Korejska keramika

Korejska keramika


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Keramika drevne Koreje seže do prapovijesti kada su se izrađivali jednostavni smeđi proizvodi i ukrašavali geometrijskim urezima. Lončari bi imali koristi od ideja i tehnika svojih kineskih kolega i nastavili bi proizvoditi svoja vrlo tražena djela, uključujući sivo kameno posuđe, celadone ili zeleno posuđe, buncheong posuđe i bijeli porculan. Keramika je inovativnog dizajna i kreće se od nemoguće složenih kadionica do uzvišene jednostavnosti i elegancije maebyeong vaza. Korejski ukrasi od keramike obično zapošljavaju biljke, cvijeće i divlje životinje te odražavaju vjersko naslijeđe zemlje s budističkim motivima i minimalističkim konfucijanskim dizajnom koji imaju prednost.

Prapovijesna keramika

Rana korejska keramika iz razdoblja neolitika, osobito u obliku smeđih zdjela s ravnom ili šiljastom osnovom, obje s urezanim ukrasom, pokazuju kulturnu vezu sa zajednicama u provinciji Liaoning i na kineskom poluotoku Liaodong. Najčešći ukras ovog razdoblja su cik-cak ili češljasti rezovi koji su dali ime jednoj vrsti keramike: češljani proizvodi (chulmun). Neke posude imaju četvrtaste spiralne ureze, dok su druge podigle ukrase postignute stezanjem gline.

Korejska keramika iz brončanog doba ima tendenciju biti bez ukrasa, zidovi su deblji i postoji veća raznolikost oblika - tipično za paru, zdjele s postoljima i staklenke s ručkama. Kad postoji ukras, pokriva manje posude i ima oblik urezanih motiva iz prethodnog razdoblja ili nanesenih glinenih traka. Spaljeni proizvodi su ili crni (staklenke s dugim vratom) ili crveni (male staklenke s lukovicama). Ovo je još jednom pokazatelj kontakta s Kinom.

Željezno doba keramika je sivog tipa s lopaticama i urezanim ukrasom, posebno bliskim šrafiranjem. Tipičan oblik ovog razdoblja je staklenka sa okruglim dnom koja ima malu nožicu i izrazite male ručke na vratu u obliku rogova. Još jedan zanimljiv oblik je četvrtasta čaša postavljena na postolje koja je zatim lakirana u crnu boju. Jasno je da lončari postaju vještiji i ambiciozniji u svom dizajnu, postavljajući temelje za finije posude koje će doći u razdoblju Tri kraljevstva.

Siva kamena posuda

Sivo kameno posuđe s visokim pečenjem proizvodilo je kraljevstvo Baekje, Gaya i Silla (mala keramika Goguryeo je preživjela) od 1. stoljeća prije nove ere do 10. stoljeća prije Krista. Tipični oblici su čašica sa stabljikom, zdjele sa širokim postoljima (kobae), staklenke s dugim vratom (changgyong Ho), okrugle šalice s poklopcem sa širokim postoljem poznatim pod imenom kobae, šalice s rogovima, stalci (kurut pachim) koristi se za podupiranje velikih zdjela, visokih valovitih vaza (ponekad s probušenim stalcima), svjetiljki i zvonastih čaša s malim komadima gline unutar šupljeg donjeg dijela, tako da zveckaju pri podizanju, te izlivenim posudama koje predstavljaju životinje, čamce, hramovi, ratnici jašući konje, pa čak i kuće. Keramika je ukrašena urezima, nanošenjem dodatnih komada gline i rezanjem gline za stvaranje efekta rešetke.

Kameno posuđe zahtijeva visoku temperaturu pečenja, a ta je tehnologija, bez sumnje, bila povezana s pećima potrebnima za proizvodnju željeza u konfederaciji Gaya koja je bila bogata tim metalom. Gaya lončari vjerojatno su ovu inovaciju prenijeli u Japan, gdje su poznati sueki (ili tužiti) kao rezultat bi se proizvodilo kameno posuđe. Lončari Baekje također su proizvodili keramiku s niskim pečenjem, svijetlosmeđe boje. Žuljaste staklenke, posude s nogama, tronošci i crijep uobičajeni su oblici.

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Kako je razdoblje Tri kraljevstva ustupilo mjesto razdoblju Unified Silla (668-935. N. E.), Korejska je keramika počela pokazivati ​​izražen utjecaj budizma. Kremiranje je zahtijevalo proizvodnju urna za pepeo, a prevladavaju budistički motivi kao ukrasi s žigom, poput pupoljaka lotosa, lotosovog cvijeća i oblaka. Svakodnevna keramika ostala je bez ukrasa, ali posebni komadi pokazuju veću gustoću ukrasa nego prije, pa čak postoje i neke ljudske figure poput glazbenika koji sviraju kayagum (citra). Postoji i prva glazura od pepela koja će se razviti u kasniju celadon keramiku iz razdoblja Goryeo.

Popularnost i uvažavanje celadona potvrđeno je njihovom prisutnošću u kraljevskim korejskim grobnicama.

Celadon

Celadon (ili zeleno posuđe) keramika proizvedena tijekom dinastije Goryeo (918-1392 CE), smatra se nekim od najboljih i najelegantnijih komada keramike proizvedenih bilo gdje. Obilježava ih blijedozeleni sjaj koji podsjeća na žad i super glatka glazura. Prvi put proizveden u Kini, celadon je brzo stekao popularnost u Aziji, a posebno u Koreji od 9. stoljeća prije Krista, kada je došlo do pojačanog kontakta s dinastijom Song. Možda je povezanost boja s dragocjenim žadom bio još jedan razlog za Celadonin uspjeh. Zelena boja postiže se pečenjem gline u peći za smanjenje kisika glazurom koja sadrži nizak postotak željezovog oksida (cheolhwa). Metoda gotovoj posudi daje iznimno glatku površinu, iako su mnoge fine pukotine u glazuri tipične, čak i poželjne.

U početku je korejska roba bila prilično sirova, ali do 12. stoljeća prije Krista korejska celadon keramika bila je čak i finija od one proizvedene u Kini. Popularnost i uvažavanje celadona potvrđeno je njihovom prisutnošću u kraljevskim korejskim grobnicama. Mongolskim invazijama na poluotok i sustavnim uništavanjem radionica u 13. stoljeću CE, proizvodnja celadona je, nažalost, zaustavljena.

Vaze, vrčevi i zdjele bili su najpopularniji oblici celadona, a najvažniji oblik bila je visoka vaza s uskim postoljem i gomoljastim vratom poznatom kao maebyeong. Lončari su proizvodili i bezbroj drugih predmeta, poput keramičkih jastuka, vrčeva u obliku monaha ili mitskih bića vilinskih konjica, kadionica na kojima su bile figure životinja kroz čija usta izlazi dim tamjana, kozmetičke kutije, kapaljke vode (kundika, koji su se koristili za prskanje vode u budističkim ceremonijama), pa čak su i zaobljeni crijepovi izvedeni s finom koja se vidi u klasičnijim posudama.

Posude su bile ukrašene niskim ili visokim reljefnim uzorcima, osobito cvjetnim uzorcima korištenjem lista i cvijeta lotosa, cvjetova božura i krizanteme, vinove loze i ptica poput ptica močvarica. Mnogi motivi, osobito ždralovi i oblaci, povezani su s budizmom. Posude ostavljene bez ukrasa često imaju ugravirane jednostavne linearne crteže, dok druge imaju složenije umetke od crne, crvene, smeđe i bijele gline u tehnici jedinstvenoj za Koreju poznatu kao sanggam. Ovdje su nacrti isklesani na površini, a umetci dodani prije nanošenja prozirnog klizanja. Neke kasnije posude također su bile umetnute zlatom. Umetci su toliko fini, a izrada tako visokog standarda da se na gotovom posudu doimaju kao potezi kistom. Dodavanje tamnocrvene boje za odabir dizajna ili korištenje za obrise postalo je uobičajeno u kasnijem razdoblju korejskih celadona, postignuto korištenjem bakrene podglazure - prve takve instance u svjetskoj keramici. Još jedan popularan ukrasni učinak bio je dodavanje lajsni koje su se također mogle pretvoriti u ažur.

Buncheong roba

Buncheong (punchong) roba, plavo-zelena keramika prekrivena bijelim listićem, najpraktičnija je korejska ponuda svjetske keramike. Proizvedene su u 15. i 16. stoljeću prije Krista za vrijeme dinastije Joseon (1392-1910. Godine) i u početku su vrlo slične celadonima. Za razliku od drugih vrsta korejske keramike, buncheong proizvodila je keramika koja nije pod državnom kontrolom pa je postala mnogo eklektičnija i pod utjecajem regionalnih sklonosti i želja običnih ljudi koji su naručili njihovu proizvodnju. Tipični oblici uključuju maebyeong vaze, lukovice s visokim vratom, cilindrične tikvice s jednim gornjim izljevom i ravne boce u obliku kornjače s malim bočnim izljevom. Sve je to imalo praktičnu primjenu u kući.

Buncheong dizajni su postali puno zaposleniji od onih na celadon proizvodima s više korištene površine. Dizajni su urezani na bijeli listić (johwa) ili uklesan u glinu oštrim alatom, a zatim ispunjen bijelim klizanjem prije pečenja. Ponekad marke (inhwa) korišteni su za nanošenje jednostavnih geometrijskih ukrasa (osobito na jugoistoku) ili su naneseni kistom (kwiyal) koristeći podglazuru smeđeg željeznog oksida, osobito popularnu u središnjim provincijama. Konačno, bijela ili crvena glina mogla bi biti umetnuta u rezbareni dizajn ( sanggam tehnika koja se koristi sa celadon). Osim geometrijskih oblika, u dizajnu se obično koriste cvjetovi božura (simbol bogatstva), ptice i točkice. Parovi riba osobito su česti jer predstavljaju sreću, plodnost i sreću.

Maksabal & Onggi

Izdanak ili nusprodukt buncheong bio skroman maksabal zdjela u kojoj se koristila glina za koju se nije smatralo da je dobra buncheong proizvodnja. Maksabal znači 'zdjela koja će se odmah upotrijebiti', što ukazuje na njihovu nisku kvalitetu, no ipak su bili sredstvo za lončare da slobodno izraze svoju umjetnost. Drugi uobičajeni tip posuda čisto funkcionalne prirode su onggi vaze za skladištenje i posude za kuhanje. Oni za skladištenje imali su poklopce, a zbog nečistoća u nekvalitetnoj glini nastale su male posude u posudama pri paljenju. Ove male rupice omogućuju cirkulaciju zraka i tako onggi služili su za skladištenje namirnica poput sojinog umaka i riblje paste. Onggi također su često bili zakopani u zemlju, pa čak i korišteni kao zahodi. Često su ukrašeni podebljanim zakrivljenim linijama koje je lončar stvorio palčevima dok je glazura još bila mokra.

Bijeli porculan

Bijeli porculan (paekcha) također je napravljen za vrijeme dinastije Joseon i došao je na njegovo mjesto buncheong u popularnosti, osobito nakon uništenja mnogih posuđa tijekom japanske invazije u kasnom 16. stoljeću. Bijeli porculan zapravo se proizvodio od 9. stoljeća prije Krista, ali je u tom razdoblju njegova proizvodnja konačno usavršena tako da je bio i tanji i izdržljiviji od bilo koje prethodne korejske keramike, bjelji nego ikad prije, i imao je vrlo glatku. glazura. Jedan od glavnih proizvodnih centara bio je Bunwon u Gwangjuu gdje je iskopano 300 peći, ali takva je popularnost bila bijeli porculan da je keramika nikla diljem zemlje kako bi zadovoljila potražnju. Njegova je važnost bila takva da se naposljetku bijeli porculan mogao proizvoditi samo u službenim pećnicama koje sponzorira država, a njegova kvaliteta dokazuje se pojavljivanjem na listama priznanja Ming Kini.

Zdjele, skošene boce, vaze u obliku kruške, zdepaste gomoljaste staklenke s poklopcima, staklenke 'Mjeseca' (tzv. Zbog svog kružnog oblika), držači za četke, tablete s natpisom i kapaljke vode u obliku životinja ili voća. Ponekad su oblici namjerno napravljeni asimetrični, što je posebno uočljivo u staklenkama za mjesec i nešto po čemu se korejska keramika razlikuje od kineske ili japanske robe.

Minimalistički dizajn na korejskom bijelom porculanu odražava strogu jednostavnost konfucijanizma koju je slijedila vladajuća klasa Joseona, iako su raniji primjeri ispunjeniji kineskim plavim i bijelim porculanom tog doba. Dizajn uključuje cvijeće (osobito lotos, orhideju i krizantemu), biljke, bambus (simbol integriteta jer raste ravno i istinito), travu, vinovu lozu, vrbu, šljivu, ptice, jelene, zmajeve i oblake. obično umetnuti na isti način kao i celadoni. Plava (u početku od kobalta, a zatim jeftinija zamjena poznata kao 'muhamedanska plava') ili smeđa (od željezovog oksida) podglazula uobičajene su boje za izradu dizajna.

Naslijeđe

Krajem 16. stoljeća prije Krista mnogi korejski lončari i umjetnici prisilno su odvedeni u Japan nakon invazije te zemlje na Korejski poluotok u sukobu koji se ponekad naziva i "lončarski ratovi". Ovi umjetnici, već cijenjeni zbog svog bijelog porculana, imali bi značajan utjecaj na japansko posuđe Satsuma. Starokorejska keramika živi i danas. Suvremene radionice koje koriste tradicionalne metode ponovno proizvode celadon keramiku, posebno u 16 peći u Gangjinu, gdje se održava godišnji festival celadon. U međuvremenu, originalni celadoni, još uvijek izazivaju veliko zanimanje kolekcionara i mogu postići najviše cijene u aukcijskim kućama bilo koje keramike proizvedene bilo gdje.

Ovaj je sadržaj omogućen uz velikodušnu podršku Britansko -korejskog društva.


Različita razdoblja korejske povijesti mogu se zabilježiti i odražavaju u korejskoj umjetnosti izrade posuđa. Veliki dio onoga što je bilo, izgubljeno je u povijesti. Ratovi i jednostavno protok vremena uzeli su ogroman danak. Arheolozi, povjesničari i kolekcionari umjetnosti uložili su mnogo truda u lociranje i očuvanje ovih značajnih djela korejskog stvaralaštva. Upravo su zbog tih pojedinaca mnogi lijepi primjerci korejske keramike uspjeli preživjeti do danas. U muzejima i privatnim zbirkama možemo svjedočiti razvoju i transformaciji ove umjetnosti, od jednostavne keramičke keramike s neolitskog doba prije više od 3000 godina do sofisticirane keramike dinastije Joseon koja je završila početkom dvadesetog stoljeća .

Korejska keramika dugo je bila cijenjena i tražena na Zapadu zbog svoje umjetničke ljepote i umijeća. Proslavljena francuska kurtizana, madame Pompadour (1721. - 1764.) imala je u svojoj zbirci korejsku vazu Ώ ].

Osim većih zbirki korejske keramike na poluotoku [Koreja] i u Japanu, američke zbirke, privatne i javne, daleko su najveće u količini. Američki interes za keramičku umjetnost u Koreji datira iz 1883. godine, kada je šezdeset primjeraka keramike darovano Smithsonianu u Washingtonu D.C. Nakon oslobođenja, tempo skupljanja keramike brzo se povećao. Sada će u gotovo svakom većem američkom gradu, gdje postoji umjetnički muzej koji se bavi Azijom, biti predstavljena neka korejska keramika ΐ ].

Slijedi izložba koja nudi brojne primjere za proučavanje korejske keramike koja predstavljaju sva glavna razdoblja korejske povijesti. Tri kraljevine Koreje, Silla razdoblje, Dinastija Koryo i Dinastija Joseon. Istražujući različita razdoblja, otkrit ćemo da se razdoblje Silla ponekad naziva Shilla, razdoblje Koryo Goryeo ili Goguryeo, te Joseon, Choson, Chosun.

Dinastija Koryo (918 �): Tijekom godina Zapadnjaci su se sve više zanimali za robu Koyro celadon od ostalih stilova korejske keramike. Prva američka izložba bila je 1957., a zatim jedna u Europi 1961. Međutim, izložba 1969. godine Pet tisuća godina korejske umjetnosti u SAD -u imalo trajan utjecaj, dok je u Europi izložba 1984. pomogla daljnjoj promociji korejske keramike ΐ ].

Dinastija Joseon (1392 �): Lončari tog doba, zabranjeni strogim konfucijanskim propisima, mogli su proizvoditi samo robu za svakodnevnu uporabu, poput zdjela s rižom i staklenki za kiselu hranu. Međutim, čak i u ovim uskim okvirima pokazali su instinktivno znanje da pravilnost i profinjenost nisu jedini kriteriji ljepote. Njihovi su proizvodi često iskrivljeni i asimetrični, no upravo zbog te nesavršenosti postali su vrlo cijenjeni. Dekorativni motivi su jednostavni i nepretenciozni, u rasponu od cvijeća i životinja do apstraktnog dizajna Α ].

Tri kraljevstva (57  BC i & 8211668  AD): Stara Silla, Koguryo i Paekche

( 1.2.3.) Likovi konja iz doba Tri kraljevstva. Konji sa sivom glazurom, ali crvenkastom bojom, vjerojatno povezani s ukopom. Oni su narodni konji koji su vjerojatno stavljeni u grobnicu kao prijevoz za onoga tko ga posjeduje. Moguće i kao igračke. Oni pokazuju znakove ukopa i brojne prekide koji su zalijepljeni poput glave uz tijelo. Ovo je tipično. Ostala područja poput nogu su zalijepljena. Vrlo rano (200  BC. �  AD). Slični primjeri ovih figurica konja mogu se pronaći u 2000 godina korejske umjetnosti Β ]. Konjski kipići štuju se u udaljenim mjestima u posljednje vrijeme kao zaštitnici sela i konji su vjerojatno imali neki vjerski značaj, iako je to moralo biti lokalno sudeći prema rijetkosti s kojom se pojavljuju u umjetnosti Silla Γ ].

( 4.) Velika urna iz dinastije Silla: Mjeri 12 "visoko i 12½" u promjeru na vrhu. Ovaj primjer jako podsjeća na zdjelu s postoljem koja se nalazi u Korejska keramika, umjetnička raznolikost, autor Gregory Henderson. Tamo se opisuje kao zdjela na postolju ili štand tipičan za bilo koju drugu korejsku regiju osim jugoistočne obale. Mogao se koristiti za predstavljanje ili posvećivanje velike količine riže Δ ]. ( 5.) Velika posuda za skladištenje Silla: spremnik za žitarice/hranu. Rijedak spremnik u tradicionalnom sivom posuđu, ali s mahovinom-zelenom glazurom. Ponekad se naziva i "Nogavi staklenka" Ε ]. ( 6.) Silla urna/ tegla za skladištenje: u obliku vaze s pet pravokutnih otvora uz visoku podlogu s neobičnim ukrasnim detaljima, ali uobičajenim u ranim korejskim radovima. Pretpostavlja se da su pravokutne perforacije olakšale težinu posuđa (koje je već imalo tanke stijenke) i spriječile njegovo pucanje tijekom peći Ζ ]. ( 7.) Kremacijska urna: Neglazirana grobna urna s glaziranim površinama. Budizam je postao službena religija Silla 528. godine, a kremiranje je postalo popularno sredinom sedmog stoljeća. Ogromne nasipane grobnice ustupile su mjesto jednostavnom ukopu kremiranih kostiju u urni između 550.-650. Godine poslije Krista. Jedan komad istog stila koji se nalazi (ili je bio) u muzejskoj zbirci Ducksoo Palace (Deoksugung) ilustriran je u sv. 5 od Odabrani Koseki Zufu Η] .

( 8. ) Veliko plovilo: visoko 9 ¾ ”i promjera 6 ¼’ impozantno je i dobro oblikovano. Nema ukrasa osim tri trake šrafiranog dizajna ili valnog uzorka u trakama oko vrata. U dijelu posude nalazi se zelena glazura od mahovine, slučajna ili namjerna nije poznata, ali privlačna. Kasna dinastija Silla, 10./11. Stoljeće. Manja posuda visine 4 7/8 ”i promjera 6 ¼”. je sirova celadonska posuda male razlike. . ( 9. ) Šalica bez nogu: Takve šalice imaju tanki, uspravni rub prikladan za piće ⎖ ]. Jedinstvena značajka je ručka. ( 10. ) Silla Dynasty 8/9 Century Ova posuda od sivog posuđa, najvjerojatnije korištena kao posuda za hranu, visoka 9 ½ inča i promjera 9 ½ inča. Ritmički uzorak na površini ovog komada stvoren je tkaninom otvorenog tkanja koja je visoko teksturirana poput tkanja košarice i omotana oko spremnika u mokroj fazi. Kad se osuši, suptilni je uzorak koji promatramo. Relativno rijetko na tržištu. Ref: Zbirka Henderson Korean Ceramics An Art Variety.( 11. ) Montirane čaše. Sivo kameno posuđe. Usporediv komad iskopan iz grobnice br.116, kyo-dong, Ch'angnyong-gun, Kyongsang Namdo iz razdoblja Kaya (Konfederacija Gaya) 5.-6. Stoljeća može se pronaći u Nacionalni muzej Koreje katalog ⎗ ].

( 12. ) Ovaj veliki spremnik za hranu sa zaobljenom bazom vjerojatno je napravljen za odmaranje na nekakvom postolju. Dizajn na komadu čini ga prilično atraktivnim, ali i utilitarističkim. ( 13. )Ovaj komad Silla mjeri 6 ¼ ”h. i promjera 5 ”s dodatkom ispupčenog izljeva. Vjerojatno se koristila za nošenje hladne vode na radno mjesto, poput polja riže. Čep za izljev obično se izrađivao omotavanjem štapa ili kamena komadom tkanine kako bi se spriječilo prolijevanje. Vrlo funkcionalan komad. Up .: Korejska keramika, Gregory Henderson. ( 14. ) Šalica u sredini vjerojatno je služila za hranu jer je očito napravljena da stane na poklopac. Šalice s obje strane napravljene su za držanje tekućine. Rubovi ovih čaša dizajnirani su tako da omogućuju lak pristup piću.

( 15. ) Umetnuta zdjela Celadon: Najstariji inlastirani keladon sa podacima o kome se može saznati iskopan je iz grobnice Mun Kong-yua koji je umro 1159. (trinaesta godina vladavine kralja Ye-jong-a) u Kaep'ung-gunu, provinciji Kyongi. Može se pretpostaviti da su između vladavine kralja Injonga i kralja Ye-jonga otkrivene inkrustirane keledonske tehnike koje su brzo postale popularne među plemstvom. Iskopavanjem kralja In-jong-a koji je umro 1146. nije otkrivena umetnuta keramika ⎘ ]. ( 16. ) Urezana Celadon zdjela: Arabesque dizajni također su bili uobičajeni za urezane komade celadona. Urezani primjeri pronađeni su u grobovima krajem 12. stoljeća, kada se znalo da su umetnuti celadoni mnogo popularniji. Šest primjera incisiranih i umetnutih zdjela Celadon može se vidjeti u Korejsko grnčarsko naslijeđe ⎙] . ( 17. ) Celadon vaza: visoka 11 ¼ ”i promjera 6 ¼”. Ovo je jednoliko atraktivan komad s ravnomjernom glazurom. Dinastija Joseon, 13./1/4. Stoljeće. ( 18. ) Vaza: visoka 7 ”i promjera 5”. Ova vaza u obliku cilindra u celadon glazuri nema karakter profinjenog komada, ali je poslužila kao vrlo funkcionalan komad.

( 19. ) Niska zdjela: visoka 4 ¼ ”i promjera 5 ¼”. Sivo posuđe 12./13. Stoljeća, prijelazno razdoblje između razdoblja Koryo i Joseon. Funkcionalna zdjela, ali ukras je neponovljiv jer je slama upotrijebljena u kontrastnom svjetlosnom tonu s pigmentom za stvaranje kontrastnog dizajna koji ima četkani izgled jednu četvrtinu puta do zdjele. Tlo je sivo/zeleno, a zatim bjelkasta glazura stvorena od slame. ( 20. ) Zdjela, 13. ”/14. stoljeće. Ova zdjela iz razdoblja Koryo tradicionalni je oblik tog razdoblja. Promjer mu je 5 ½ ”u promjeru. Nema ukrasa osim boje ispucale, zelene, celadon glazure. Na površini ovog djela postoji trag poticaja, ali ono što bi se na Zapadu smatralo mrljom, često ima posebnu privlačnost na Dalekom istoku gdje se neobičnost cijeni sama po sebi i izjednačava s karakterom i patetikom. Uputa: Korean Arts, Vol. Drugo, 1961.

( 21. ) Boca vina (ili vaza) ima promjer 13 ”x 6 7/8” u promjeru blizu podnožja. Boca ima gomoljastu podlogu koja se sužava do grla. Tu je nacrt s lotosovim cvjetom i lišćem oko cijele posude, uzorak pelena blizu vrata, nježno izrađen u svijetlom tonu i efekti ukopa vidljivi su tamo gdje se glazura izjeda, ali posuda je netaknuta. Joseonovo razdoblje 15. stoljeća. Ref.: John Gilmore Ford, ASA. ( 22. ) Vaza: visoka 10 ”i promjera 7”. Meiping vaza ispucale zelenkasto-sive glazure kao tlo s podglazurom plavim ukrasom zgrčenog zmaja omotanog oko cijele vaze i tipičnim simboličnim motivom oblaka isprepletenim. Početkom 19. stoljeća. ( 23. ) Vaza: Mjere 10 ”visoko i 71/4” u promjeru. Impoziranje klasične vaze u stilu Meipinga, kako je opisano u Kini, Koreji i Japanu, s plavom podglazurom. Glavni dizajn je zmaj omotan oko vaze, vrlo impozantnog formata, a motiv oblaka ispod zmaja. Valoviti uzorak u gornjem dijelu vrata, uzorak pelena oko ruba vrata i mali prsten u podnožju dobro su oblikovani i lijepo napravljeni. Tlo je svijetlosiva glazura, a plava je vrlo jasna u dva tona. 1650-1750. ( 24. ) Vinske ili vodene posude: Mjere visine 8 ¾ ”i promjera 5 ½”. Ova se boca sužava do uskog grla koje se razlijeva u svrhu izlijevanja i prekriveno je cijelom svijetlozelenkasto-plavom ispucalom glazurom. 14./15. Stoljeće.

( 25. ) Kapaljka za vodu napravljena je za znanstvenika koji je zahtijevao pažljivo kontrolirane kapi vode da pomiješa tintu sa štapića tinte na ploči tinte kada je pisao slova kistom kineskim pismom (istočnoazijska kaligrafija) ili slikao. Takvi predmeti nisu poznati iz umjetnosti Silla ⎚ ].( 26. ) Vaza: Mjere 7 ¼ ”visoko i 4 ½” u promjeru. Motiv crne tinte sa svake strane izrađen je u vrlo provincijskom stilu s cvjetnim uzorkom. 16./17. Stoljeće. ( 27. ) Crna boca vina Koyro, 13. stoljeće, visoka 6 ½ ”i promjera 5 ¼”. Crni Koryo je rijedak i egzotičan rođak celadona jer se crni proizvodi prelijevanjem celadon glazure preko smeđeg stakla, čime se postiže ne samo bogata crna nijansa, već i lijepe modulacije u kapanju. Vjerojatno nema više od 100 poznatih komada, vjerojatno manje. Up .: Korejska keramika, Gregory Henderson .. ( 28. ) Ovaj poklopac zdjele ukrašen je s dva božura i njihovim popratnim lišćem. U sredini je naslikan simbol dugog života. Ovaj poklopac, kada se okrenuo, vjerojatno se koristio kao posuda za hranu ili jelo. Bio je to funkcionalni predmet s dvostrukom namjenom.

( 29.30.) Oba su djela predstavljena u Sotheby'su, Korejska umjetnička djela, New York katalog, 5. lipnja 1992., ⎛ ] i opisani su na sljedeći način: Dvije plavo -bijele kuglaste posude, dinastija Choson, 19. stoljeće, svaki kuglastog oblika, jedan obojen stabljikama božura koji se protežu sa strana, ispod ovratnika od polucvjetova i obruba dvostrukih linija koji okružuju kratku raširenu usnu, pukotinu, a drugi obnavlja s četiri ravnomjerno raspoređene kružnice shou medaljoni na ramenima, ispod ovratnika od polucvjetova i obrubi dvostrukih linija koji okružuju kratki vrat, čips, pukotina. Visine 5 5/8 i 5 1/8 inča ( 31. ) Boca vina, 14. stoljeće. Ova rana Yi boca ima 10 ½ ”visine i 5 ½” promjera na najširem dijelu. Ostakljen je u zelenkasto/sivom celadonu. Dizajn, grubo izveden prikaz trolisne grane, naslikan je željeznom glazurom. Oblik je neobičan i označava trend udaljavanja od ustaljene tradicije. To je dobro uravnoteženo plovilo, poznato po svojoj funkcionalnosti i jednostavnosti dizajna. Ref: Korean Arts, Vol.2, 1961.. ( 32. ) Uz držač četke i ploču s tintom, kapaljka vode bila je najvažniji pribor znanstvenika. Jedna rupa je korištena za kontrolu kapi vode na ploči tinte ⎜ ].

( 33. ) Zdjela za rižu: Mjere 3 3/8 ”visoko i promjera 7”. Unutra je svijetlozeleni celadon, a izvana je smeđkasto ispucala glazura. Vanjski dio ima koncentrične prstenove oko ruba. 15./16. Stoljeće .. ( 34. )Zdjela: dinastija Chosan, 17. stoljeće. Ova zdjela ima visinu 3 ½ ”i promjer 6”. To je sivkasto-bijela glazura s podglazurom plavim ukrasom cvjetne stabljike sa svake strane, visoko stilizirana i koncentričan prsten oko vrata. ( 35. )Jelo: dinastija Chosan, 13./14. Stoljeće. Visoka je 3 ½ ”i promjera 5 ¼”. To je kameno posuđe sa celadon glazurom i ukrašeno stiliziranim cvijetom krizanteme sa strane i dva koncentrična prstena pri vrhu. ( 36. ) Vaza Rana dinastija Chosan 13/14. Stoljeće. Mjere 8 3/4   inča visoko i 4 5/8   inča u promjeru. Okomita vaza je sivo/zeleni celadon, najraniji oblik celadona poznat u ranom Yi razdoblju 13./14. Stoljeća. Najvažnija karakteristika je crvenkasto-smeđa glazura proizvedena željezom, visoko stilizirane ptice u letu, na svakom ramenu. Vrat uredno svijetli. Baza je grublja, povezana s izloženošću gline u tim ranim proizvodima. Površina je bez koštica. Ref: Keramika, zbirka Henderson An Variety.

( 37. ) Punchong jelo - 14./15. Stoljeće. Ovo malo jelo mjeri 5 inča. u promjeru i ukrašen je krugom dizajna zavjese od užeta. Taj je obrazac bio vrlo rasprostranjen tijekom ranog razdoblja Joseon. Izraz Punchong koristi se u Koreji za opisivanje onoga što Japanci zovu mishima. To je korejski prijevod kineskog fen chinga koji označava blijedoplavu ili zelenu boju i prikladan je utoliko što je glazura celadonskog tipa. Odnosno, sadrži željezo i stoga ima tendenciju poprimati zelenkast ili plavkast ton kada se posuda ispaljuje u reducirajućoj atmosferi. Većina Punchong robe ima blagu plavkastu ili zelenkastu nijansu koja proizlazi iz ovog uzroka. Ref: Korejska umjetnost, drugi dio, 1961. ( 38. ) Velika zdjela za rižu- visoka 3 1/8 ”i promjera 7”. To je dvobojna, svijetla i siva glazura od celadona, netipična glazura, ali ipak više provincijsko posuđe s podignutim stopalom. Cijela unutrašnjost ima svijetli tonalitet, a vanjski obrub i siva boja nalaze se na donjem dijelu vanjske strane. 16./17. Stoljeće. Ref: John G.Ford, A.S.A. ( 39. ) Vaza: Ova vaza visoka 12 ½ ”i promjera 8 ¼”, privlačna je svojom jednostavnošću. Lijepo je proporcionalno bez ukrasa, osim zelenkasto-bijele glazure koja je mjestimice kapnula dajući osjećaj dizajna. 15./16. Stoljeće. ( 40. ) Punchong jelo - 14./15. Stoljeće. Ovo malo jelo mjeri 5 inča. promjera i ukrašen je krugom cvjetnih glavica. Izraz Punchong koristi se u Koreji za opisivanje onoga što Japanci zovu mishima. To je korejski prijevod kineskog fen chinga koji označava blijedoplavu ili zelenu boju i prikladan je utoliko što je glazura celadonskog tipa. Odnosno, sadrži željezo i stoga ima tendenciju poprimati zelenkast ili plavkast ton kada se posuda ispaljuje u reducirajućoj atmosferi. Većina Punchong robe ima blagu plavkastu ili zelenkastu nijansu koja dolazi iz tog razloga. Ref: Korejska umjetnost, drugi dio, 1961.

( 41. ) Vretena od keramike- dinastija Joseon- 17. stoljeće. Ta su vretena korištena za stvaranje ravnih linija u arhitektonskom rasporedu imovine, dva diska i prostora za omotavanje i držanje kabela dok su bili rastegnuti. Kamen je u sivo-zelenom tonu kao glazura i središnja linija je očita. Bila su to atraktivna, funkcionalna kulturna djela. Ref: John R. Fox, Zbirka korejske keramike .. ( 42. ) Četiri markice kolača od riže, 19. stoljeće. Jedan od najčešćih predmeta keramike iz dinastije Joseon bila je marka kolača od riže. Najmanje jedan takav pronađen je u gotovo svakom domaćinstvu diljem Koreje. Uzorci ovih maraka bili su u osnovi geometrijski ili cvjetni. Ref: Korejske narodne slike, Muzej Emille, Seul, Koreja .. ( 43. ) Boca: Visoke 6 ¾ ”i promjera 4 ¼”. Koglatno plavi ukras podglazurane cvjetne grane prostire se po većem dijelu boce na najnižem dijelu. Bjelkasta glazura prekriva ovaj dobro izbalansirani komad. Rašireni vrat je jednostavan i dug, 17. stoljeće. ( 44. ) Zdjela: Visoka 9 ¼ ”i promjera 9”, vrlo je sivo-bijela mljevena kamena posuda s podglazurastim plavim ukrasom, izgleda kao da je motiv nara i uzorak pelene oko vrata, vrlo jednostavan, ali klasičan rad u stilu 18. stoljeća.

( 45. ) Ploča s kamenim posuđem, 17. stoljeće. Ovo postolje za ceremonijalnu ponudu ima visinu od 3 ½ ”i promjer 8 ¾”. Nema ukrasa i svijetlo je sivo-zelene glazure. Koristila se u vjerskim obredima za nuđenje kolača od riže ili druge hrane. Ovaj komad je dobro osmišljen za svoju namjenu. Re: Pet stoljeća korejske keramike Goro Akaboshija i Heiichira Nakamarua. ( 46. ) Niska zdjela, 17. stoljeće. Ova zdjela je visoka 41/4 inča i ima promjer 4 ¾ inča. Ima deset fasetiranih strana i sastoji se od sive/bijele glazure s podglazurasto plavim ukrasom u obliku lista. Ref: Zbirka John Fox, Korean Ceramics, Syracuse, University. ( 47. ) Vaza: Mjere 11 ”visoko i 7” u promjeru. Divan svojom simpatičnošću, s dugim vratom i zaobljenim tijelom. Jedini ukras mu je čak i sivo-zelena ispucala glazura s kapanjem glazure na uobičajen način, 18. stoljeće. ( 48. )Ponuda zdjela: dinastija Joseon, 13./14. Stoljeće. Veći ima 2 ¾ ”visine i 5 ¼” u promjeru. Manji od njih dva je visok 2 ½ ”i ima promjer 4 ¾”. Obje su u celadon glazuri. Koristili su se u vjerskim obredima.


Korejska keramika i porculan

Povijest korejske keramike započinje najstarijim zemljanim posuđem koje datira oko 8000 godina prije Krista. Pod utjecajem kineske keramike, korejska je keramika razvila svoj poseban stil sa svojim oblicima, poput mjesečeve posude ili maebyeong verzija Kineza meiping vaza, a kasnije stilovi oslikanog ukrasa. Korejski keramički trendovi imali su utjecaja na japansku keramiku i porculan. [1] Examples of classic Korean wares are the celadons of the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and the white porcelains of the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897).

Povijest

Neolitika

The earliest known Korean pottery dates back to around 8.000 BC, [2] and evidence of Mesolithic Pit–Comb Ware culture (or Yunggimun pottery) is found throughout the peninsula, such as in Jeju Island. Jeulmun pottery, or "comb-pattern pottery", is found after 7000 BC, and is concentrated at sites in west-central regions of the Korean Peninsula, where a number of prehistoric settlements, such as Amsa-dong, existed. Jeulmun pottery bears basic design and form similarities to that of Mongolia, the Amur and Sungari river basins of Manchuria, the Jōmon culture in Japan, and the Baiyue in Southern China and Southeast Asia. [3] [4]

Later Silla

Pottery of the Later Silla period (668–935) was initially simple in color, shape, and design. Celadon subsequently became the main production.

Buddhism, the dominant religion of the time in Korea, increased the demand for celadon-glazed wares (cheongja), causing cheongja celadon to evolve very quickly, with more organic shapes and decorations, such as animal and bird motifs. When making cheongja wares, a small amount of iron powder was added to the refined clay, which was then coated with a glaze and an additional small amount of iron powder, and then finally fired. This allowed the glaze to be more durable, with a shinier and glossier finish than white wares.

Goryeo

The Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) achieved the unification of the Later Three Kingdoms under Wang Geon. The works of this period are generally considered to be the finest works of ceramics in Korean history. [5] [6] [7] Korean celadon reached its pinnacle with the invention of the sanggam inlay technique in the early 12th century. [8] [9] [10]

Key-fret, foliate designs, geometric or scrolling flowerhead bands, elliptical panels, stylized fish, insects, birds and the use of incised designs began at this time. Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Celadon glazes could be rendered almost transparent to show black and white inlays. Jinsa "underglaze red", a technique using copper oxide pigment to create copper-red designs, was developed in Korea during the 12th century, and later inspired the "underglaze red" ceramics of the Yuan dynasty. [11] [12] [13] [14]

While the forms generally seen are broad-shouldered jars, larger low jars or shallow smaller jars, highly decorated celadon cosmetic boxes, and small slip-inlaid cups, the Buddhist potteries also produced melon-shaped vases, chrysanthemum cups often of spectacularly architectural design on stands with lotus motifs and lotus flower heads. In-curving rimmed alms bowls have also been discovered similar to Korean metalware . Wine cups often had a tall foot which rested on dish-shaped stands.

Baekja wares came from highly refined white clay, glazed with feldspar, and fired in regulated and clean large kilns. Despite the refining process, white glazes invariably vary as a result of the properties of the clay itself firing methods were not uniform, temperatures varied and glazes on pieces vary from pure white, in an almost snowy thickness, through milky white that shows the clay beneath deliberately in washed glaze, to light blue and light yellow patinas. After having succeeded the tradition of Goryeo baekja, soft white porcelain was produced in Joseon Dynasty, that carried on, but from the mid-Joseon on hard white porcelain became the mainstream porcelain. [15] [16]

The baekja wares reached their zenith immediately before the Joseon Dynasty came to power. Fine pieces have recently been found in the area around Wolchil Peak near Mount Kumgang. The transitional wares of white became expressions of the Joseon Dynasty celebrations of victory in many pieces decorated with Korean calligraphy. Traditionally white wares were used by both the scholarly Confucian class, the nobility and royalty on more formal occasions.

Joseon

During the Joseon dynasty, (1392–1897) ceramic wares were considered to represent the highest quality of achievement from royal, city, and provincial kilns, the last of which were export-driven wares. Joseon enjoyed a long period of growth in royal and provincial kilns, and much work of the highest quality still preserved.

Wares evolved along Chinese lines in terms of colour, shape, and technique. Celadon, white porcelain, and storage pottery were similar, but with certain variations in glazes, incision designs, florality, and weight. The Ming influence in blue and white wares using cobalt-blue glazes existed, but without the pthalo blue range, and the three-dimensional glassine colour depth of Ming Dynasty Chinese works.

Simplified designs emerged early on. Buddhist designs still prevailed in celadon wares: lotus flowers, and willow trees. The form most often seen was that of pear-shaped bottles. Notable were thinner glazes, and colourless glazes for buncheong or stoneware. During the Joseon period, Koreans applied the sanggam tradition to create buncheong ceramics. [17] [18] In contrast to the refined elegance of Goryeo celadon, buncheong is designed to be natural, unassuming, and practical. [19] However, the buncheong tradition was gradually replaced by Joseon white porcelain, its aristocratic counterpart, and disappeared in Korea by the end of the 16th century. [18] Buncheong became known and prized in Japan as Mishima. [20] [21] [22]

Joseon white porcelain representing Joseon ceramics was produced throughout the entire period of the Joseon dynasty. The plain and austere white porcelain suitably reflects the taste of Neo-Confucian scholars. [23] Qing colouring, brighter and almost Scythian in enamel imitation, was rejected by Korean potters, in favour of simpler, less decorated wares in keeping with a new dynasty that built itself on Confucian doctrine.

Generally, the ceramics of this dynasty is divided into early, middle, and late periods, changing every two centuries, approximately thus 1300 to 1500 is the early period, 1500 to 1700 the middle, and 1700 to 1900–1910 the late period.

The wares began to assume more traditional Korean glazes and more specific designs to meet regional needs. This is to be expected, as the Scythian art influences were of the former dynasty. The rise of white porcelain occurred as a result of Confucian influence and ideals, resulting in purer, less pretentious forms lacking artifice and complexity.

In 1592 during the Japanese invasion of Korea, entire villages of Korean potters were forcibly relocated to Japan, damaging the pottery industry as craftsmen had to relearn techniques because the masters were gone. [24]

20th century

A revival of celadon pottery began in the early 20th century, including the work of Living National Treasure, Yu Geun-Hyeong, whose work was documented in the 1979 short film, Koryo Celadon.

Exports

Nearly all exports of Korean ceramics went to Japan, and most were from provincial coastal kilns, especially in the Busan area. Export occurred in two ways: either through trading or through invasion and theft of pottery and the abduction [25] to Japan of families of potters who made the wares. The voluntary immigration of potters was improbable since Joseon pottery was administrated by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (工曹) (ko:공조 (행정기관)). As a national resource, pottery technician trade with foreign countries was prohibited.

Kilns

Central to Korean success were the chambered climbing kilns, based on the Chinese dragon kiln, that were used throughout the Joseon dynasty and exported abroad, especially to Japan by Korean kiln-makers where they were renamed as noborigama in the Karatsu area from the 17th century on.


Korea - Korean potters

Korea - Korean potters

Chinese pottery and porcelain always exerted a strong influence in Korea, but Korean potters introduced subtle variations on Chinese models. Gray stoneware, found in tombs, was typical of the Silla dynasty (4th to 10th century ad).

Song-influenced celadons characterize pottery of the Koryŏ dynasty (918-1392). Tradicional Chosŏn pottery (1392-1910), the blue and white style ranks as some of the most beautiful in the world. Later work, although less refined, was admired for its straightforward dignity. Koreans, in turn, introduced Korean and Chinese pottery into Japan.

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I've been making my own cabbage kimchi for the last couple of years. Not in beautiful onggi, I'm afraid, just simple glass jars. It's remarkably easy and doesn't require any particularly hard-to-find-in-the-US ingredients. Except maybe Korean ground pepper, readily available on Amazon, it has a particular texture. But honestly any ground dried red chile will do. I like extra fish sauce too but I've never quite brought myself to bringing in actual raw oysters or anchovy as some recipes I've seen suggest. Don't trust my ingredient sources or fermentation technique quite that much.

The real revelation for me making kimchi is as it ferments it goes through a stage after 2-3 days I've heard called "sweet kimchi", I don't know what the Korean word for it is. But in that moment it's already fermented some, so it has the good funky flavors you want. But all the sugar hasn't fermented yet and there's not very much lactic acid yet, so the final flavor is more mildly sweet than sour. Still quite fresh and crunchy, yet also noticeably fermented. It's a lovely and unexpected surprise reward for making your own on its way to getting stronger and more sour.

I mostly make my own kimchi but I've been buying more at the store since I discovered the Wildbrine brand at my local grocery store in California. It's really very good. Note they have no fish flavors of any sort in it if you prefer them (and I sure do), add a glug or two to the jar, shake it up, and give it a day to incorporate.

I've got the ingredients for doenjang jjigae in my fridge, probably for dinner tomorrow. So good. It's like if miso soup got much more robust and you made a delicious stew in it. There's a zillion varieties with different ingredients the key thing is the doenjang broth.

Are there any really good fancy / elevated Korean restaurants in the US? There must be, but I'm looking for something more than simple hot pot and barbeque. I've been thinking once travel is possible again I'd head down to LA and eat my way through the best Korean I can find there.
posted by Nelson at 6:41 PM on February 12 [1 favorite]

Just off the top of my head re: fancy Korean restaurants, Jungsik is Michelin-starred. I’ve had the dessert menu and I would love to eat there again. I can think of a few places here in Chicago but I don’t know LA well enough to suggest anything like that there.

I’ve been getting a ton of Napa cabbage in my farm boxes lately, so I’ve made a few batches of kimchi in the last few months. So I’m enjoying this post! I would like one of these pots I just use jars, too.
posted by jeweled accumulation at 8:08 PM on February 12 [1 favorite]

Oh, this has just reminded me of one of my favorite experiences during a holiday where we stopped in the Gyeongju Folk Craft Village. I would have loved to spend longer at the Silla pottery house, watching him work and explain the craft of finding the right clay to correctly replicate the Silla style and admire his kiln (built into the side of the hill!). I hadn't planned on buying too many souvenirs that trip since I was flying and didn't want to lug a lot of stuff home, but I spent 200,000 won (which was a lot for me at the time!) on a full tea set because it was so lovely. It's still one of my favorite souvenirs just in general, even if I mildly regretted at the time buying something so bulky and fragile at the start of a longer holiday.

As for kimchi, I am lazy and just get the Hmart in-house kimchi because it tastes good enough for me, except these days I am limiting my in-store shopping outings so I haven't had kimchi for awhile. I did just go to Costo this week (for the quarterly pantry refresh!) and saw our store was now selling a commercial brand of kimchi, so I've picked it up out of curiosity and the longing for kimchi fried rice. Last year I used up a little too fermented kimchi (aka it was in the back of the fridge and I forgot about it) to make jeon for Pancake Day, so now I'm tempted to do the same thing this Tuesday.
posted by paisley sheep at 11:12 PM on February 12

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Vidi također

  1. ^ Koehler, Robert (2015). Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms . Seoul Selection. ISBN  9781624120466 . Pristupljeno 18. srpnja 2017.
  2. ^Chong Pil Choe, Martin T. Bale, "Current Perspectives on Settlement, Subsistence, and Cultivation in Prehistoric Korea" , (2002), Arctic Anthropology, 39: 1-2, pp. 95-121.
  3. ^Stark 2005, p.𧆉.
  4. ^Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp.㺗–26. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLee_Hyun-hee2005 (help)
  5. ^"Koreana : a Quarterly on Korean Art & Culture" .
  6. ^"Korean-Arts About Korean Celadon" .
  7. ^ Francoeur, Susanne (1 January 2004). "Review of Goryeo Dynasty: Korea's Age of Enlightenment, 918-1392". The Journal of Asian Studies. 63 (4): 1154–1156. doi:10.1017/s0021911804002888 . JSTOR� .
  8. ^ Koehler, Robert (2015-09-07). Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms . Seoul Selection. ISBN  9781624120466 . Retrieved 27 March 2017 .
  9. ^ Lee, Soyoung. "Goryeo Celadon" . Muzej umjetnosti Metropolitan . Retrieved 27 March 2017 .
  10. ^ Injae, Lee Miller, Owen Jinhoon, Park Hyun-Hae, Yi (2014-12-15). Korean History in Maps . Cambridge University Press. p.㻌. ISBN  9781107098466 . Retrieved 27 March 2017 .
  11. ^ Lee, Lena Kim (1981). Korean Art . Philip Jaisohn Memorial Foundation. p.㺏 . Retrieved 27 April 2017 . Koryo potters also experimented with the use of copper for red designs under the glaze, since ground copper pigment fires red in the reducing kiln atmosphere. This technique was started in the twelfth century. Many scholars agree that Chinese Yuan wares with underglaze red design were inspired by the Koryo potters' use of copper red at the time when the Yuan and Koryo courts had very close political ties.
  12. ^"Collection online" . British Museum . Retrieved 27 April 2017 .
  13. ^ Sullivan, Michael (1984). The Arts of China . University of California Press. p.𧇄 . ISBN  9780520049185 . Retrieved 27 April 2017 .
  14. ^"진사 이야기" . The Yonsei Chunchu (in Korean). Yonsei University . Retrieved 27 April 2017 .
  15. ^ Yunesŭkʻo Hanʾguk Wiwŏnhoe. Unesco Korean survey. Dong-a Pub. Co., 1960. p.32
  16. ^Pictorial Korea. Korean Overseas Information Service, 2004. p.28
  17. ^ Koehler, Robert (2015-09-07). Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms . Seoul Selection. ISBN  9781624120466 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  18. ^ ab Lee, Author: Soyoung. "Joseon Buncheong Ware: Between Celadon and Porcelain" . The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  19. ^ Koehler, Robert (2015-09-07). Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms . Seoul Selection. ISBN  9781624120466 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  20. ^ Levenson, Jay A. (U.S.), National Gallery of Art (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration . Yale University Press. p.𧊦. ISBN  978-0300051674 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  21. ^ Hopper, Robin (2004-10-29). Making Marks: Discovering the Ceramic Surface . Krause Publications Craft. p.𧅧. ISBN  978-0873495042 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  22. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2004-12-29). Encyclopedia of Kitchen History . Routledge. p.𧏼. ISBN  9781135455729 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  23. ^ Scott Hudson, National Museum of Korea, Sol Publishing, 2005
  24. ^"History of South Korea" . Lonely Planet Travel Information.
  25. ^Financial Times - Korea’s artistic treasures – and their links to China and Japan by David Pilling APRIL 11, 2014

History of Korea - Prehistory and Gojoseon - Jeulmun Pottery Period

The earliest known Korean pottery dates back to around 8000 BC, and evidence of Mesolithic Pit-Comb Ware culture or Yungimun Pottery is found throughout the peninsula. An example of a Yungimun-era site is in Jeju-do. Jeulmun or Comb-pattern Pottery is found after 7000 BC, and pottery with comb-patterns over the whole vessel is found concentrated at sites in west-central Korea, where a number of settlements such as Amsa-dong existed. Jeulmun pottery bears basic design and form similarities to that of Mongolia, and the Amur and Sungari river basins of Manchuria and the Jōmon culture in Japan.

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Korean Pottery - History

Paleolithic Period (700,000 BC to 40,000 BC)

Evidence from a few scattered Paleolithic sites suggests that Neanderthal man may have lived on this peninsula for half a million years, and that a Paleo-Asiatic man inhabited it from about 40,000 B.C. While little is actually known about these latter Stone Age people, it's assumed from stone tools and weapons, bone artifacts, food remains, and fireplace sites that they were hunter-gatherers and fishermen. Some lived on riverside flat land, yet most seem to have inhabited inland caves. It's likely that people moved from the Korean Peninsula to the Japanese islands about 20,000 years ago, when the Korean Strait was much narrower.

The origins of this period are an open question but the antiquity of hominid occupation in Korea may date to as early as 500,000 BCE. Yi and Clark are somewhat skeptical of dating the earliest occupation to the Lower Palaeolithic.

At Seokjang-ri, an archaeological site near Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do Province, artifacts that appear to have an affinity with Lower Paleolithic stone tools were unearthed in the lower levels of the site. Bifacial chopper or chopping-tools were also excavated. Hand axes and cleavers produced by men in later eras were also uncovered.

The earliest radiocarbon dates for the Paleolithic indicate the antiquity of occupation on the Korean peninsula is between 40,000 and 30,000 BP. From an interesting habitation site at Locality 1 at Seokjang-ri, excavators claim that they excavated some human hairs of Mongoloid origin along with limonitic and manganese pigments near and around a hearth, as well as animal figurines such as a dog, tortoise and bear made of rock. Reports claim that these were carbon dated to some 20,000 years ago. The Palaeolithic ends when pottery production begins c 8000 BCE.

Known as Yungimun Pottery, the pottery has been found in much of the peninsula. Gosan-ri in Jeju-do, and Ubong-ri in Greater Ulsan, represent examples of Yungimun-era sites. Jeulmun, or Comb-pattern Pottery, can be found after 7000 B.C.E

In recent years, Paleolithic remains have been found in a number of excavations. The best known sites are in Unggi county North Hamgyong province, Chunghwa county and Kongju, South Chungchong prov . These date from about 30,000 to 20,000 years ago. It is not known if the Korean people of today are the ethnic descendants of these Paleolithic people . Paleolithic man in Korea lived in caves and built dwellings above ground. Stone tools such as hand axes using chipping and flaking have been found from this period .

Neolithic man, characterized by the making of polished tools and the use of pottery, appeared in Korea about 4,000 B.C. and were the same ethnic stock as the inhabitants of Siberia . Around 3,000 B.C. that pottery with geometric designs, called ' comb pattern pottery ' appears , such pottery of a similar design has been found in the Maritime Territory of Siberia and Mongolia . Around 1,800 B.C. a third pottery culture characterized by painted designs spread into Korea from Manchuria.

Located in Amsa-Dong, the Prehistoric Settlement Site (선사주거지) was unearthed in 1925 when a massive flood washed over the banks of the Han River. To date, this Neolithic has been the largest discovered in Korea. The Amsa-Dong Prehistoric Settlement Site depicts the average life of these primitive humans as well as many relics recovered from archeological excavations. The number and quality of these finds is so great, that the site and its artifacts were designated National Historic Relic #267 in 1979. Humans that called this area home not only lived here during the Neolithic period, but also the during the Bronze Age and Baekje.

Unlike Korea's Paleolithic people, the ethnic stock of the Neolithic people merged to form the modern inhabitants of Korea. Neolithic sites are often found near the banks of rivers and seashores . Stone sinkers attest to the use of fishnets. Farming tools also make their appearance . Grain and nuts were ground by millstones. Neolithic man lived mainly in pit dwellings . Neolithic man in Korea held animistic beliefs, that every object in the world had a spirit . Neolithic graves are found with the head toward the rising sun in many sites .The basic societal unit of the time was the clan .

Artifacts from the peninsula's more numerous Neolithic sites indicate that Neolithic man replaced the Paleo-Asiatic man during several waves of migration from central and northeast Asia about 4000 B.C. (some suggest 8000 B.C.). The ancestors of modem Koreans, these people were of the Tungusic branch of the Altaic language group, which included the nomadic tribes of southeast Siberia, the Manchus, and the Mongols. Neolithic man lived along rivers and coasts. A hunter-gatherer and fisherman, he used polished stone tools and weapons, and produced round-bottomed plain pottery.

A second wave of immigrants began around 3000 B.C. The plentiful archaeological sites from this period reveal a comb-pattern pottery similar to samples found in Manchuria and Mongolia.

Better tools and weapons were produced, and weaving was begun. With the inception of rudimentary cultivation and the domestication of animals, people moved inland and became more sedentary. Along with a greater reliance on cultivation came an increase in population, with another probable migration to Japan. During this time kinship relationships developed and blood clans exchanged goods and intermarried. Superior cultivation techniques, advances in tools and weapons, greater variety in the preparation ration of foods, storehouses, and objects of decoration and veneration indicate a growing sophistication.

A third wave of migrants arrived between roughly 1800 and 800 B.C. These people created new pottery shapes and designs, some painted. They developed a more advanced society that gave rise to specialized occupations, formalized social relationships, and some sort of order and rule of law. These clans grew in number and size, evolving into associated clan groups and tribes. Neolithic man was an animist who believed that animate and inanimate objects have souls. As this belief became more important, the responsibility for the activities and interpretation of this quasi-religion was taken over by shamans who developed prestige and power within the community, and may have become chiefs or respected elders.

About 700 B.C., bronze was introduced to the Korean Peninsula and peripheral regions of eastern Asia, most probably from central Manchuria and southern Siberia. Also, an influx of people at this time from eastern China brought advanced technology, metallurgy, more developed agricultural practices, including the cultivation of rice, animal husbandry, and the production of undecorated red pottery. While still depending in part on hunting, gathering, and fishing, people of the peninsula established permanent settlements in river basins and upland regions. They established a social hierarchy of commoner, privileged class, and leader. The society produced metal tools and effective weapons, and honored their leaders with dolmen tomb burials.

Tribal units developed into walled-town states where territory, not blood or relationship, was the dominant cohesive factor. Eventually, these began to form larger confederations, with one group among them becoming most influential. These states had a centralized government, and were the foundation from which the first historical states evolved.


Korean Pottery - History


Celadon Vase Inlaid with Crane-and-Cloud Pattern
Goryeo, 12th Century
42.1cm in height and 24.5cm in diameter at its widest point

The voluminous form of this wonderful 12th century Goryeo porcelain
piece came from the Meiping (or Maebyeong in Korean, literally meaning
a ‘maehwa vase’) style from the Sung Dynasty in China. By the time this
vase was made, however, Goryeo had already established its own style
characterized by a more expansive form and elegantly-curved lines. An
increasingly-important achievement of Goryeo porcelain ware in the
world’s ceramics history is the introduction of the inlaying technique to
the art of porcelain. In this vase, whose form, size and luxuriousness
make it one of the greatest masterpieces of its kind, the pattern of white
cranes and clouds is exquisitely inlaid into the surface of the jade-blue
tijelo.


The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) introduced the era of white-ceramics production, but it also meant the emergence
of Confucian culture in Korea. The Joseon Dynasty, launched after it forcibly overthrew the Goryeo Dynasty, attempted
a great ideological shift in Korean society by promoting a ‘pro-Confucian and anti-Buddhist policy.’ The development
of white porcelain became an important part of the new dynasty’s efforts to lay a firm foundation for society to follow
the simple and austere white ceramics ware matched the Confucian ideals of a simple and austere lifestyle. Gradually
white ceramics ware grew to symbolize the Joseon Dynasty that ruled the kingdom according to Confucian
teachings.

The white ceramics of the early Joseon Dynasty display an ascetic yet regal beauty, as if to reflect
the artistic taste of Neo-Confucian scholars who sought after a strictly-disciplined mind and an immaterialist
philosophy. Consequently, these pure-white ceramics without any decoration became mainstream,
although some were adorned with delicate and fine literati ink painting in blue and/or oxidized iron.
In the mid-Joseon period, white ceramic artisans in Korea began to produce some of the finest
porcelain in terms of stark beauty, perfect balance and elegant form closely interwoven with profound
philosophical thoughts about nature. By the time the Joseon Dynasty had moved into its later period,
the porcelain had also evolved towards the ‘beauty of daily life,’ by focusing on practical usage with
more decorativeness. By this time, the use of porcelain had spread into the life of the common people and
the ceramics, themselves, had transformed into incredibly modest yet delightfully versatile household items.

Blue and White Porcelain Bottle with
Chrysanthemum and Bamboo Design
Joseon, 18th Century
27.5cm in height and 12.8cm in diameter at its widest point.

This blue and white porcelain bottle of the Joseon Dynasty displays
an elegant octagonal body, sleek neck and a charming lip gently curled
van. Its delightfully-simple form, slightly bluish-white color, and refined
chrysanthemum and bamboo design painted in restrained blue makes
this a wonderful example of blue-and-white ceramic ware of the mid-
Joseon period. With its charmingly-small size, unassuming color
combination, and serene form, this bottle is widely regarded as a
masterpiece of its kind.


One of the major production sites of ceramic ware made for the masses during the late Joseon Dynasty was the
city of Mungyeong located in the southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Here more than 200 kiln sites have been
found and the tradition of porcelain-making is still strong. With easy accessibility to good-quality clay, clean water in
nearby valleys and ample firewood, Mungyeong possesses the ideal natural environment in which to create such
wonderful porcelain. The value of Mungyeong porcelain is highly regarded today because its potters adhere to
long-established methods, kilns and tools, strongly refusing to use any modern equipment or materials. It is in
Mungyeong where the Master Potter ( Sagijang ), Kim Jeong-ok, keeps the custom of Joseon white porcelain alive,
a family heritage that dates back seven generations.


Discovering Korea for Kids with Kids’ Books, Art and Food

This was my second pilgrimage to the Brimfield Antique Flea Market with Sharon Schindler Photography and Capability:Mom. Sharon is there to shoot and shop. She shot some amazing vintage photographs there last year and Capability:Mom has the Ball Jars photo on her kitchen wall. This year they both scored blue-y tinged vintage Ball Jars for a song, a purchase that was made sweeter when we found out that the rest of the vintage jars there were much more expensive!

Image by Sharon Schindler. Print available here.

As for me, I was looking for tallish knick-knacks for the living room and found a beautiful piece of pottery that reminded me of the pottery described in A Single Shard. I was guessing (and hoping) that my piece is Korean but I’m not really sure. It’s gorgeous Celadon celery green in color with a carved-out design that is glazed over.

A Single Shard is set during 12th century Korea, long considered the Golden Age of Korea. I thought I would continue down the path of my family history via Teach Me Tuesday and tell you about my husband’s ancestral history. My husband is Korean and related to the older brother who was passed over for his younger brother — unusual in Korean monarchies. This younger brother was Taejo Yi Seong-gye whose reign started the Yi Dynasty, also known as Joseon, Chosŏn, Choson, or Chosun which lasted approximately five centuries. “Joseon’s rule has left a substantial legacy on the modern face of Korea much of modern Korean etiquette, cultural norms, societal attitudes towards current issues, and even the modern Korean language and its dialects stem from the traditional thought pattern that originated from this period.” from Wikipedia

Family legend has it that these relatives all had light golden brown eyes, very different from the dark brown eyes of most Asians. My husband and his siblings have these same colored eyes. His turn golden brown, almost hazel, when he is out all day in the sun. I don’t know if this is a genetic mutation á la hemophilia of the European monarchy or a result of mixing of blood through Russians who came to isolationist Korea during this time. My husband thinks he might have Russian blood but we’ll never know!

If you want to learn more about Korean history, here’s a good link.

Children’s Literature

Dear Juno by Soyung Pak [picture book, ages 4-9]

Dear Junois another gem that, while it focuses on a Korean American experience, it transcends Asian American children’s literature and speaks to anyone who has family in another country that speaks another language that our kids do not understand. I have a post on it here.

A Single Shard by Linda Sue Park [chapter book for ages 8-12]

Newbery award-winning book about a famous potter during the Golden Age of Korea. I have a Top 10 List of Korean American Children’s Books here.

Seesaw Girl by Linda Sue Park [chapter book for ages 8-12]

A glimpse into the lives of the nobility during the Golden Age of Korea and the restrictions placed on women.

Korean Celadon Pottery

These are examples of contemporary Korean Celadon pottery and are for sale. To examine more closely, just click on image of photo.

Chests of Korea’s Chosun Dynasty

These chests are highly collectible largely due to the fact that many were burned for firewood during the Korean War. There simply are not many of these left so if you are thinking of getting one, beware of fakes. Here’s more information on the chests from KoreanMosiac.net:

The chests presented here are the bandaji, jang, ham, i nong. (For information on the pronunciation of Korean, see the box “Romanization,” below.) The bandaji was used for storing clothing, documents and valuables inside, and bedding on top during the day (which explains why it is called a “blanket chest” in English). It has one door, which usually runs the entire width of the chest and opens down from the very top. The jang has from one to three levels (rarely a fourth) in one frame, with two outward-opening doors in the center of each level. The ham was a box for items of special significance. The nong was basically a box, usually stacked with another exactly the same and set on a base but occasionally placed separately.

Kalbi or Bulgogi Marinade for Beef, Chicken or Fish

This is my mother-in-law’s recipe and she’s a really great cook. I don’t know anyone who doesn’t love Korean BBQ beef. My mother-in-law says that you can also use it for chicken or fish and that you can bbq the meat or braise it in the marinade. Versatile AND delicious!

For Kalbi. Kalbi is the short rib cut across the bone into strips. You can only find this cut at a Korean market but it’s worth hunting down. The secret is to 1) wash the meat carefully and then dry it because there are bone shards littered about on the meat and 2) sprinkle regular granulated sugar over each strip (the ways you’d salt a steak) on each side and leave to marinade for an hour or so. Add the meat with the juices to the rest of the marinade. Let it marinade for a few hours and then bbq on a grill. Njam!

For Bulgogi. Bulgogi is very thinly sliced beef and again, you have to buy it from a Korean Market. It’s great for a fast meal because you don’t have to marinade the meat for very long and it cooks up quickly. You can use Bulgogi for Bee Bim Bop or rolled up sushi style in Gim-Gahp or just eat with rice.

Kalbi Marinade

1/2 cup soy sauce (we use Kikoman’s and the brand of soy sauce does make a difference!)

2 tablespoons of finely minced garlic (use fresh and not from a jar please! Mash garlic with flat of a knife and then mince finely)

1/4 cup finely minced green onions (also called scallions). My mother-in-law julienne’s each green onion (after washing carefully to remove dirt) into about 4 long lengths, then minces this finely.

1-2 tablespoons sesame seed oil (the Asian variety. It should be nut brown and smell fragrant)

2 tablespoons sugar (white granulated is fine)

1) Wash beef strips, trim fat and dry.

2) Sprinkle sugar on beef — an additional 6 tablespoons and mix thoroughly.

3) Combine rest of marinade ingredients in a large bowl. Add the liquid from the beef in sugar.

4) Dip beef into marinade one at a time and lay in a pan.

5) Leave to marinade for an hour or more refrigerated.

6) Cook on a grill until done. Serve with rice.

To examine any of the items listed, please click on image of item. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.

BEST #OWNVOICES CHILDREN’S BOOKS: My Favorite Diversity Books for Kids Ages 1-12 is a book that I created to highlight books written by authors who share the same marginalized identity as the characters in their books.


Song Dynasty Ceramics

Chinese ceramics of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) constitute perhaps the foremost expression of ceramic art, not only in China but in the entire world. During the Song period, a unity of the essential components fundamental to the art: vessel shape, potting techniques, glaze, decoration, firing processes, and aesthetic theory were all combined in a high standard of excellence.

In general, the shapes of Song Dynasty are simple and sedate by comparison to what preceded them and what was to follow. Likewise, the glazes tend to be monochromatic and subtle, a fluid, integral part of the form of the vessel they cover, with a depth of color and texture that invites the spectator to both touch and contemplate.

Song aesthetic sophistication was matched by an incredible inventiveness, which led to a variety of classic wares, usually associated with a specific region of China. These included the court-patronized five famous kilns: Ru (汝), Guan (官), Ge (哥), Jun (鈞), Ding (定) wares as well as the Longquan (龍泉) celadons. There are also the more pedestrian kilns, such as Cizhou ware (磁州窯), Yaozhou ware (耀州窯), and Jianyang ware (建陽窯). Several of these regional ceramic wares were so valued during their day that they were used as tribute and yearly taxes to the imperial court. In terms of technical expertise, inventiveness, and aesthetic perfection of glaze and shape, the Song period stands unrivaled for the quality of its ceramic ware.


Gledaj video: Tupeská keramika


Komentari:

  1. Fenribar

    This is the very precious coin

  2. Akinokus

    Sjecat cu te se! s tobom ću se računati!

  3. Gardabei

    kako slatko kažeš

  4. Alvaro

    Po mom mišljenju, griješite. mogu to dokazati.

  5. Janyl

    Vrlo dobro.



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