Bitka kod Hochsta, 11. listopada 1795

Bitka kod Hochsta, 11. listopada 1795



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Bitka kod Höchsta, 11. listopada 1795

Bitka kod Höchsta (11. listopada 1795.) bila je manevarska bitka koja je prisilila generala Jourdana da napusti invaziju na Njemačku i povuče se natrag preko Rajne. Francuski napad preko Rajne uključivao je Armiju Sambre i Meuse generala Jourdana i Armiju Moselle i Rajne generala Pichegrua. Dok je Jourdan trebao prijeći Rajnu na sjeveru, oko Dusseldorfa, Pichegru je trebao prijeći oko Strasbourga. Vlada u Parizu zadržala je sveukupno zapovjedništvo nad invazijom, ostavljajući Jourdana i Pichegru jednakim po rangu. Francuzi su se suočili s dvije austrijske vojske. General Clerfayt zapovijedao je vojskom koja je već bila postavljena uz Rajnu, dok je general Würmser zapovijedao novom vojskom koja je upravo bila formirana u Schwarzwaldu.

Jourdan se prvi preselio. Dana 8. rujna njegove prve postrojbe prešle su Rajnu sjeverno od Dusseldorfa. General Championnet potom je prisilio na predaju Dusseldorfa, a glavne snage prešle su između dva mostobrana. Jourdan je zatim skrenuo prema jugu i napredovao prema Mainzu. Dana 20. rujna bio je na rijeci Lahn, dvadeset pet milja sjeverno od Mainza. Ovaj pokret uznemirio je Clerfayta, koji se preselio na sjever kako bi blokirao francusko napredovanje. Würmseru je također naređeno da se preseli na sjever. Austrijski pokret dao je Pichegruu priliku da prijeđe Rajnu. 20. rujna Mannheim se predao jednoj francuskoj diviziji. Pichegru je sada imao priliku nanijeti ozbiljan poraz Austrijancima. Bio je samo dvanaest milja zapadno od Heidelberga, glavnog skladišta opskrbe Clerfayta. Okupacija Heidelberga također bi omogućila Francuzima da blokiraju Würmsera, koji se kretao na sjever cestom koja je prolazila kroz grad. Pichegru je propustio ovu priliku - mala snaga poslana je istočno prema Heidelbergu, ali je 25. rujna vraćena. Pichegru i Jourdan tada su se sastali kako bi odlučili što će dalje učiniti. Jourdan je htio koncentrirati dvije francuske vojske između Maine i Mannheima i pobijediti svaku austrijsku vojsku, ali Pichegru je odbio podržati plan. Dok su glasnici bili poslani u Pariz da traže naređenja, dvije francuske vojske ostale su gotovo neaktivne na Rajni.

Jourdan je napredovao od Lahna do Majne. Njegovo desno krilo nalazilo se na Rajni nasuprot Mainzu, koji je nakratko bio opkoljen s obje strane rijeke. Francuska linija bojišnice tada je išla istočno duž Maine do Höchsta, samo zapadno od Frankfurta (ne Höchst im Odenwald, naziv koji se ponekad daje bitci - taj grad je dvadeset pet milja jugoistočno od Maine). Jourdan je sada bio u ranjivom položaju. Njegove opskrbne linije išle su sjeverozapadno do mosta preko Rajne u Neuwiedu, četrdeset milja iza njega. Njegov je lijevi bok u teoriji bio zaštićen neutralnim teritorijom Frankfurta, no ranije u kampanji Francuzi su sami prešli neutralni teritorij pri prelasku Rajne. Pichegru više nije mogao pomoći, jer je 10. listopada Würmser stigao izvan Mannheima, započeo opsadu grada i tako blokirao Pichegruov put prema istočnoj obali Rajne.

Pad Mannheima natjerao je Clerfayt da pojuri na jug u pokušaju da spasi Heidelberg. Kad Francuzi nisu uspjeli zauzeti taj grad, mogao je slobodno skrenuti na sjever. Napredovao je sjeveroistočno od Heppenheima do Aschaffenburga. Dana 10. listopada stigao je do Offenbacha, na Majni istočno od Frankfurta, prešao rijeku i napredovao do istočnog stražnjeg dijela rijeke Nidde, koja teče sjeveroistočno od Frankfurta.

Jourdan je imao dva izbora - mogao je napustiti opsadu Mainza, koncentrirati cijelu svoju vojsku na Majni i riskirati bitku ili se povući natrag preko Rajne. Jourdan je odlučio sazvati ratno vijeće, a kako se to često događalo, vijeće se odlučilo povući.

Povlačenje je počelo tek 16. listopada. U proteklih pet dana Clerfayt je ostao iza Nidde i nije riskirao napad. Francuzima je tada dopušteno pobjeći u tri kolone - lijevo krilo se vratilo u Dusseldorf, centar u Bonn, a desno u Neuwied. Da je Clerfayt slijedio na snazi, možda bi mogao uništiti francusku desnicu, jer je 19. listopada most tamo uništio požar, ali Clerfayt je imao druge planove. Napustivši Jourdan kako bi pobjegao na sjever, premjestio je veliki dio svoje vojske preko Rajne u Mainz, a 29. listopada napao je francuske opsadne linije iz grada. Opsada je prekinuta, a Clerfayt je bio u vrlo jakom položaju između dvije široko razdvojene francuske vojske.

Napoleonova početna stranica | Knjige o Napoleonovim ratovima | Predmetni indeks: Napoleonovi ratovi


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2012. Amerikanka Serena Williams pobijedila je svoju treću sezonu završivši teniski naslov pobjedivši Mariju Sharapovu iz Rusije 6–4, 6–3 u odluci WTA prvenstva u Istanbulu, Turska

    Najduža prva utakmica Svjetske serije u bejzbolu (5 sati, 9 minuta) Kansas City Royals je pobijedio New York Mets, 5-4, također najduže po izmjenama (14) Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija svrstava tuberkulozu uz HIV kao najsmrtonosnije zarazne bolesti na svijetu, usmrtivši 1,2 milijuna (2014.) Istraživanje koje ukazuje na to da kuga datira iz brončanog doba u kosturima starim 5.783 godine, objavilo je tim Sveučilišta u Kopenhagenu u raspravi & quotCell & quot Treći republikanski predsjednički kandidati koju vodi CNBC u Boulderu, Colorado Disneyu i Alessia Cara, objavilo je pjesmu "Koliko ću ja" Idite & quot za film & quot; Moana & quot | Napad automobila-bombe u Mogadishu u Somaliji, ubio najmanje 27, islamistička militantna skupina al-Shabab preuzela odgovornost

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2017. Španjolska središnja vlada nameće izravnu vlast Kataloniji, odbacuje njezinu vladu i poziva na nove izbore u prosincu

    Michael D. Higgins ponovno je izabran za irskog predsjednika Politička kriza u Šri Lanki nakon što je predsjednik Sirisena smijenio premijera Ranila Wickramasinghea i vladu, suspendirajući parlament na dva tjedna s jednim čovjekom ubijenim u prosvjedima

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Britanski vozač Mercedesa Lewis Hamilton 2018. završio je četvrti na Velikoj nagradi Meksika na Autódromu Hermanos Rodríguez i osvojio je svoje 5. svjetsko prvenstvo u Formuli 1

    Svjetska serija bejzbol: Boston Red Sox pobijedio je LA Dodgers, 5-1 u 5. utakmici na Dodger Stadiumu i osvojio 9. naslov u povijesti franšize MVP: Bostonski pomoćnik Steve Pearce Ukrajinska teniska zvijezda Elina Svitolina zabilježila je najveću pobjedu u svojoj karijeri kada se bori za 3 -6, 6-2, 6-2 trijumfirao je protiv Amerikanke Sloane Stephens u klasičnoj odluci o tituli WTA finala u Singapuru EU pristaje na još jedno produljenje Brexita do 31. siječnja 2020. Zemlju Georgiju pogođenu masovnim cyber napadom koji je zahvatio 2000 web stranica, TV kanala i vladini odjeli. Klizište nakon jakih kiša u Bafoussamu u Kamerunu zatrpalo je najmanje 42 osobe

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2020. Francuski predsjednik Emmanuel Macron najavio je da će Francuska 30. listopada u televizijskom obraćanju ući u novu četverotjednu blokadu


San Lorenzo/ Pinckneyjev ugovor, 1795

Španjolski i američki pregovarači zaključili su 27. listopada 1795. Ugovor iz San Lorenza, poznat i kao Pinckneyjev ugovor. Ugovor je bio važan diplomatski uspjeh za Sjedinjene Države. Riješio je teritorijalne sporove između dvije zemlje i dao američkim brodovima pravo na slobodnu plovidbu rijekom Mississippi, kao i bescarinski prijevoz kroz luku New Orleans, koja je tada bila pod španjolskom kontrolom.

Prije ugovora, zapadne i južne granice Sjedinjenih Država bile su izvor napetosti između Španjolske i Sjedinjenih Država. Američka granica protezala se do rijeke Mississippi, ali je njezin južni dio ostao na španjolskom teritoriju, a španjolski su dužnosnici, nerado potičući američku trgovinu i naseljavanje u strateškom pograničnom području, držali rijeku Mississippi zatvorenom za američko brodarstvo. Štoviše, i Španjolska i Sjedinjene Države su polagale pravo na dijelove današnjih država Alabama i Mississippi, a raniji pregovori o rješavanju teritorijalnih sporova prekinuli su se na neodređen način. Španjolska vlada zadržala je nekoliko utvrda na spornim područjima, a također je mogla računati na otpor domorodaca američkim pokušajima da pregledaju ili zadiru u domorodačke zemlje. Američki građani iz južnih država i pograničnih područja smatrali su španjolsku politiku restriktivnom i htjeli su da američka vlada ponovno pregovara o svojim stavovima.

Prije 1789. španjolska politika bila je usmjerena na to da se američka trgovina i naseljavanje u pograničnim područjima svede na minimum, pa ni španjolski kolonijalni dužnosnici niti kreatori politike u Madridu nisu bili zainteresirani za odobravanje ustupaka koje su američki pregovarači pokušali postići ranije. Međutim, španjolski su se interesi promijenili tijekom ratova Francuske revolucije. Španjolska se pridružila ostalim europskim monarhijama u ratu protiv Francuske 1793., ali do 1794. španjolske su snage doživjele poraze na Karibima i u Europi. Španjolski kralj Charles IV, nezainteresiran za upravljanje političkim poslovima, ranije je predao političke i diplomatske odgovornosti svom premijeru Manuelu de Godoyu. Godoy je nastojao izvući Španjolsku iz saveza s njezinim tradicionalnim neprijateljem Velikom Britanijom, te uspostaviti mir s Francuskom. Godoyeva politika nije bila bez rizika, jer bi antagonizacija Britanaca dovela u opasnost španjolske kolonije u Americi.

Dok su španjolski diplomati nastojali promijeniti španjolske saveze, američki diplomat John Jay stigao je u London kako bi pregovarao o sporazumu s Velikom Britanijom. Španjolski dužnosnici bojali su se da će Jayevi pregovori rezultirati anglo-američkim savezništvom i invazijom španjolskog posjeda u Sjevernoj Americi. Osjetivši potrebu približavanja, Godoy je poslao zahtjev američkoj vladi za predstavnika ovlaštenog za pregovore o novom sporazumu. Predsjednik George Washington izabrao je Južnokarolinca Thomasa Pinckneya koji je bio ministar Sjedinjenih Država u Velikoj Britaniji.

Pinckney je stigao u Španjolsku u lipnju 1795., a pregovori su se brzo odvijali. Politički i vojni položaj Španjolske oslabio je pod njezinim porazima i ratnim troškovima, dok je rast stanovništva u Kentuckyju i Tennesseeju, u kombinaciji s nedostatkom europskih brodova za održavanje trgovine s Louisianom, učinio španjolske dužnosnike podložnima promjenama restriktivne španjolske trgovinske politike. Godoy se ponudio prihvatiti 31. paralelu kao granicu SAD-a i Floride, kao i pravo na slobodnu plovidbu Mississippijem, što su Amerikanci zapadno od Apalačaca oduševljeno podržali. Zauzvrat, Godoy je zatražio od Sjedinjenih Država da se obavežu na savez sa Španjolskom.

Pinckney je odbio savez, a nakon daljnjih konzultacija Godoy je dao istu ponudu bez potrebe saveza. Ipak, pregovori su došli u ćorsokak jer su Španjolci i dalje inzistirali na svom pravu da zahtijevaju carine za robu koja prolazi kroz New Orleans pod kontrolom Španjolske. Pinckney je zaprijetio da će otići bez potpisivanja ugovora ako Španjolci ne odustanu od carina na američku trgovinu koja prolazi kroz New Orleans. Sljedećeg dana, Godoy je pristao na Pinckneyjeve zahtjeve, a dvojica pregovarača potpisali su sporazum 27. listopada 1795. Konačni ugovor također je poništio španjolska jamstva vojne potpore koja su kolonijalni dužnosnici dali domorodačkim Amerikancima u spornim regijama, što je uvelike oslabilo te zajednice 'sposobnost da se odupru zadiranju u njihovu zemlju.


Podjele Poljske

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Podjele Poljske, (1772, 1793, 1795), tri teritorijalne podjele Poljske, koje su izvršile Rusija, Pruska i Austrija, čime se veličina Poljske postupno smanjivala sve dok, nakon konačne podjele, država Poljska nije prestala postojati.

Prva podjela dogodila se nakon što se Rusija uključila u rat protiv Turaka Osmanlija (1768.) i odnijela tako impresivne pobjede, osobito u podunavskim kneževinama, da se Austrija zabrinula i zaprijetila da će ući u rat protiv Rusije. Frederick II (Veliki) iz Pruske, međutim, kako bi izbjegao eskalaciju rusko-turskog rata, odlučio je smiriti austro-ruske odnose prebacivanjem smjera širenja Rusije iz turskih provincija u Poljsku, koja nije imala samo strukturno slaba vlada, ali također, od 1768. godine, bila je razorena građanskim ratom i ruskom intervencijom, pa je stoga bila nesposobna oduprijeti se teritorijalnim pljačkama.

Dana 5. kolovoza 1772. Rusija, Pruska i Austrija potpisale su sporazum kojim je Poljska podijeljena. Ratificiran od strane poljskog Sejma (zakonodavnog tijela) 30. rujna 1773., sporazum je Poljskoj oduzeo približno polovicu stanovništva i gotovo jednu trećinu (oko 211.000 četvornih kilometara]) njezina kopna. Rusija je primila sav poljski teritorij istočno od linije koju su otprilike činile rijeke Dvina i Dnjepar. Pruska je dobila ekonomski vrijednu pokrajinu Kraljevsku Prusku, isključujući gradove Gdańsk (Danzig) i Toruń, a također je dobila i sjeverni dio regije Velike Poljske (Wielkopolska). Austrija je stekla regije Male Poljske (Małopolska) južno od rijeke Visle, zapadnu Podolju i područje koje je kasnije postalo poznato kao Galicija.

Gotovo 20 godina kasnije Poljska, koja je nastojala ojačati unutarnjim reformama, donijela je novi, liberalni ustav (3. svibnja 1791.). Ta je akcija, međutim, rezultirala formiranjem konzervativne Konfederacije Targowica (14. svibnja 1792.), koja je od Rusije zatražila intervenciju radi obnove bivšeg poljskog ustava. Ne samo da je Rusija prihvatila poziv konfederata, već je i Pruska poslala trupe u Poljsku, a 23. siječnja 1793. dvije su se sile dogovorile o drugoj podjeli Poljske. Potvrđen u kolovozu i rujnu 1793. od strane poljskog Sejma - okružen ruskim trupama - Druga podjela prenijela je u Rusiju veći ostatak litvanske Bjelorusije i zapadne Ukrajine, uključujući Podoliju i dio Volinije, a Pruskoj je omogućila da apsorbira gradove Gdanjsk i Toruń kao i Velika Poljska te dio Mazovije. Druga pregrada zauzimala je površinu od oko 115.000 četvornih milja (300.000 četvornih kilometara).

Kao odgovor na drugu podjelu, poljski časnik Tadeusz Kościuszko predvodio je nacionalni ustanak (ožujak – studeni 1794.). Rusija i Pruska intervenirale su kako bi potisnule pobunjenike, a 24. listopada 1795. zaključile su sporazum s Austrijom koji je podijelio ostatke Poljske (oko 215.000 četvornih kilometara) između njih. Trećom podjelom Poljske, koja je konačno riješena tek 26. siječnja 1797, Rusija je inkorporirala Courland, sav litvanski teritorij istočno od rijeke Neman (Nieman), a ostatak Volinjske Ukrajine Pruska je stekla ostatak Mazovije, uključujući Varšavu , a dio Litve zapadno od Nemana i Austrije zauzeo je preostali dio Male Poljske, od Krakova sjeveroistočno do luka rijeke Sjeverni Bug.

Te su teritorijalne podjele izmijenjene 1807., kada je francuski car Napoleon stvorio Varšavsko vojvodstvo od središnjih provincija Pruske Poljske, te 1815., kada je Bečki kongres stvorio Poljsko kraljevstvo. Međutim, glavni rezultat podjela - tj. Uklanjanje suverene države Poljske - bio je na snazi ​​sve do nakon Prvog svjetskog rata, kada je poljska republika konačno obnovljena (11. studenog 1918.).

Ovaj je članak posljednji put revidirao i ažurirao Adam Augustyn, glavni urednik, referentni sadržaj.


Povijesni događaji 1. listopada

    Aengibald poklanja imanje biskupa Willibrorda u Waalreu Tijekom opsade u Carigradu, Theotokos (Marija, Isusova majka) pojavila se u crkvi u Blachernae držeći svoj veo nad vjernicima koji se mole, među njima i sveti Andrija Konstantinopoljski. Edgar I, miroljubivi, postaje kralj cijele Engleske Ivan XIII Crescentii izabran za nasljednika pape Lava VIII. Gerard de Ridefort, velemajstor vitezova templara od 1184., ubijen je u opsadi akre grof Rudolf van Habsburg postaje njemačkim kraljem -3 ] Sastanak između Maarten Luther & amp Huldrych Zwingli

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1569. Vojvoda od Norfolka uhitila ga je kraljica Elizabeta I. zbog urote da se uda za Mariju, kraljicu Škota

    -2] Oluja prekinula Leiden nasip utopio 20.000 španjolskih vojnika Španjolske trupe pod Spinolom zauzele utvrdu Rajna breza Ruski parlament prihvatio aneksiju Ukrajine Ugovor iz Raaltea: Willem II više nije potpredsjednik Overijssela

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1661 U Engleskoj počinje jahtanje Kralj Charles II pobjeđuje svog brata Jamesa, vojvodu od Yorka koji se utrkuje od Greenwicha do Gravesenda

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    British troops under General Thomas Gage land in Boston Russians under Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn 1st session of new French legislative assembly France annexes Southern Netherlands Belgium is conquered by France. Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty Britain & France sign Preliminary of London

Event of Interest

1814 Opening of the Congress of Vienna, which redrew Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte

    The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa later to separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools. General Trade Journal newspaper begins publishing in Amsterdam "Racer's" Hurricane (Gulf of Mexico) Treaty with Winnebago Indians Civil Code enforced (- Jan 1, 1992) News of the World begins publication in London

Event of Interest

1844 German explorer Ludwig Leichhardt departs Jimbour, the farthest outpost of settlement on the Queensland Darling Downs, to begin his exploration of Australia's Northern Territory from Moreton Bay to Port Essington

Povijesni Invention

1847 German inventor and industrialist Werner von Siemens founds Siemens AG & Halske

Event of Interest

1852 Alfred Russel Wallace returns to the U.K. after four years of travel, collecting, and research in South America

    The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury by Aaron Lufkin Dennison relocates to Waltham, Massachusetts, to become the Waltham Watch Company, a pioneer in the American System of Watch Manufacturing. 5 Russian warships welcomed in NYC Dutch Breda-Tilburg railway opens Cyclone strikes Calcutta: 70,000 killed John Summerfield Staples is paid $500 as a substitute for US President Abraham Lincoln Dutch Eindhoven-Venlo railway opens

Povijesni Publication

Povijesni Publication

1868 "Little Women" by Louisa May Alcott is published in America by Roberts Brothers of Boston

    1st postcards are issued (Vienna, Austria) General Dutch Werkliedenverbond (ANWV), forms in Utrecht Rotterdam opens drinking water pipes Cincinnati Enquirer publishes first report on Baseball's reserve clause rights to players retained by team upon the contract's expiration replaced by free agency

Event of Interest

1880 John Philip Sousa becomes new director of US Marine Corps Band

    Special delivery mail service begins in US US mint at Carson City, Nevada, closes Balochistan conquered by the British Empire.

Event of Interest

1891 Stanford University, California opens its doors after being founded by Leland Stanford and his wife Jane with a $40M donation (1891 dollars), in memory of their son. Among its first graduation class, future US President Herbert Hoover.

    University of Chicago opens 3rd worst hurricane in US history kills 1,800 (Mississippi) Civic organization, Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben founded in Omaha, Nebraska First meeting of The Owl Club of Cape Town Romanians in Costantinople massacred Dutch railway Alkmaar-Receiver opens Henry Huntington buys LA Railway Jews are expelled from Kiev, Ukraine Tsar Nikolay II expels Jews from major Russian cities The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.

Baseball Record

1903 First Baseball World Series game ever played Pittsburgh Pirates beat Boston Americans 7-3 at Huntington Avenue Jimmy Sebring hits first home run Deacon Phillippe is winning pitcher and Cy Young the loser


George Washington’s Accomplishments

The United States was a small nation when Washington took office, consisting of 11 states and approximately 4 million people, and there was no precedent for how the new president should conduct domestic or foreign business. Mindful that his actions would likely determine how future presidents were expected to govern, Washington worked hard to set an example of fairness, prudence and integrity. In foreign matters, he supported cordial relations with other countries but also favored a position of neutrality in foreign conflicts. Domestically, he nominated the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, John Jay (1745-1829), signed a bill establishing the first national bank, the Bank of the United States, and set up his own presidential cabinet. 

His two most prominent cabinet appointees were Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) and Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804), two men who disagreed strongly on the role of the federal government. Hamilton favored a strong central government and was part of the Federalist Party, while Jefferson favored stronger states’ rights as part of the Democratic-Republican Party, the forerunner to the Democratic Party. Washington believed that divergent views were critical for the health of the new government, but he was distressed at what he saw as an emerging partisanship.

George Washington’s presidency was marked by a series of firsts. He signed the first United States copyright law, protecting the copyrights of authors. He also signed the first Thanksgiving proclamation, making November 26 a national day of Thanksgiving for the end of the war for American independence and the successful ratification of the Constitution.

During Washington’s presidency, Congress passed the first federal revenue law, a tax on distilled spirits. In July 1794, farmers in Western Pennsylvania rebelled over the so-called “whiskey tax.” Washington called in over 12,000 militiamen to Pennsylvania to dissolve the Whiskey Rebellion in one of the first major tests of the authority of the national government.

Under Washington’s leadership, the states ratified the Bill of Rights, and five new states entered the union: North Carolina (1789), Rhode Island (1790), Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792) and Tennessee (1796).

In his second term, Washington issued the proclamation of neutrality to avoid entering the 1793 war between Great Britain and France. But when French minister to the United States Edmond Charles Genet—known to history as 𠇌itizen Genet”—toured the United States, he boldly flaunted the proclamation, attempting to set up American ports as French military bases and gain support for his cause in the Western United States. His meddling caused a stir between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans, widening the rift between parties and making consensus-building more difficult.


Aftermath & Impact

In the fighting at Fallen Timbers, Wayne's Legion lost 33 dead and 100 wounded. Reports conflict regarding the Confederacy's casualties, with Wayne claiming 30-40 dead on the field to the British Indian Department stating 19. The victory at Fallen Timbers ultimately led to the signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, which ended the conflict and removed all Confederacy claims to Ohio and the surrounding lands. Among those Confederacy leaders who refused to sign the treaty was Tecumseh, who would renew the conflict ten years later.


John Sullivan

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John Sullivan, (born February 17, 1740, Somersworth, New Hampshire [U.S.]—died January 23, 1795, Durham, New Hampshire, U.S.), early U.S. political leader and officer in the American Revolution who won distinction for his defeat of the Iroquois Indians and their loyalist allies in western New York (1779).

An attorney, Sullivan was elected to the New Hampshire provincial congress (1774) and served at the First Continental Congress, in Philadelphia, the same year. In June 1775 he was appointed brigadier general in the Continental Army and aided in the siege of Boston. The following year he was ordered to Canada to command the retreating American troops after the death of their commander at the disastrous Battle of Quebec (December 31, 1775). Sullivan shortly rejoined General George Washington and, after being promoted to major general, participated in the Battle of Long Island (August 1776), where he was taken prisoner. Exchanged in December, he led the right column in Washington’s successful attack on Trenton, New Jersey (December 1776), but a night attack on Staten Island in August was unsuccessful.

In 1779 Sullivan was commissioned to lead an expedition in retaliation for British-inspired Indian raids in the Mohawk Valley of New York. With 4,000 troops he routed the Iroquois and their loyalist supporters at Newtown, New York (near present Elmira), burning their villages and destroying their crops. He thus earned the thanks of Congress (October 1779), but ill health forced him to resign from military service soon afterward.


Gaspard Monge

Gaspard Monge became the Comte de Péluse later in his life and he is sometimes known by this name. His father was Jacques Monge, a merchant who came originally from Haute-Savoie in southeastern France. Gaspard's mother, whose maiden name was Jeanne Rousseaux, was a native of Burgundy and it was in the town of Beaune in Burgundy that Gaspard was brought up. Around the time that Gaspard was born Beaune, after a period of decline, was becoming prosperous again due to the success of the wine trade.

Monge attended the Oratorian College in Beaune. This school was intended for young nobles and was run by priests. The school offered a more liberal education than other religious schools, providing instruction not only in the humanities but also in history, mathematics, and the natural sciences. It was at this school that Monge first showed his brilliance. In 1762 , at the age of 16 , Monge went to Lyon where he continued his education at the Collège de la Trinité. Despite being only 17 years of age at the time, Monge was put in charge of teaching a course in physics. Completing his education there in 1764 , Monge returned to Beaune where he drew up a plan of the city.

The plan of Beaune that Monge constructed was to have a major influence in the direction that his career took, for the plan was seen by a member of staff at the École Royale du Génie at Mézières. He was very impressed by Monge's work and, in 1765 , Monge was appointed to the École Royale du Génie as a draftsman. Of course, in this post Monge was undertaking tasks that were not entirely to his liking, for he aspired to a position in life which made far more use of his mathematical talents. However the École Royale du Génie brought Monge into contact with Charles Bossut who was the professor of mathematics there. At first Monge's post did not require him to use his mathematical talents, but Monge worked in his own time developing his own ideas of geometry.

About a year after becoming a draftsman, Monge was given a task which allowed him to use his mathematical skill to attack the task he was given. Asked to draw up a fortification plan which prevented an enemy from either seeing or firing at a military position no matter what the position of the enemy, Monge devised his own graphical method to construct such a fortification rather than use the complicated methods then available. This method made full use of the geometrical techniques which Monge was developing in his own time. His mathematical abilities were now recognised at the École Royale du Génie and it was realised that Monge was someone with exceptional abilities in both theoretical and practical subjects.

Bossut was elected to the Académie des Sciences in 1768 and he left the École in Mézières to become professor of hydrodynamics at the Louvre. On 22 January 1769 Monge wrote to Bossut explaining that he was writing a work on the evolutes of curves of double curvature. He asked Bossut to give an opinion on the originality and usefulness of the work. Bossut must have replied in a very positive fashion for in June a publication in the Journal Encyclopédique by Monge ( his first publication ) appeared giving a summary of the results which he had obtained. This paper, in which Monge generalised the results obtained by Huygens on space curves ( as part of Huygens's investigation of the pendulum ) and added many important new discoveries, is described in detail in [ 19 ] . The completed work was submitted to the Académie des Sciences in Paris in October 1770 and read before the Académie in August 1771 ( although it was not published by the Académie until 1785) .

When Bossut left the École Royale du Génie at Mézières, Monge was appointed to succeed him in January 1769 . In 1770 he received an additional post at the École Royale du Génie when he was appointed as instructor in experimental physics. Although this was a large step forward for Monge's career, he was more interested in making his name as a mathematician in the highest circles. Realising that he had to obtain advice from the leading mathematicians, Monge approached d'Alembert and Condorcet early in 1771 . Condorcet must have been impressed with the depth of the mathematics that Monge showed him, for he recommended that he present memoirs to the Académie des Sciences in each of the four areas of mathematics in which he was undertaking research.

The four memoirs that Monge submitted to the Académie were on a generalisation of the calculus of variations, infinitesimal geometry, the theory of partial differential equations, and combinatorics. Over the next few years he submitted a series of important papers to the Académie on partial differential equations which he studied from a geometrical point of view. His interest in subjects other than mathematics began to grow and he became interested in problems in both physics and chemistry.

In 1777 Monge married Cathérine Huart and, since his wife had a forge, he became interested in metallurgy in addition to his wide range of mathematical and scientific interests. Still deeply involved in teaching at the École Royale du Génie at Mézières he organised the setting up of a chemistry laboratory there. From 1780 , however, he devoted less time to his work at the École at Mézières since in that year he was elected as adjoint géomètre at the Académie des Sciences in Paris. From that time he spent long periods in Paris, teaching a course in hydrodynamics as a substitute for Bossut as well as participating in projects undertaken by the Académie in mathematics, physics and chemistry. It was not possible to do all this and to teach all his courses at Mézières but he kept his posts there and received his full salary out of which he paid others to teach some courses in his place.

After three years of dividing his time between Paris and Mézières, Monge was offered yet another post, namely to replace Bézout as examiner of naval cadets. Monge would have liked to keep all these positions, but after attempting to organise an impossible schedule for about a year, he decided that he would have to resign his posts in Mézières, which he did in December 1784 . Over the next five years, despite heavy duties as an examiner, Monge undertook research in a wide range of scientific subjects presenting papers to the Académie on [ 1 ] :-

Of course 1789 was an eventful year in French history with the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 marking the start of the French Revolution. This was to completely change the course of Monge's life. At the onset of the Revolution he was one of the leading scientists in Paris with an outstanding research record in a wide variety of sciences, experience as an examiner and experience in school reforms which he had undertaken in 1786 as part of his duties as an examiner. Politically Monge was a strong supporter of the Revolution, and his first actions were to show his support by joining various societies supporting the Revolution, but he continued his normal duties as an examiner of naval cadets, and as a major figure in the work of the Académie. By this time he was on the major Académie Commission on Weights and Measures.

Louis XVI attempted to flee the country on 20 June 1791 , but was stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris, and this put an end to attempts to share government between the king and an assembly. Relations with Europe deteriorated when the National Assembly declared that a people had the right of self-determination. France declared war on Austria and Prussia on 20 April 1792 . French defeats led to unrest in France and, on 10 August 1792 , there was further revolutions by the people with nobles and clergy murdered during September. On 21 September the monarchy was abolished in France and a republic was declared. Monge was offered the post of Minister of the Navy in the government by the National Convention.

Without disrespect to Monge, it was impossible to satisfy the quite extreme views of many people, and Monge's period as Minister of the Navy cannot be viewed as a success. Although he tried hard in difficult circumstances, he survived only eight months in the post before he gave up the incessant battle with those around him, and he submitted his resignation on 10 April 1793 . For a few months Monge returned to his work with the Académie des Sciences but this did not last long for, on 8 August 1793 , the Académie des Sciences was abolished by the National Convention.

Still a strong republican and supporter of the Revolution, Monge worked on various military projects relating to arms and explosives. He wrote papers on the topics and also gave courses on these military topics. He continued to serve on the Commission on Weights and Measures which survived despite ending the Académie des Sciences. He also proposed educational reforms to the National Convention but, despite being accepted on 15 September 1793 , it was rejected on the following day. Such was the volatile nature of decisions at this unstable time.

Monge was appointed by the National Convention on 11 March 1794 to the body that was put in place to establish the École Centrale des Travaux Publics ( soon to become the École Polytechnique ) . Not only was he a major influence in setting up the École using his experience at Mézières to good effect, but he was appointed as an instructor in descriptive geometry on 9 November 1794 . His first task as instructor was to train future teachers of the school which began to operate from June 1795 . Monge's lectures on infinitesimal geometry were to form the basis of his book Application de l'analyse à la géométrie.

Another educational establishment, the École Normale, was set up to train secondary school teachers and Monge gave a course on descriptive geometry. He was also a strong believer in the Académie des Sciences and worked hard to see it reinstated as the Institut National. The National Convention approved the new body on 26 October 1795 . However from May 1796 to October 1797 , Monge was in Italy on a commission to select the best art treasures for the conquerors and bring them to France. Of particular significance was the fact that he became friendly with Napoleon Bonaparte during his time in Italy. Napoleon had defeated Austria and signed the Treaty of Campo Formio on 17 October 1797 which was an exceptionally good treaty for France, preserving most of the French conquests. Monge returned to Paris bringing the text of the Treaty of Campo Formio with him.

Back in Paris Monge slotted back into his previous roles and was appointed to the prestigious new one of Director of the École Polytechnique. By February 1798 Monge was back in Rome, involved with the setting up of the Republic of Rome. In [ 17 ] the author describes these events using letters which Monge sent to his wife from Rome at that time. In particular Monge proposed a project for advanced schools in the Republic of Rome. Napoleon Bonaparte now asked Monge to join him on his Egyptian expedition and, somewhat reluctantly, Monge agreed.

Monge left Italy on 26 May 1798 and joined Napoleon's expeditionary force. The expedition, which included the mathematicians Fourier and Malus as well as Monge, was at first a great success. Malta was occupied on 10 June 1798 , Alexandria taken by storm on 1 July, and the delta of the Nile quickly taken. However, on 1 August 1798 the French fleet was completely destroyed by Nelson's fleet in the Battle of the Nile, so that Napoleon found himself confined to the land that he was occupying. Monge was appointed president of the Institut d'Egypte in Cairo on 21 August. The Institut had twelve members of the mathematics division, including Fourier, Monge, Malus and Napoleon Bonaparte. During difficult times with Napoleon in Egypt and Syria, Monge continued to work on perfecting his treatise Application de l'analyse à la géométrie.

Napoleon abandoned his army and returned to Paris in 1799 , he soon held absolute power in France. Monge was back in Paris on 16 October 1799 and took up his role as director of the École Polytechnique. He discovered that his memoir Géométrie descriptive Ⓣ had been published earlier in 1799 . This had been done at his wife's request and had been put together by Hachette from Monge's lectures at the École Normale. On 9 November 1799 Napoleon and two others seized power in a coup and a new government, the Consulate, was set up. Napoleon named Monge a senator on the Consulate for life. Monge accepted with pleasure, although his republican views should have meant that he was opposed to the military dictatorship imposed by Napoleon on France. The truth must be that Monge was [ 1 ] :-

Over the next few years Monge continued a whole range of activities, undertaking his role as a senator while maintaining an interest in research in mathematics but mostly his mathematical work involved teaching and writing texts for the students at the École Polytechnique. Slowly he became less involved in mathematical research, then from 1809 he gave up his teaching at the École Polytechnique as his health began to fail.

In June 1812 Napoleon assembled his Grande Armée of about 453 , 000 men, including men from Prussia and from Austria who were forced to serve, and marched on Russia. The campaign was a disaster but by September Napoleon's army had entered a deserted Moscow. Napoleon withdrew, the Prussians and Austrians deserted the Grande Armée and in there were attempts at a coup against Napoleon in Paris. Monge was dismayed at the situation and his health suddenly collapsed. Slowly his health returned after Napoleon left the remains of his army and returned to Paris to assert his authority. After Napoleon had some military success in 1813 , the allied armies against him strengthened. Monge was sent to Liège to organise the defence of the town against an attack.

The allied armies began to move against France and Monge fled. When Napoleon abdicated on 6 April 1814 , Monge was not in Paris, but soon after he did return and tried to pick up his life again. Napoleon escaped from Elba, where he had been banished, and by 20 March 1815 he was back in Paris. Monge immediately rallied to Napoleon and gave him his full support. After Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo, Monge continued to see him until he was put on board a ship on 15 July. By October Monge feared for his life and fled from France.

Monge returned to Paris in March 1816 . Two days after his return he was expelled from the Institut de France and from then on his life was desperately difficult as he was harassed politically and his life was continually threatened. On his death the students of the École Polytechnique paid tribute to him despite the insistence of the French Government that no tributes should be paid.

In [ 9 ] Monge's political career is treated kindly but G Jorland, in a review of that paper, takes a harder view:-

We have commented quite frequently regarding Monge's scientific work above. He is considered the father of differential geometry because of his work Application de l'analyse à la géométrie where he introduced the concept of lines of curvature of a surface in 3 -dimensional space. He developed a general method of applying geometry to problems of construction. He also introduced two planes of projection at right angles to each other for graphical description of solid objects. These techniques were generalised into a system called géométrie descriptive, which is now known as orthographic projection, the graphical method used in modern mechanical drawing.

The basic philosophy behind Monge's approach to mathematics is discussed in [ 13 ] where the author states that Monge's aims were the:-

. not a self-contained language but merely the 'script' of the 'moving geometrical spectacle' that constitutes reality.

. [ His ] new approach addressed itself to the most profound, intimate and universal relations in space and their transformations, putting him in a position to interconnect geometry and analysis in a fertile, previously unheard-of fashion. Practical concerns induced Monge to perceive the object and function of mathematics in a new way, in violation of the formalistic ( linguistic ) standards set by the approved patrons of mathematics .


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