđanjem zaključio: "U njemu postoji snažna prisila da žrtvuje sebe i cijelu Njemačku zbog osvetoljubivog uništenja zapadne kulture, da umre, vukući cijelu Europu sa sobom u ponor."

Murray je nagađao da bi se Hitler mogao dogovoriti za atentat na sebe ili bi se povukao u svoj bunker i ustrijelio. Zavjera njemačkih generala o atentatu na Hitlera u srpnju 1944. nije uspjela. Na kraju je Hitler, kao što je poznato, počinio samoubojstvo 1945. Murrayjev zadatak bio je i predložiti načine "pretvaranja Nijemaca u miroljubivu naciju" nakon rata. On ne prikriva svoje uvjerenje da je njemački narod dijelio Hitlerovu krivnju. Napisao je: "Ovaj polubog je gotovo točno zadovoljio potrebe, čežnje i osjećaje većine Nijemaca."

Adolf Hitler i “ planinski ljudi ”

To je bio Majstor, koji je oko sebe na planini okupio neku vrstu nacističke mafije. S vremenom će on i oni osvojiti veći dio Europe od La Manchea do Urala. Njihovi vojnici ostvarili bi ogromne pobjede, boreći se protiv Britanaca, Amerikanaca, Rusa i mnoštva manjih nacija. Na neizravan način, oni bi razbili britansko, francusko i nizozemsko carstvo i započeli Hladni rat iz kojeg bi Sjedinjene Države izišle kao svjetska velesila. No, ta nacistička mafija, "planinski narod", kako su sami sebe nazivali, kojom je dominirao megalomanski Hitler, ostala je u biti skupina drugorazrednih toadija. Kad je Hitler bio mrtav, njegovi su se sljedbenici rastopili kao da nikada nisu postojali.

Pokojni Charles Whiting i sam je bio veteran Drugog svjetskog rata, a potom i autor brojnih hvaljenih knjiga na tu temu.


Vaš vodič do Adolfa Hitlera: ključne činjenice o nacističkom diktatoru

On je jedna od najpoznatijih - ali i pogrdnih - ličnosti u povijesti. Ali koliko znate o njemačkom diktatoru Adolfu Hitleru? Evo svega što trebate znati o nacističkom vođi, od njegovog dolaska na vlast do istine o njegovoj smrti u Berlinu 1945. godine.

Ovo natjecanje je sada zatvoreno

Objavljeno: 5. veljače 2021 u 9:31

Adolf Hitler jedna je od najpoznatijih-i prezrenih-ličnosti u povijesti. Bio je glavni arhitekt Drugog svjetskog rata, nakon što je došao na vlast kao vođa nacističke stranke 1920 -ih. Njegova antisemitska politika dovela je do smrti više od šest milijuna Židova tijekom holokausta, učvršćujući njegovu reputaciju jednog od najzloglasnijih ljudi u povijesti.

Evo vašeg vodiča prema njemačkom diktatoru - od njegova ranog života u Austriji do dolaska na vlast i konačne smrti tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata ...

Hitler: ključne činjenice

Rođen: Adolf Hitler rođen je 20. travnja 1889. u Braunau am Innu u Austriji.

Umro: Hitler je samoubojstvom umro u berlinskom bunkeru, u 56. godini, 30. travnja 1945. godine

Poznat po: Biti vođa nacističke stranke i pokrenuti Drugi svjetski rat. Adolf Hitler zamijenio je Antona Drexlera na mjestu predsjednika stranke nacističke stranke u srpnju 1921., a ubrzo nakon toga stekao je titulu führer ("vođa"). Bio je njemački kancelar od 30. siječnja 1933., a Führer i kancelar zajedno od 2. kolovoza 1934. Njegov dolazak na vlast doveo je do Drugog svjetskog rata i smrti više od šest milijuna Židova u holokaustu.

Obitelj: Adolf Hitler bio je četvrto od šestero djece koje su rodili Alois Hitler (1837-1903) i njegova treća supruga Klara (1860-1907). Njegova braća i sestre su: Gustav, Ida, Otto, Edmund i Paula, ali imao je i dva polubrata-Aloisa mlađeg i Angelu-iz očevih prijašnjih brakova. Alois, koji je bio nezakonit, neko je vrijeme nosio majčino ime Schicklgruber, no do 1876. godine utvrdio je svoju obiteljsku tvrdnju o prezimenu 'Hitler'. Sam Adolf Hitler nikada nije koristio drugo prezime.

Rano djetinjstvo: Većina Hitlerova djetinjstva provela je u austrijskom Linzu. S ocem je imao težak odnos, a mnogi su se njihovi argumenti fokusirali na Hitlerovo odbijanje da se ponaša u školi. Međutim, jako je volio svoju majku, koja je umrla 1907.

Obrazovanje: Hitler je imao mješovito obrazovanje i mnogi su ga povjesničari općenito smatrali osrednjim učenikom. Iako je njegov otac želio da njegov sin nastavi karijeru vlastitim stopama, u carinarnici je Hitler imao druge ideje. Napetosti su porasle kada je Alois poslao Hitlera u Realschule (vrsta srednje škole) u Linzu u rujnu 1900. i Hitler je imao slabe rezultate. Hitler je kasnije sugerirao da je to namjeran čin u njegovo ime: namjerno je radio loše kako bi pokazao ocu da mu treba dopustiti da ostvari svoj san da postane umjetnik.

Priča se ne drži u potpunosti ako uzmete u obzir da se, nakon Aloisove smrti u siječnju 1903., Hitlerova obrazovna uspješnost još više pogoršala. Nastavio je studirati u drugoj školi u Steyru, gdje je morao položiti završne ispite prije odlaska, bez ikakve namjere da nastavi svoje obrazovanje.

Jesmo li više fascinirani Hitlerom od bilo kojeg drugog diktatora?

Hitler je obilježen u bezbroj knjiga, TV emisija i filmova. Pa zašto smo fascinirani nacističkim diktatorom?

"U najočitijem smislu, odgovor se čini jasnim: Hitler je bio glavni autor najrazornijeg rata i najstrašnijeg genocida, za koji je svijet još znao", objašnjava profesor Ian Kershaw - jedan od vodećih svjetskih stručnjaka za Nacistički vođa, koji vjeruje da naša trajna zaokupljenost Hitlerom nadilazi konvencionalni interes za povijesne ličnosti velike moći i utjecaja.

Je li Hitler bio dobar slikar?

Dok su se čelnici uključujući Winstona Churchilla i Georgea W Busha slikanjem bavili kao post-političkim hobijem, mladi Adolf Hitler plaćao je račune kao umjetnik za zapošljavanje od 1910. do 14. godine. Usredotočio se uglavnom na razglednice i oglase - i zaradio je dovoljno za život, krećući se po hostelima u Beču.

Bio je, međutim, tehnički osrednji. Pao je na ispitu za Opću slikarsku školu na bečkoj Akademiji likovnih umjetnosti, dijelom i zbog svoje borbe za hvatanje ljudskog obličja. Kad se drugi put prijavio, njegovi uzorci crteža smatrani su tako lošom kvalitetom da nije ni primljen na prijemni ispit.

Neki bi mogli tvrditi da je Hitlerova umjetnost također bila neobično pješačka u radikalnoj eri Picassa i Van Gogha. Kao proždrljivi čitatelj povijesti i mitologije i s umom preplavljenim političkim mislima, pomalo je iznenađujuće što je ovaj ljuti autsajder naslikao bljutave prizore zgrada i krajolika.

Da mu slikanje nije jača strana, Hitlerova prava snaga mogla bi se pronaći u njegovim govorničkim vještinama. "On je, naravno, bio majstorski demagog - temelj njegove rane dominacije u nacističkoj stranci", objašnjava profesor Kershaw. "Više od bilo kojeg suvremenog njemačkog političara govorio je jezikom koji je davao glas ljutnji i predrasudama njegove publike."

Također je, napominje Kershaw, bio vrlo čitan: “Njegovo izvrsno pamćenje omogućilo mu je da se prisjeti informacija o mnogim temama. To nije dojmilo samo one oko njega i druge koji su već bili osjetljivi na njegovu poruku. ”

Što je Hitler učinio tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata?

Iako je Adolf Hitler u izbijanju Prvog svjetskog rata 1914. bio u srednjim dvadesetim godinama, isprva je pokušao izbjeći regrutiranje. Zatim, kad se natjerao da se prijavi, nije uspio na liječničkom pregledu. I dalje je završio u uniformi, umjesto toga pridružio se bavarskoj (dijelu njemačke) vojske.

Hitler je služio u ovoj vojsci u prvoj bitci za Ypres. Prema Hitleru, njegova pukovnija od 3.600 smanjena je na 611 tijekom bitke, a on je bio jedan od samo 42 preživjela iz svoje čete od 250 ljudi. Jedna od njegovih uloga bila je uloga trkača u rovu. Bio je i ranjen na Sommi te je dva puta odlikovan Željeznim križem za hrabrost, jednom na preporuku židovskog druga.

Zatim, u noći između 13. i 14. listopada 1918., desetar Hitler bio je uhvaćen u napadu iperita od strane Britanaca. Ostatak rata proveo je oporavljajući se od privremenog sljepila, saznavši za predaju Njemačke u vojnoj bolnici, iako postoje neki sugestije da je ovu priču izmislio Hitler i da se zapravo liječio od 'histerične amblijepije', psihijatra poremećaj poznat kao "histerično sljepilo". U to je vrijeme Hitler kasnije tvrdio u svom političkom manifestu Mein Kampf (prvi put objavljeno 1925.), „da mi je pala na pamet ideja da ću osloboditi Njemačku, da ću je učiniti velikom“.

Kada se Hitler prvi put uključio u politiku?

Hitler se prvi put pojavio na političkoj sceni u njemačkom gradu Münchenu krajem 1919. kao govornik desničarske Njemačke radničke partije (DAP). DAP je promijenio ime u NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) u veljači 1920., prije nego što je Hitler službeno preuzeo dužnost predsjednika stranke u srpnju 1921. Stranka, za koju je Hitler smatrao da joj nedostaje smjer, u to se vrijeme nazivala i 'Hitlerova nacistička stranka', međutim sam Hitler zapravo nije bio poznat izvan Bavarske do mnogo kasnije.

Tijekom ranih 1920 -ih Hitler je namjerno održavao stupanj misterija oko sebe. He refused to let unofficial photographers take his picture, instead opting to employ his own personal photographer, Heinrich Hoffmann, who produced a series of bestselling books of pictures that portrayed the Nazi leader as an aloof intellectual. “They aimed to show Hitler as a man of the people and, at the same time, the political philosopher of genius in lofty isolation, among the mountains that surrounded his Alpine retreat near the town of Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, as he pondered Germany’s future and bore the entire burden of responsibility on his shoulders,” explains Professor Kershaw. The creation of the ‘Hitler mystery’ was a masterful move of PR, utilised at a time when other politicians did not pay too much attention to such tactics.

How did Hitler rise to power?

Hitler’s first official grasp for power took place in November 1923. He and his supporters attempted to seize political power in Munich, as a prelude to a takeover in Berlin. Around 2,000 Nazis took part in the violent daytime coup, which became known as the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch.

What happened during the Beer Hall Putsch?

Hitler led his Nazi movement in a daytime march through central Munich, which was intended as a show of force, aiming at seizing power in Bavaria and then in Berlin a reprise of Mussolini’s March on Rome, which had brought the Fascist leader to power the previous year.

But, after sweeping aside a number of police pickets, Hitler’s marchers finally met their match by the Feldherrnhalle on the Odeonsplatz, where a detachment of Bavarian police refused to back down and fired on the column. In the mêlée, 14 Nazis were killed along with one unlucky waiter nearby, who was caught in the cross-fire. Two other Nazis were killed elsewhere in the city, but Hitler – wrenched to the ground by a dying man beside him and shielded by his loyal bodyguard, Ulrich Graf – escaped with only a dislocated shoulder. Despite its failure, the Putsch would become the founding legend of the Nazi movement.

When the coup collapsed, Hitler was arrested and charged with treason. The subsequent trial was a complex affair – as historian Roger Moorhouse explains: “Hitler probably should have been sent for trial to the constitutional court at Leipzig, but Munich’s political establishment was keen to keep the matter ‘in house’, for fear of giving oxygen to the rumours of official complicity with the Nazis. So, with a tame, sympathetic judge – Georg Neithardt – presiding, the trial opened in the Munich infantry school on 26 February.

“Those hoping for Hitler’s political demise were to be disappointed. He expertly played the court, assisted by Neithardt, and so reached a much wider audience than he had ever reached before. By the end of the trial, he had a national following for the first time, and had emerged as the undisputed leader of the German radical right.”

Hitler served just nine months of his five-year prison sentence at Landsberg Prison. Following his release, he was forbidden from making public speeches but continued speaking to private audiences and gained a reputation as a formidable orator. By the 1930s he had cultivated an elaborate public profile, selling a “novel vision” to his followers and the wider German public. “Hitler was offering national redemption, a ‘new Germany’, a ‘new man’, a ‘new Jerusalem’,” says Moorhouse.

The Nazi party gradually grew in numbers throughout the late 1920s – and by July 1932, they had transformed from a small, revolutionary party to the largest elected party in the Reichstag (German parliament). They did this primarily through the use of effective propaganda, with support from the from the Sturmabteilung (SA), otherwise known as the Brownshirts, a paramilitary wing of the NSDAP.

Rise to dictator

Once Hitler had established himself as a key player in the German political scene of the 1930s, consolidation of his power as a dictator happened rather quickly. He achieved this with a “twin-track approach”, according to historian Richard J Evans.

The first track involved convincing the right-wing government that Hitler should rule Germany by decree. This was agreed by conservatives who were largely motivated by a desire to crush the Communist Party. “In November 1932, the Social Democrats and Communists together had more votes and seats than the Nazis, but they were also deadly enemies of each other and couldn’t get their act together to stop the Nazis. Hitler used legal or quasi-legal powers of the government, particularly the president’s power to rule by decree in a state of emergency,” explains Evans.

Listen: Historian Frank McDonough discusses the rise of Hitler and Nazi Germany, covering the period from the start of the Third Reich to the early months of World War Two

On 23 March 1933, the Reichstag was persuaded by Hitler – through a mixture of threats and inducements – to vote for an Enabling Law that meant that the cabinet (Hitler and the ministers) had the power to issue legislation without reference to the president or to the Reichstag, thereby giving them dictatorial powers.

The second track involved “mass, brutal violence” on the streets. During this time, between 100,000–200,000 people were put into concentration camps or ‘roughed up’ and released on condition of not engaging in politics.

Where did Hitler get his ideas?

According to historian Richard J Evans, Hitler drew his political ideas from a variety of sources: “from a version of Social Darwinism that saw society and international relations as a sort of struggle of races for the survival of the fittest from Arthur de Gobineau, a French theorist who invented the pseudoscientific idea of race theory from Russian émigrés from the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, who brought with them the idea that Bolshevism and communism were creations of the Jewish race from a certain amount of what’s called ‘geopolitics’, which was invented by an American.”

Mein Kampf

Hitler wrote his book Mein Kampf (or ‘My Struggle’) during his nine months imprisoned in Landsberg Prison in 1924.

It is a strange book – part Nazi manifesto, part rose-tinted autobiography, with excursions into Hitler’s theories on race, antisemitism, anti-Bolshevism, anti-capitalism, the uses of propaganda and the failings of democracy. It is famously turgid in style, so crammed with Hitler’s verbose musings that one reviewer dubbed it “Sein Krampf” (“His Cramp”).

Understandably, perhaps, sales of Mein Kamf were initially rather sluggish after the book was published in 1925, but they picked up as Hitler’s political stock rose. By 1933, it had sold some 300,000 copies, and would sell some 12 million more in the years that followed, providing Hitler with a handsome personal income, which – among other things – funded his purchase of the Berghof, his residence above Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps.

Sales of the book have continued after his death, and particularly since its copyright expired in the 2015 (which also marked the 70th anniversary of the Hitler’s death).

Why did Hitler hate the Jews?

Anti-Semitism was at the heart of Nazi ideology, but what inspired Hitler’s hatred of the Jews and prompted the creation of a system that ultimately led to the systematic rounding up and killing of some six million people?

Hitler obviously did not invent modern anti-Semitism, which has roots in the Middle Ages. By the 13th century, for example, rules enacted across Europe obliged Jews to wear an identifying badge to distinguish them from non-Jews’. And in medieval Europe specifically, anti-Jewish hostility was exemplified by the concept of ‘the blood libel’, the accusation that Jews were murdering Christian children as part of their Passover rituals.

Although we don’t know how early Hitler formed his opinions of Jewish people, he himself states that he felt anti-Jewish while working as a painter in Vienna – a city with a large Jewish population – before the First World War. “For me this was a time of the greatest spiritual upheaval I have ever had to go through,” he writes in Mein Kampf. “I had ceased to be a weak-kneed cosmopolitan and became an anti-Semite.” Some historians have since suggested that Hitler created this narrative of himself as an early anti-Semite retrospectively – and Mein Kampf should certainly be understood in the context of its purpose as propaganda. Perhaps rather curiously, one of Hitler most loyal patrons while he lived in Vienna as a young artist was a Jew called Samuel Morgenstern.

What is clearer is that Hitler’s anti-Semitism intensified following Germany’s defeat during the First World War, in which he served as an ordinary soldier on the western front and was decorated for bravery. The defeat had come as a shock to many Germans, who believed that they had been on course to win following the Spring Offensive and victory over Russia in 1918. Following the Allied victory, harsh penalties were imposed on Germany including the loss of certain territories and reparations were demanded, through the Treaty of Versailles.

Like many of his contemporaries, Hitler decided that the reason Germany lost the war was the weak will of the Kaiser, who was deposed in 1918. According to Richard J Evans, speaking on the HistoryExtra podcast, “Hitler believed that the Weimar Republic, which succeeded the Kaiser’s Germany, was a Jewish creation, and democracy was something Jewish. These were all complete fantasies. But the effect of the First World War was decisive, including on Hitler’s anti-Semitism and his belief the Jews were to blame for everything bad that had happened.”

Was Hitler Christian?

To read and hear Hitler’s public rhetoric in his early days in politics, it would be easy to think that Adolf Hitler had a connection to Christianity, albeit a warped one. Adolf Hitler had been born to a strongly Catholic mother, after all, and had been baptised. He certainly identified as a Christian in speeches and in his book, Mein Kampf.

But any declarations of religious faith were mere propaganda. Hitler received the sacrament of confirmation only at his mother’s behest, and after leaving his family home never returned to church. So when he called himself a Christian in speeches and Mein Kampf, it was in the name of political expediency, to win over an overwhelmingly Christian Germany.

Once in power, Hitler’s attitude towards the Church hardened. The Nazis pushed his ‘Positive Christianity’ movement, which rejected traditional doctrine and anything deemed ‘too Jewish’ (such as the divinity of Jesus) while espousing their master-race ideology.

What was Hitler’s relationship with Eva Braun?

Eva Braun (1912–1945) was the long-term companion of Adolf Hitler. The pair married on 29 April 1945 – just one day before they both died by suicide.

German historian Heike B Görtemaker notes that Braun was much more than a passive figure in the Nazi regime. “All members of the Berghof circle, including Eva Braun, were not just witnesses, but convinced of the Nazi ideology,” she writes. “Although it cannot be verified that Braun knew about the Holocaust – and all surviving members of Hitler’s inner circle later denied knowledge – Braun, like all others, was at least informed about the persecution of the Jews, depriving them of any civil rights.”

Was Braun in love with Hitler? It is almost impossible to identify her true feelings, says Görtemaker. However Braun’s closest friend, Herta Schneider, “declared in 1949 that Braun had been in love with Hitler”.

Where did Hitler live?

Hitler maintained three residences during the Third Reich: the Old Chancellery in Berlin his Munich apartment and Haus Wachenfeld (later the Berghof), his mountain home on the Obersalzberg. All three were thoroughly renovated in the mid-1930s and facilitated the creation of a new, sophisticated persona for the führer.

“Media depictions of Adolf Hitler at home – reading, walking his dogs and enjoying fine artwork – were used by the Nazi regime to create a favourable public image of the führer,” writes Professor Despina Stratigakos.

How did Hitler die?

During the last months of the Second World War – and as the prospect of losing the war became ever more apparent – Hitler withdrew into his bunker in Berlin. It was “the last station in his flight from reality”, wrote the Führer’s favoured architect, Albert Speer. Hitler continued to deliver orders from the bunker, including one that dictated his body should be incinerated upon the event of his death (he had heard about the treatment of fellow dictator Benito Mussolini’s body, who had been strung up in a public square in Milan).

On 20 April 1945, Hitler’s 56th birthday, the first enemy shell hit Berlin. Soviet troops soon entered the city – and by 30 April 1945, Hitler was dead.

It is generally accepted that Hitler shot himself, although accounts differ as to whether he also bit down on a cyanide capsule. Following his death by suicide, Hitler’s body and that of his long-term mistress Eva Braun, whom he had married a day earlier and who had herself injected cyanide, were removed from the bunker, doused in petrol and set alight.

Rachel Dinning is the digital section editor at HistoryExtra


Adolf Hitler

Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-H1216-0500-002 / CC-BY-SA

Adolf Hitler, a charismatic, Austrian-born demagogue, rose to power in Germany during the 1920s and early 1930s at a time of social, political, and economic upheaval. Failing to take power by force in 1923, he eventually won power by democratic means. Once in power, he eliminated all opposition and launched an ambitious program of world domination and elimination of the Jews, paralleling ideas he advanced in his book, Mein Kampf. His 𔄙,000 Year Reich” barely lasted 12 years and he died a broken and defeated man.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Students will learn:

1. Facts about Hitler’s life and the historical events which occurred during that time.

2. Hitler’s view of history, his theory of race, and his political goals.

3. Hitler’s use of anti-Semitism to advance his career and to consolidate power.

4. How a political leader was able to manipulate the political system in a democracy and obtain autocratic power.

CHAPTER CONTENT

Hitler’s Early Life

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, the fourth child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two of his siblings died from diphtheria when they were children, and one died shortly after birth. Alois was a customs official, illegitimate by birth, who was described by his housemaid as a “very strict but comfortable” man. Young Adolf was showered with love and affection by his mother.

When Adolf was three years old, the family moved to Passau, along the Inn River on the German side of the border. A brother, Edmond, was born two years later. The family moved once more in 1895 to the farm community of Hafeld, 30 miles southwest of Linz. Another sister, Paula, was born in 1896, the sixth of the union, supplemented by a half brother and half sister from one of his father’s two previous marriages.

Following another family move, Adolf lived for six months across from a large Benedictine monastery. The monastery’s coat of arms’ most salient feature was a swastika. As a youngster, Adolf’s dream was to enter the priesthood. While there is anecdotal evidence that Adolf’s father regularly beat him during his childhood, it was not unusual for discipline to be enforced in that way during that period.

By 1900, Hitler’s talents as an artist surfaced. He did well enough in school to be eligible for either the university preparatory “gymnasium” or the technical/scientific Realschule. Because the latter had a course in drawing, Adolf accepted his father’s decision to enroll him in the Realschule. He did not do well there.

Adolf’s father died in 1903 after suffering a pleural hemorrhage. Adolf himself suffered from lung infections, and he quit school at the age of 16, partially the result of ill health and partially the result of poor school work.

In 1906, Adolf was permitted to visit Vienna, but he was unable to gain admission to a prestigious art school. His mother developed terminal breast cancer and was treated by Dr. Edward Bloch, a Jewish doctor who served the poor. After an operation and excruciatingly painful and expensive treatments with a dangerous drug, she died on December 21, 1907.

Hitler spent six years in Vienna, living on a small legacy from his father and an orphan’s pension. Virtually penniless by 1909, he wandered Vienna as a transient, sleeping in bars, flophouses, and shelters for the homeless, including, ironically, those financed by Jewish philanthropists. It was during this period that he developed his prejudices about Jews, his interest in politics, and debating skills. According to John Toland’s biography, Adolf Hitler, two of his closest friends at this time were Jewish, and he admired Jewish art dealers and Jewish operatic performers and producers. However, Vienna was a center of anti-Semitism, and the media’s portrayal of Jews as scapegoats with stereotyped attributes did not escape Hitler’s fascination.

In May 1913, Hitler, seeking to avoid military service, left Vienna for Munich, the capital of Bavaria, following a windfall received from an aunt who was dying. In January, the police came to his door bearing a draft notice from the Austrian government. The document threatened a year in prison and a fine if he was found guilty of leaving his native land with the intent of evading conscription. Hitler was arrested on the spot and taken to the Austrian Consulate. Upon reporting to Salzburg for duty, he was found “unfit…too weak…and unable to bear arms.”

Hitler’s World War I Service

When World War I was touched off by the assassination by a Serb of the heir to the Austrian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Hitler’s passions against foreigners, particularly Slavs, were inflamed. He was caught up in the patriotism of the time, and submitted a petition to enlist in the Bavarian army.

After less than two months of training, Hitler’s regiment saw its first combat near Ypres, against the British and Belgians. Hitler narrowly escaped death in battle several times, and was eventually awarded two Iron Crosses for bravery. He rose to the rank of lance corporal but no further. In October 1916, he was wounded by an enemy shell and evacuated to a Berlin area hospital. After recovering, and serving a total of four years in the trenches, he was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack in Belgium in October 1918.

Communist-inspired insurrections shook Germany while Hitler was recovering from his injuries. Some Jews were leaders of these abortive revolutions, and this inspired hatred of Jews as well as Communists. On November 9th, the Kaiser abdicated and the Socialists gained control of the government. Anarchy was more the rule in the cities.

Free Corps

The Free Corps was a paramilitary organization composed of vigilante war veterans who banded together to fight the growing Communist insurgency which was taking over Germany. The Free Corps crushed this insurgency. Its members formed the nucleus of the Nazi “brown-shirts” (S.A.) which served as the Nazi party’s army.

Weimar Republic

With the loss of the war, the German monarchy came to an end and a republic was proclaimed. A constitution was written providing for a President with broad political and military power and a parliamentary democracy. A national election was held to elect 423 deputies to the National Assembly. The centrist parties swept to victory. The result was what is known as the Weimar Republic. On June 28, 1919, the German government ratified the Treaty of Versailles. Under the terms of the treaty which ended hostilities in the War, Germany had to pay reparations for all civilian damages caused by the war. Germany also lost her colonies and large portions of German territory. A 30-mile strip on the right bank of the Rhine was demilitarized. Limits were placed on German armaments and military strength. The terms of the treaty were humiliating to most Germans, and condemnation of its terms undermined the government and served as a rallying cry for those who like Hitler believed Germany was ultimately destined for greatness.

German Worker’s Party

Soon after the war, Hitler was recruited to join a military intelligence unit, and was assigned to keep tabs on the German Worker’s Party. At the time, it was comprised of only a handful of members. It was disorganized and had no program, but its members expressed a right-wing doctrine consonant with Hitler’s. He saw this party as a vehicle to reach his political ends. His blossoming hatred of the Jews became part of the organization’s political platform. Hitler built up the party, converting it from a de facto discussion group to an actual political party. Advertising for the party’s meetings appeared in anti-Semitic newspapers. The turning point of Hitler’s mesmerizing oratorical career occurred at one such meeting held on October 16, 1919. Hitler’s emotional delivery of an impromptu speech captivated his audience. Through word of mouth, donations poured into the party’s coffers, and subsequent mass meetings attracted hundreds of Germans eager to hear the young, forceful and hypnotic leader.

With the assistance of party staff, Hitler drafted a party program consisting of twenty-five points. This platform was presented at a public meeting on February 24, 1920, with over 2,000 eager participants. After hecklers were forcibly removed by Hitler supporters armed with rubber truncheons and whips, Hitler electrified the audience with his masterful demagoguery. Jews were the principal target of his diatribe. Among the 25 points were revoking the Versailles Treaty, confiscating war profits, expropriating land without compensation for use by the state, revoking civil rights for Jews, and expelling those Jews who had emigrated into Germany after the war began.

The following day, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were published in the local anti-Semitic newspaper. The false, but alarming accusations reinforced Hitler’s anti-Semitism. Soon after, treatment of the Jews was a major theme of Hitler’s orations, and the increasing scapegoating of the Jews for inflation, political instability, unemployment, and the humiliation in the war, found a willing audience. Jews were tied to “internationalism” by Hitler. The name of the party was changed to the National Socialist German Worker’s party, and the red flag with the swastika was adopted as the party symbol. A local newspaper which appealed to anti-Semites was on the verge of bankruptcy, and Hitler raised funds to purchase it for the party.

In January 1923, French and Belgian troops marched into Germany to settle a reparations dispute. Germans resented this occupation, which also had an adverse effect on the economy. Hitler’s party benefited by the reaction to this development, and exploited it by holding mass protest rallies despite a ban on such rallies by the local police.

The Nazi party began drawing thousands of new members, many of whom were victims of hyper-inflation and found comfort in blaming the Jews for this trouble. The price of an egg, for example, had inflated to 30 million times its original price in just 10 years. Economic upheaval generally breeds political upheaval, and Germany in the 1920s was no exception.

The Munich Putsch

The Bavarian government defied the Weimar Republic, accusing it of being too far left. Hitler endorsed the fall of the Weimar Republic, and declared at a public rally on October 30, 1923 that he was prepared to march on Berlin to rid the government of the Communists and the Jews. On November 8, 1923, Hitler held a rally at a Munich beer hall and proclaimed a revolution. The following day, he led 2,000 armed “brown-shirts” in an attempt to take over the Bavarian government. This putsch was resisted and put down by the police, after more than a dozen were killed in the fighting. Hitler suffered a broken and dislocated arm in the melee, was arrested, and was imprisoned at Landsberg. He received a five-year sentence.

Mein Kampf

Hitler served only nine months of his five-year term. While in prison, he wrote the first volume of Mein Kampf. It was partly an autobiographical book (although filled with glorified inaccuracies, self-serving half-truths and outright revisionism) which also detailed his views on the future of the German people. There were several targets of the vicious diatribes in the book, such as democrats, Communists, and internationalists. But he reserved the brunt of his vituperation for the Jews, whom he portrayed as responsible for all of the problems and evils of the world, particularly democracy, Communism, and internationalism, as well as Germany’s defeat in the War. Jews were the German nation’s true enemy, he wrote. They had no culture of their own, he asserted, but perverted existing cultures such as Germany’s with their parasitism. As such, they were not a race, but an anti-race.

“[The Jews’] ultimate goal is the denaturalization, the promiscuous bastardization of other peoples, the lowering of the racial level of the highest peoples as well as the domination of his racial mishmash through the extirpation of the folkish intelligentsia and its replacement by the members of his own people,” he wrote. On the contrary, the German people were of the highest racial purity and those destined to be the master race according to Hitler. To maintain that purity, it was necessary to avoid intermarriage with subhuman races such as Jews and Slavs.

Germany could stop the Jews from conquering the world only by eliminating them. By doing so, Germany could also find Lebensraum, living space, without which the superior German culture would decay. This living space, Hitler continued, would come from conquering Russia (which was under the control of Jewish Marxists, he believed) and the Slavic countries. This empire would be launched after democracy was eliminated and a “FÅhrer” called upon to rebuild the German Reich.

A second volume of Mein Kampf was published in 1927. It included a history of the Nazi party to that time and its program, as well as a primer on how to obtain and retain political power, how to use propaganda and terrorism, and how to build a political organization.

While Mein Kampf was crudely written and filled with embarrassing tangents and ramblings, it struck a responsive chord among its target those Germans who believed it was their destiny to dominate the world. The book sold over five million copies by the start of World War II.

Hitler’s Rise to Power

Once released from prison, Hitler decided to seize power constitutionally rather than by force of arms. Using demagogic oratory, Hitler spoke to scores of mass audiences, calling for the German people to resist the yoke of Jews and Communists, and to create a new empire which would rule the world for 1,000 years.

Hitler’s Nazi party captured 18% of the popular vote in the 1930 elections. In 1932, Hitler ran for President and won 30% of the vote, forcing the eventual victor, Paul von Hindenburg, into a runoff election. A political deal was made to make Hitler chancellor in exchange for his political support. He was appointed to that office in January 1933.

Upon the death of Hindenburg in August 1934, Hitler was the consensus successor. With an improving economy, Hitler claimed credit and consolidated his position as a dictator, having succeeded in eliminating challenges from other political parties and government institutions. The German industrial machine was built up in preparation for war. By 1937, he was comfortable enough to put his master plan, as outlined in Mein Kampf, into effect. Calling his top military aides together at the “FÅhrer Conference” in November 1937, he outlined his plans for world domination. Those who objected to the plan were dismissed.

Hitler Launches the War

Hitler ordered the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Hitler’s army invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, sparking France and England to declare war on Germany. A Blitzkrieg (lightning war) of German tanks and infantry swept through most of Western Europe as nation after nation fell to the German war machine.

In 1941, Hitler ignored a non-aggression pact he had signed with the Soviet Union in August 1939. Several early victories after the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, were reversed with crushing defeats at Moscow (December 1941) and Stalingrad (winter, 1942-43). The United States entered the war in December 1941. By 1944, the Allies invaded occupied Europe at Normandy Beach on the French coast, German cities were being destroyed by bombing, and Italy, Germany’s major ally under the leadership of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, had fallen.

Hitler’s Last Days

Several attempts were made on Hitler’s life during the war, but none was successful. As the war appeared to be inevitably lost and his hand-picked lieutenants, seeing the futility, defied his orders, he killed himself on April 30, 1945. His long-term mistress and new bride, Eva Braun, joined him in suicide. By that time, one of his chief objectives was achieved with the annihilation of two-thirds of European Jewry.

VOCABULARY

– The absence of government or law in a society.

– A person who gains power through impassioned public appeals to the emotions and prejudices of a group by speaking or writing. Free Corps – A paramilitary organization of German World War I veterans who organized to oppose Communist insurgency.

– A leader, especially one exercising the absolute power of a tyrant. Hitler’s title as leader of the Nazi party, and Chief of the German state.

– A foreign policy which includes the taking of territory by force or coercion.

Lebensraum (Living Space) – A German term indicating the Germans’ imperialistic designs on Europe. It also refers to the additional territory deemed necessary to the nation for its economic well-being.

– “My Struggle” in German. A book written by Hitler while in prison which became the standard work of Nazi political doctrine.

– The abbreviation for National Socialist German Worker’s Party. The fascist dictatorship under Adolf Hitler in Germany from 1933-1945.

– Describing an organization which operates in the style of an army, but in an unofficial capacity, and often in secret, such as the S.A. Putsch – A revolt or uprising.

– Payments made by a defeated country to the victors to make amends for losses suffered.

– The Sturmabteilung (Stormtroopers), also known as the “brown-shirts.” It was the Nazi paramilitary arm under the command of Ernst Rîhm. It was active in the Nazi battle for the streets against members of other German political parties and was notorious for its violent and terroristic methods.

– An ancient symbol in the form of a twisted cross which was adopted by the Nazi party as its logo in the 1920s.

Third Reich – The Third Empire. It refers to Hitler’s name for his German Empire as a successor to the 1st Empire of the Roman Emperors (First Reich) and the Empire of Bismarck in 19th century Germany (Second Reich).

Weimar Republic – The German democratic government from 1919-1934 formed after Germany’s defeat in World War I. Its capital was located in Berlin.

ACTIVITIES

  • Research the early childhood of several left-wing and right-wing dictators. Are there any similarities?
  • Compile a list of demagogues in U.S. history. What issues were they promoting, and to what prejudices did they appeal?
  • Research Hitler’s family tree. How valid are the views of some historians that Hitler had Jewish ancestors who did not pass Hitler’s test for being of “pure Aryan” stock?
  • View a videotape of a speech by Hitler with English subtitles. Would the content of this speech have any relevance today? Follow this speech with an “instant analysis” network TV broadcast. If television had been available and had covered Hitler’s speeches, how different would the coverage have been in Hitler’s Germany compared to that which would occur in the United States today?

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

  • If Hitler were alive and able to visit your classroom today, what questions would you ask him? How would you think he would have answered these questions?
  • Why did ex-soldiers join the Free Corps?
  • Why was it significant that Hitler and the German Workers’ Party were able to purchase a newspaper?
  • Why was it significant that The Protocols were published in a newspaper?
  • Who owns the various newspapers which are available in your community, including those distributed for free?
  • How influential are newspapers in shaping the opinions of those who read them?

EVALUATION

  1. swastika
  2. fuhrer
  3. Mein Kampf
  4. Demagogue
  5. Lebensraum
  6. putsch
  7. S.A.

2. What was the Third Reich, and what were the first two “Reichs”?

3. What was the Weimar Republic, and how did its type of government differ from what succeeded it under Adolf Hitler?

4 What was the “Free Corps” and what role did it play during the political upheavals in post-World War I Germany?

5. What were the economic conditions in Germany during Hitler’s rise to power?

6. Name three of Hitler’s foreign policy goals, as outlined in Mein Kampf.

7. What did Hitler discuss at the “FÅhrer Conference” in November 1937?

8. What were Hitler’s first three territorial objectives? Describe whether they were taken politically or militarily.

9. How and when did Hitler die, and what was the status of the Third Reich at the time?

10. Describe Hitler’s views about the Jews and how he came to hold these views.


The Führer

Before Adolph Hitler claimed it as his personal title, Führer simply meant “leader” or “guide” in German. It was also used as a military title for commanders who lacked the qualifications to hold permanent command. Since its connotation to Nazi Germany, führer is not used in political context anymore, but may be combined with other words to mean “guide.” For instance, a mountain guide would be called a Bergführer, with “berg” meaning “mountain.”

Führer as Hitler’s Title

Adolph Hitler claimed the word “Führer” as an unique name for himself and started using it when he became chairman of the Nazi Party. It was at the time not uncommon to call party leaders “Führer” but usually the word had an addition to indicate which party the leader belonged to. When adopting it as a single title, Hitler may have been inspired by Austrian politician, Georg von Schonerer who also used the word without a qualification and whose followers also made use of the “Sieg Heil” greeting.

After the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which gave Hitler absolute power for four years, he dissolved the president’s office and made himself the successor of Paul von Hindenburg. This was however in breach of the Enabling Act, and Hitler did not use the title as “president” but called himself “Führer and Chancellor of the Reich.” He would, after that often make use of the title in combination with other political leadership positions he took, for instance ” Germanic Führer” or “Führer and Supreme Commander of the Army”


President and Führer

In 1932, Hitler acquired German citizenship and ran for president, coming in second to von Hindenburg. Later that year, the Nazi party acquired 230 seats in the Reichstag, making them the largest party in Germany. At first, Hitler was refused the office of Chancellor by a president who distrusted him, and a continued snub might have seen Hitler cast out as his support failed. However, factional divisions at the top of government meant that, thanks to conservative politicians believing they could control Hitler, he was appointed chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Hitler moved with great speed to isolate and expel opponents from power, shutting trade unions and removing communists, conservatives, and Jews.

Later that year, Hitler perfectly exploited an act of arson on the Reichstag (which some believe the Nazis helped cause) to begin the creation of a totalitarian state, dominating the March 5 elections thanks to support from nationalist groups. Hitler soon took over the role of president when Hindenburg died and merged the role with that of chancellor to become führer ("leader") of Germany.


The Early Life of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler, seated on the left with a thick moustache, was an obscure personality in 1919. (Image: Everett Collection/Shutterstock)

There was absolutely nothing in the background of Adolf Hitler to lead one to suspect that this was a man with any special talents or any particular claim on the public’s attention.

He happened to attend a meeting of the DAP as a young corporal of the German army. The speech in this meeting left a great impression on the young man, and within a short amount of time, he joined the DAP.

Hitler’s Birth and Family

Adolf Hitler was born in 1889 in the town of Braunau am Inn. His father, Alois Hitler, was the illegitimate son of a woman named Schicklgruber, and before Adolf’s birth, he changed his name to Hitler.

It was probably one of the best things that happened to Hitler’s political career, since “Hail Schicklgruber” would not have had quite the same political clout.

There was a good deal of speculation during the Third Reich by enemies of Hitler, and then later, speculation that Alois Schicklgruber’s father was Jewish. But there’s no evidence to substantiate this.

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A Deep Bond between Mother and Son

Adolf Hitler’s mother cultivated his interest in art. (Image: Unknown author/Public domain)

Adolf Hitler had a typical sort of Austrian upbringing. His father was a minor bureaucrat in the old Austrian system. He was a distant father who liked to spend most of his time down at the pub enjoying a beer with his fellows.

He would come home—Hitler had a younger sister—but he didn’t spend very much time with the children, certainly not with Adolf.

Hitler formed a very strong attachment to his mother, who was everything his father wasn’t. She was loving and giving, spent time with him, and cultivated his and his sister’s interest in art.

He carried a photograph of his mother with him when he went off to Vienna, when he went in the army, and all the way through the war. The photograph of his mother was still on his desk in the bunker when he committed suicide in 1945.

Hitler and the Loss of His Mother

His mother’s death in 1907 was a great blow to the young Hitler. She had supported him in many ways and she had cultivated his interest in going to the Viennese Academy of Art. Shortly after his mother died he did, in fact, attempt to enroll in the academy.

In a series of competitive examinations, he was not admitted. Probably, he’d never really considered the possibility that his artwork would be turned down at the academy. It’s significant that one of the things the instructors at the academy noted was that he seemed to have trouble drawing people.

Hitler’s As a Young Artist in Vienna

In Vienna, he adopted the lifestyle of a young artist. He spent most of his days hanging around the cafes in Vienna drinking coffee. Hitler was a teetotaler and a vegetarian.

He sat around there’s no indication that he read in any systematic fashion. His reading seems to have been comprised of pamphlets—political agitation of the sort that was found in Vienna in those pre-World War I days. One of the central themes of Viennese politics in this period was anti-Semitism.

The Milieu of Anti-Semitism and Hitler

The old Austrian Empire was a hotbed of anti-Semitism, with its Polish population, its Czech population, and into the southeast, it had a much larger Jewish presence than in Germany proper.

Certainly, the mayor of Vienna, Karl Lueger, was a major anti-Semite and had organized anti-Semitism in Vienna. Hitler seems to have been quite impressed with him and with this sort of milieu of anti-Semitism.

He developed characteristics there, too, that would be typical of him for the rest of his career: a kind of indolence, this sense of—even though he wasn’t an artist—wanting the lifestyle of one with these bizarre hours, staying up very late, sleeping until noon, and going to the cafes.

Hitler During the Great War

Then in 1914 came the event that would change his life and would have the greatest effect on his political ideas and his future—the outbreak of the Great War.

Hitler wrote Mein Kamph when he was in prison in 1924. (Image: Unknown author/Public domain)

Hitler described in Mein Kampf, the book that he wrote in prison in 1924, of being there in front of the Rathaus in Munich when the declaration of war was read out, and that he was wild with enthusiasm. He said it was the happiest day of his life.

The war would bring Hitler, as he said, the happiest years of his life. For the first time, he felt that he belonged he was committed he was involved in a society of peers. His fellows saw him as something of an oddball.

He didn’t visit the houses of prostitution in France, where he was stationed, as most of them did. He never seemed to receive mail from home, they said. He was a loner, read things—pamphlets and so on.

He was quiet, and would be furious with them for their going off to be with French women of ill repute: he said the nationality was as important as the breach of traditional morality.

Hitler Decides to Join Politics

In August 1918, Hitler won the Iron Cross First Class for bravery in action. He was a runner, he carried messages between the trenches which was a very dangerous job. Then in 1918, he was wounded in a mustard gas attack on Ypres and temporarily blinded. He was sent back to a hospital in northern Germany for recovery.

He was still blinded at this point, and it was there, while he was recovering, that he heard the announcement that Germany had signed an armistice, that the war was over, and that Germany was defeated. He claimed in the writing of Mein Kampf that, then and there, he decided to become a politician.

Common Questions about the Early Life of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler won the Iron Cross First Class for bravery in action in August 1918.

Adolf Hitler didn’t pass the series of competitive examinations at the academy. The instructors at the academy noted that he seemed to have trouble drawing people.

Adolf Hitler was a runner, he carried messages between the trenches which was a very dangerous job.


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