7 smrtonosnih katastrofa u okolišu

7 smrtonosnih katastrofa u okolišu


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1. Posuda za prašinu

Oko Prvog svjetskog rata posjednici su se masovno slijevali u južne Velike ravnice, gdje su domaću travu koja je zadržala gornji sloj tla zamijenili pšenicom i drugim usjevima. Izbjegavajući održive poljoprivredne prakse, poput plodoreda, uspjeli su ubrati velike žetve tijekom vlažnih godina 1920 -ih. No, kada je tridesetih godina prošlog stoljeća nastupila dugotrajna suša, sada nagrizano tlo i siromašno hranjivim tvarima počelo se dizati u ogromne oblake prašine koji su opustošili krajolik. Dok je jedna "crna mećava" padala jedna za drugom, štetne čestice prašine nakupljale su se u plućima ljudi, uzrokujući stotine smrti i razbolevši se tisućama. Mrtva stoka i divlje životinje razbacani su po tlu. Do kraja suše, do jedne trećine najugroženijih vlasnika kuća pobjeglo je iz južnih ravnica na zelenije pašnjake.

2. Veliki smog

Kako je krajem 1952. London zahvatila snažna hladnoća, njegovi su stanovnici koristili neobično velike količine ugljena za zagrijavanje svojih domova. Čađa se izlila iz njihovih dimnjaka, pomiješala se s emisijama tvornica i elektrana kako bi stvorila maglu mirisnog okusa koja se nadvila nad gradom od 5. do 9. prosinca Zarobljena vremenskim sustavom pod visokim tlakom, kao i nedostatak vjetra , ovaj otrovni gulaš smanjio je vidljivost blizu nule. Napušteni automobili nizali su ceste, kina su se zatvarala jer nitko nije mogao vidjeti ekran, a neki su ljudi čak slučajno naleteli na rijeku Temzu. Što je najgore, oko 4.000 Londonaca umrlo je od respiratornih tegoba u tih nekoliko dana, a do 8.000 bi više podleglo u narednim mjesecima. Nedavna istraživanja pokazuju da su oni u maternici u vrijeme takozvanog Velikog smoga 1952. odrasli lošije u školi i imali su manju vjerojatnost da će zadržati posao od svojih vršnjaka.

3. Minamata bolest

Početkom 1950 -ih, stanovnici Minamata, malog obalnog grada na jugu Japana, počeli su promatrati zapanjujuće ponašanje životinja. Mačke bi se odjednom pjenile na ustima, divlje igrale i bacale se u more, dok bi ptice padale na kopno, a ribe bi neobjašnjivo išle trbuhom. Ubrzo su i ljudi patili od onog što je postalo poznato kao Minamata bolest, nejasno govoreći, teturaju i imaju problema s jednostavnim zadacima, poput gumba za zakopčavanje. Krivac se napokon pojavio 1959. godine, kada je utvrđeno da je kemijska tvrtka Chisso Corporation, jedan od najvećih poslodavaca u Minamati, ispuštala živu u more u sklopu svog proizvodnog procesa i da je taj otrov otrovao ljude (i životinje) koji su jeli domaći plodovi mora. Chisso je nastavio ispuštati otpadnu vodu obojenu živom do 1968., navodno uzrokujući najmanje 2.000 smrtnih slučajeva, kao i urođene mane, paralizu i druge bolesti.

4. Bhopal

U zoru 3. prosinca 1984. otrovni oblak plina metil izocijanata pobjegao je iz pogona pesticida Union Carbide u indijskom Bhopalu i brzo se proširio gradom. Povraćajući i dahćući zrak, oni koji nisu umrli u snu slijevali su se u nepripremljene bolnice ili očajnički pokušavali nadmašiti pare. Na ulicama su navodno nizali leševe pasa, ptica, krava i vodenih bizona. Istrage su kasnije otkrile niz prekršaja sigurnosti u tvornici, uključujući pokvarenu i zastarjelu opremu. Laks management je također igrao ulogu; nadzornik je, na primjer, navodno u trenutku krize pao na čaj, vjerujući da je to samo curenje vode. Iako se procjene razlikuju, vjeruje se da je otprilike 15.000 stanovnika Bhopala umrlo u nečemu što se često naziva najvećom industrijskom nesrećom u povijesti. Stotine tisuća dodatnih stanovnika pretrpjelo je nevolje u rasponu od gubitka pamćenja i oštećenja živaca do sljepoće i zatajenja organa. Do danas je mjesto tvornice, sada u vlasništvu Dow Chemical Company, i dalje jako zagađeno.

5. Černobilj

26. travnja 1986. godine, turbinsko ispitivanje na jednom od reaktora u nuklearnoj elektrani u Černobilu strašno se pokvarilo, što je dovelo do niza eksplozija koje su izbacile ogromne količine radioaktivnog materijala u atmosferu. Nesreća, koju su sovjetske vlasti pokušale zataškati, u početku je odnijela samo 31 život: dva radnika u pogonima koji su poginuli u eksplozijama, treći koji se navodno prebolio od srčanog udara i 28 prvih osoba koje su oboljele od akutnog sindroma zračenja tijekom užasno ranog faze čišćenja. Međutim, Černobil je također pokrenuo epidemiju raka štitnjače i vjerojatno uzrokovao i dodatne slučajeve raka. Godine 2005., panel koji podržavaju Ujedinjeni narodi izračunao je konačni broj smrtnih slučajeva do 4.000, dok su druge organizacije taj broj znatno povećale. Možda će stoljećima koja dolaze, zona isključenja, postavljena oko pogona nakon prisilne evakuacije desetaka tisuća stanovnika područja, biti izvan granica ljudskog stanovanja.

6. Kuvajtski naftni požari

Tražeći osvetu za svoj skori poraz, Saddam Hussein naredio je iračkim trupama koje su se povlačile da zapale oko 650 kuvajtskih naftnih bušotina na kraju rata u Perzijskom zaljevu 1991. godine. Uljani dimni pramenovi dizali su se visoko u nebo, zatamnjujući sunce i otežavajući disanje onima koji su izašli van. Jedan američki ekolog to je usporedio sa "stajanjem iza ispušnih cijevi stotina neispravnih dizelskih kamiona". U međuvremenu je crna kiša, mješavina prirodnih oborina i čestica dima, pala čak do Himalaja; stotine naftnih jezera do četiri centimetra duboko izbrisale su krajolik, kobno uvlačeći ptice koje su ih zamijenile za vodu; a sloj "betona", pijeska i šljunka u kombinaciji s uljem i čađom prekrivao je gotovo 5 posto teritorija Kuvajta. Do trenutka kada je u studenom ugašen posljednji požar, procijenjeno je da se izlilo milijardu do 1,5 milijardi barela nafte, a poginulo je više od 100 ljudi, uključujući 92 senegalska vojnika čiji se transportni avion srušio na nebu pocrnjelom od dima. Odmah nakon toga, Husein je pokrenuo novu ekološku katastrofu, isušujući ogromna močvarna područja južnog Iraka kako bi suzbio šiitsku pobunu.

7. Izlijevanje ulja BP

Dana 20. travnja 2010. eksplodirala je naftna platforma Deepwater Horizon, koja se nalazila daleko u Meksičkom zaljevu, ubivši 11 radnika, a ozlijedivši još nekoliko. Platforma, u vlasništvu izvođača bušotina na moru Transocean i pod zakupom naftnog diva BP, potonula je dva dana kasnije, uzrokujući curenje nafte koje bi izmaklo kontroli gotovo tri mjeseca. Prema američkoj vladi, oko 4,2 milijuna barela nafte na kraju je pobjeglo, kontaminirajući najmanje 43 300 četvornih kilometara oceana i 1300 kilometara obale od Teksasa do Floride. Smatra se najvećim slučajnim izlijevanjem morske nafte u povijesti, privremeno je desetkovao zaljevsku ribarsku i turističku industriju i ubio tisuće ptica, morskih kornjača i dupina. BP je u međuvremenu izdvojio desetke milijardi dolara troškova čišćenja, kazni i pravnih nagodbi.


Devet najsmrtonosnijih katastrofa koje je izazvao čovjek u posljednjih 50 godina

Svjetski dan zaštite okoliša Ujedinjenih naroda 5. lipnja nada se podizanju svijesti i poticanju djelovanja na zaštiti okoliša i sprječavanju katastrofe.

Nažalost, događaju se nesreće. Izlijevanje nafte, istjecanje otrovnog plina i vanpožarni požari nanijeli su razornu štetu okolišu i onima koji u njemu žive.

Evo devet ekoloških katastrofa u posljednjih 50 godina koje su nanijele pustoš ljudima, životinjama i okolišu.


Najgore ekološke katastrofe u svijetu koje uzrokuju tvrtke

Izlijevanje nafte u Meksičkom zaljevu jedna je od najgorih ekoloških katastrofa koje je stvorila tvrtka u povijesti. Voda i močvare su prljavi. Ljudi su mrtvi. Još uvijek čekamo žrtve divljih životinja i čudne bolesti.

Iznenađujuće, ove teme su poznate. Sve dok postoje rudnici i tvornice, oni su sjekli uglove kako bi uštedjeli novac, izlijevali curenje i ispuhali komponente. Posljedice su se kretale od znatiželjnih mirisa do bezbroj ljudskih smrti.

Sastavili smo najgore korporativne ekološke katastrofe na svijetu, od sredine 20. stoljeća do danas. Neke od ovih katastrofa traju već godinama. Drugi još uvijek nisu riješeni. I sve dok korporacije nastave kliziti kroz rupe u odgovornosti, BP neće biti natpis ovom podlom obrascu.

"Unatoč bogatstvu nafte u zemlji, veliki dio stanovništva Nigerije pati od nestašice goriva", napisao je reporter CNN -a 2006. nakon smrtonosne eksplozije u nigerijskom naftovodu ubivši 200 ljudi. Za najveću afričku regiju koja proizvodi naftu ta izjava govori sve.

Trajna katastrofa u delti Nigera, peti najveći izvor nafte u SAD-u, gotovo čini da trenutna katastrofa u Zaljevu izgleda nevino. Tamo je između 1970. i 2000. godine bilo 7.000 izlijevanja nafte, navodi BBC. To iznosi otprilike 300 izlijevanja godišnje, piše Newsdesk, a “ preko 13 milijuna barela nafte. To je ekvivalent jednog izlijevanja Exxona Valdeza svake godine tijekom 40 godina. ”

Eksplozije su česte. Najveći, 1998., ubio je 1.000 ljudi. Ipak, vlada nije uvukla kandže u ključni počinitelj Exxon Mobile, a nigerijski narod nije uspio iskrcati nijedno naselje. Loša infrastruktura, bez raspodjele bogatstva stanovnicima, te politički potresi drže regiju u stalnoj kataklizmi. Velike naftne kompanije ne smetaju –Shell okrivljuje militante za njihovo curenje i eksplozije. Dokle god tih stotina milijardi pokriva džepove oligarha i#8217 džepove, čini se da će delta Nigera ostati nesretna.

“Nitko ne zna kako smo trpjeli doživljavajući smrt tako blisko svakodnevno ... bogati i utjecajni su nam nanijeli nepravdu. Izgubili smo živote i oni ne mogu provesti dan u zatvoru? ”

Tako je rekla Hamidi Bi, koja je izrazila ogorčenje zbog oskudnih dvogodišnjih kazni izrečenih 7. lipnja 2010. sedmorici muškaraca koji su odgovorni za nesreću u tvornici pesticida Union Carbide 1984. godine, koja je oslobodila otrovne plinove u kojima je poginulo više od 5000 stanovnika (aktivisti procjenjuje se da je 25.000 umrlo). Procjenjuje se da 500.000 stanovnika i dalje pati od urođenih mana, sljepoće, rane menopauze i niza drugih iscrpljujućih stanja.

Tih sedam muškaraca je uz jamčevinu i vjerojatno nikada neće vidjeti unutrašnjost zatvorske ćelije. To je slučaj prelaska novca koji je počeo tog dana 1984. godine i odjekuje 25 godina kasnije. 1989. Union Carbide nevoljko je naplatio preko 470 milijuna dolara nagodbe. Dow Chemical, koji je 2001. kupio Union Carbide, smatra da je pravni slučaj riješen. To je vjerojatno razlog zašto Dow nastavlja ignorirati zahtjeve za izručenjem kako bi predstavio Warrena Ghoeghana, "glavnog osumnjičenika" u pravnom predmetu. ”

Nevjerojatno, ali indijska vlada i dalje negira da se na tom mjestu nalaze bilo kakve kemikalije, unatoč dokazima da kemikalije truju vodoopskrbnu mrežu Bhopal#8217. Dow nastavlja idiotsko oslobađanje od odgovornosti, dok se izvršni direktor Union Carbidea i dalje skriva. Budući da svi krupni ljudi uključeni u ovaj sramotni događaj sjedaju, provjerite Bhopal.net kako biste poduzeli akcije građana.

Od glumaca preko političara preko ekologa do ribara i običnih ljudi poput vas i mene, ljudi su jednom riječju "ljuti" na eksploziju naftne platforme Deep Horizon. Očigledno im je nad glavom da British Petroleum (BP) nije ništa bliže priključivanju izvora nego što je bio kada se prvi put dogodio u utorak, 20. travnja 2010.

U prvim danima nakon eksplozije, BP je pokušao smanjiti opseg štete. Zabilježeno je da je samo nekoliko litara dnevno curilo i da se ulažu svi napori da se to uključi i okonča ova katastrofa. Ono što BP naziva "nekoliko", od 8. lipnja 2010., bliže je između 20 i 40.000 dnevno.

Glumac Kevin Costner kune se da ima odgovor, predsjednik Barack Obama i dalje je "frustriran", Sarah "Caribou Barbie" Palin nekako vidi ekologe kao krivce za ovu katastrofu. U međuvremenu, ribarska industrija i divlje životinje bit će devastirani desetljećima.

Tko je kriv? Popis je predugačak za nabrajanje, ali ono što je sada važno jest može li BP shvatiti tehnologiju za uključivanje ove stvari, i to brzo!

Texaco je 1964. godine počeo bušiti u ekvadorskoj prašumi. Tvrtka je na kraju izvezla čak 220.000 barela dnevno u SAD.

Tijekom ove žurbe s crnim zlatom, Cofani, autohtoni ljudi koji piju, kupaju se i love u Amazoniji, počeli su primjećivati ​​smrad koji je dopirao iz vode. Texacov sustav otjecanja, u kojemu „zagađivači dolaze iz bazena kroz cijev u močvaru i močvara napaja rijeku iz koje Cofan uzima vodu, ” nije djelovao. Doista, 18 milijardi litara otjecanja pronađeno je u rijeci, što je#puta više od izlijevanja Exxon-Valdez.

Texaco je branio sustav otjecanja, rekavši da je to "unutar industrijskih standarda". Sada Amazonski obrambeni front uzvraća udarac zastupajući 30.000 tužitelja koji su umorni od štete na rijeci, čisteći iza Texaca i neobično visoku razinu raka koju su doživjeli. Od svibnja 2010. tražena je odšteta do 27 milijardi dolara.

Četrdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća tvrtka Hooker Chemical iz Niagarskih slapova počela je tražiti mjesto za odlaganje svoje "sve veće količine kemijskog otpada". Tvrtka Niagara Power and Development Company dala je Hookeru dopuštenje da iskrca svoje otrovno smeće u Ljubavni kanal, napušteni kanal rijeke Niagare koji se pretvorio u općinsko odlagalište. Tijekom 11 godina Hooker je na mjesto Love Canal izbacio 21.800 tona sintetike i kemijskih nusproizvoda. Nakon što je Hooker prestao bacati otpad, prekrili su mjesto prljavštinom. Na vrhu je rasla trava koja je skrivala štetnu kemiju postavljenu ispod.

Urbano širenje pogodilo je Niagaru otprilike u isto vrijeme. Programeri su pokušali izgraditi školu na vrhu smetlišta. Uvidjevši da ne mogu, izgradili su ga –i čitavo prigradsko naselje –blizu tog područja (djeci ipak treba sigurno okruženje za odrastanje).

O otpadu nitko nije progovorio ni riječi do 13 godina kasnije, sredinom 1970-ih. Novinarska istraga otkrila je da stanovnici predstavljaju sve od "alarmantne stope pobačaja do tumora i urođenih mana". Nakon mnogo gužve, stanovnici su napokon “savjetovani ” da se presele, prodaju svoje domove natrag vladi i pretvaraju se da se ništa nije dogodilo.

Hooker Chemical danas je podružnica američkog naftnog diva Oxy Petroleum. Godine 1995. Oxy je stanovnicima Love Canala isplatio 129 milijuna dolara odštete.

Godine 1956. japanska korporacija Chisso imala je običaj ispuštati živu u južni Japan i zaljev Minamata#8217. Kad su se pojavili dokazi da živa lokalnim stanovnicima izaziva neurološke probleme, Chisso je žestoko porekao nedjela. Zatim su krenuli u znatiželjnu kombinaciju PR -a i lova na vještice.

Evo kako je to funkcioniralo. Chisso je zaražene stanovnike nazvao siromašnima, neukima i nesposobnima za razumijevanje znanosti ili istraživanja. Chisso je zatražio pomoć liječnika čiji su džepovi bili podstavljeni kako bi potkrijepili svoje tvrdnje.

Godine na temu je izlagao američki fotograf W. Eugene Smith Life Magazine, obavještavajući svijet i japanski Vrhovni sud o stalnim trovanjima, prikrivanju i isplati. Iako bi Smith –Chisso bio neočekivan prekid karijere, unajmio je pripadnike Yakuze da "riješe ovo jednom zauvijek" – započeo je lančanu reakciju koja je nedavno kulminirala time što je Chisso obeštetio žrtve i obitelji#8217 za više od 80 milijuna dolara.


9 Minojska erupcijaOko 1500. pr

Minojska erupcija (poznata i kao Thera ili Santorini erupcija) dogodila se prije otprilike 3.500 godina i uništila je tadašnju minojsku civilizaciju i mediteranske kulture. Erupcija je bila između 6 i 7 na VEI -ju, gurnuvši oko 60 kubnih kilometara prašine i stijena u atmosferu.

Vulkanska eksplozija i tsunami koji su nastali izbrisali su mnoge zajednice u Akrotiriju, Kreti (Minojski), Cipru, Kanaanu, staroj Grčkoj, Egiptu i većini područja Egejskog mora. Rezultirajuća devastacija omogućila je mikenskoj civilizaciji da preuzme minojsku kulturu i spoji je sa svojom. [2]

Time je nastala prva napredna civilizacija u kontinentalnoj Grčkoj, sa svojim palatičkim državama, urbanom organizacijom, umjetničkim djelima i sustavom pisanja. Također je najavio prve korake prema našim modernim kulturama i razvoju grčkog jezika Koine, jezika izvorne Biblije.

U to vrijeme sam je događaj imao odjeka u cijelom svijetu. U Kini, vulkanski zimski učinak erupcije There odgovara raspadu dinastije Xia, dopuštajući tako uspon dinastije Shang. The Anali od bambusa opišite to vrijeme kao & ldquožutu maglu, prigušeno Sunce, zatim tri Sunca, mraz u srpnju, glad i uvenuće svih pet žitarica. & rdquo

U Egiptu postoje dokazi koji ukazuju na to da je nesreća najavila kraj Drugog srednjeg razdoblja. Apokaliptične oluje, klimatske promjene i tsunami bili su bogovi način na koji su iskazivali nezadovoljstvo ovim razdobljem, što je rezultiralo razdobljem Novog kraljevstva i drevnog Egipta najbogatijim vremenom, kao i vrhuncem svoje moći.


Najgore ekološke katastrofe u 2020. i kako su klimatske promjene imale ulogu

U godinu dana katastrofa bez presedana, velik dio štete nanesene našem planetu 2020. godine sam je nanio.

Od razornih izlijevanja nafte u osjetljivim područjima do smrtonosnih požara koji su zahvatili rekordnu površinu do propadlih brana koje su poplavile čitave gradove, najgore ekološke katastrofe u godini pokazale su utjecaj ljudi.

Taj utjecaj je jasno očit kada tanker zaleti u koraljni greben i prolije tisuće barela nafte. Manje je očito kada su klimatske promjene faktor iza divljih požara u zapadnim SAD -u i Australiji.

Posebno u Kaliforniji, globalno zagrijavanje uzrokovano ljudima, odluke o gospodarenju šumama i suzbijanju požara te proširenju domova i poduzeća na manje razvijena područja zajedno su učinile požarnu sezonu 2020. jednom od najrazornijih u zabilježenoj povijesti.

"Čovječanstvo vodi rat protiv prirode", rekao je António Guterres, glavni tajnik Ujedinjenih naroda, prema Guardianu. & quotOvo je samoubilačko. Priroda uvijek uzvraća udarac - i to već čini sa sve većom snagom i bijesom. Bioraznolikost se urušava. Milijunu vrsta prijeti izumiranje. Ekosustavi nestaju pred našim očima. ... Ljudske su aktivnosti korijen našeg silaska prema kaosu. Ali to znači da ljudsko djelovanje može pomoći da se to riješi. & Quot

U nastavku je detaljniji pregled nekih od najgorih ekoloških katastrofa 2020.

Izlijevanje nafte u arktičkoj regiji Rusije

Ruski predsjednik Vladimir Putin proglasio je izvanredno stanje nakon što se 29. svibnja u elektrani u sibirskom gradu Norilsku, iznad Sjevernog polarnog kruga, iz srušenog skladišnog spremnika izlilo oko 125.000 barela (20.000 tona) dizelskog goriva. Nafta je tekla u rijeku Ambarnaya i postala grimizna. Rijeka se hrani jezerom Pyasino, koje se ulijeva u drugu rijeku koja vodi do Sjevernog ledenog okeana. Nafta je također kontaminirala rijeku Daldykan.

Bivši zamjenik šefa ruskog nadzornika okoliša Rosprirodnadzora, Oleg Mitvol, rekao je da se "nikada nije dogodila takva nesreća u arktičkoj zoni", prema BBC.com. Rekao je da bi čišćenje moglo koštati 1,5 milijardi dolara i trajati čak 10 godina.

Rosprirodnadzor je potvrdio da je jezero Pyasino kontaminirano i zatražio je od Nornickel, tvrtke koja je vlasnik tvornice, da plati rekordne dvije milijarde dolara odštete, izvijestio je CNN.

Tvrtka je rekla da je za izlijevanje krivo odmrzavanje vječnog leda uzrokovano klimatskim promjenama.

& quotUpravo sada možemo pretpostaviti. da je zbog nenormalno blagih ljetnih temperatura zabilježenih posljednjih godina vječni mraz mogao da se otopi, a stupovi ispod platforme mogli potonuti ", rekao je glavni operativni direktor Nornickela, Sergey Dyachenko, prema CNN -u.

Čelnik ruskog Ministarstva prirodnih resursa također je naveo vjerojatni uzrok odmrzavanja vječnog leda.

"Još istražujemo, ali postoji velika vjerojatnost da je to posljedica odmrzavanja tla zbog klimatskih promjena koje se događaju u arktičkoj zoni", rekao je ministar prirodnih resursa i ekologije Dmitrij Kobylkin, prema izvješću zaklada Bellona, ​​organizacija za zaštitu okoliša.

Konsenzus među znanstvenicima je da se Arktik zagrijavao po stopi dvostruko većoj od globalnog prosjeka u posljednjih 30 godina, izvijestio je BBC.com. Služba za klimatske promjene Copernicus rekla je da su temperature u Sibiru početkom godine bile veće od prosjeka - do 18 stupnjeva više od normalnog u svibnju.

Ipak, ekolozi tvrde da Nornickel ima povijest ekoloških nesreća i da se oslanjao na zastarjelu opremu.

& quotOsnovni uzrok nije toliko važan. Važnija je brzina reakcije i kako se (Nornickel) odnosi prema takvim incidentima. Ovdje je otkriven cijeli kompleks sustavnih problema ", rekao je Simon Kalmykov, član Zaklade Bellona.

Većina prolivenog dizelskog goriva je očišćena, prema Nornickelu, a preostalo gorivo je lokalizirano. Više od 9 milijuna litara goriva pomiješano s vodom prikupljeno je i uskladišteno dok se ne može odvojiti, rekla je tvrtka. Također je očišćeno oko 104 hektara oko rijeke Ambarnaya.

Svjetski fond za zaštitu divljih vrsta u Rusiji rekao je da bi otrovne kemikalije koje ostavlja dizelsko gorivo mogle utjecati na regiju u sljedećim desetljećima. Izlijevanje ne prijeti samo ribama, već i pticama te stadu divljih sobova, priopćio je WWF. Starosjedioci na području Taymyra oslanjaju se na sobove za život.

& quotNesreća. će imati katastrofalne učinke na prirodu i moglo bi proći godinama da se oporavi. WWF dijeli zabrinutost autohtonog stanovništva. Dugo smo izrazili zabrinutost zbog posljedica takvih nesreća. Izuzetno je hitno da savezna vlada poduzme mjere kako bi spriječila daljnje širenje otrovnog goriva. Također je potrebno proučiti pitanje kako podržati autohtone manjine Taymyra koje se bave tradicionalnim upravljanjem prirodom na svom izvornom području ", rekao je Sergey Verkhovets, koordinator arktičkih projekata u WWF -u u Rusiji.

Alexey Knizhnikov, voditelj Programa za poslovnu odgovornost prema okolišu pri WWF -u u Rusiji, rekao je: "Zaustavljanje daljnjeg širenja važno je, ali otrovni će elementi i dalje biti u rijeci i jezeru. Ovakvo izlijevanje uopće se nije smjelo dogoditi. (Nornickel 's) starenje infrastrukture u kombinaciji s brzo odmrzavanjem vječnog leda u regiji naglašava potrebu da se tvrtke na Arktiku preusmjere na alternativne izvore energije. & Quot

Izlijevanje nafte na Mauricijusu

25. srpnja japanski brod Wakashio napustio je redoviti brodski kanal i nasukao se na koraljni greben kod otoka Mauricijus u Indijskom oceanu. Dana 6. kolovoza prizemljeni brod počeo je propuštati naftu. Izlila je ekvivalent više od 7400 barela nafte u netaknutu lagunu, usmrtivši mnoštvo morskih stvorenja.

& quotOvo izlijevanje nafte dogodilo se u jednom, ako ne i najosjetljivijem području na Mauricijusu, rekao je Reutersu oceanograf i inženjer zaštite okoliša Vassen Kauppaymuthoo. "Govorimo o desetljećima za oporavak od ove štete, a neki se možda nikada neće oporaviti."

Operater broda,#Mitsui O.S.K. Lines je rekao da je Wakashio prevozio oko 3.800 tona (gotovo 24.000 barela) loživog ulja s vrlo malo sumpora i 200 tona dizelskog ulja, izvijestio je CNN.

Od 7400 barela nafte koja je iscurila iz spremnika goriva broda, operater je rekao da je oko 2900 barela ručno izvađeno iz mora i obale. Francuska i japanska posada uspjele su ukloniti većinu goriva koje je ostalo na brodu Wakashio, izvijestio je BBC.com, prije nego što se brod raspao 15. kolovoza.

Nafta se prostirala na više od 18 milja otočne države i obale dužine 217 milja.

Mangrove-čiji korijeni pružaju rasadnike morskog života, poput mekušaca, rakova i ribe-bile su pokrivene, rekla je Jacqueline Sauzier, predsjednica neprofitnog Društva za očuvanje mora Mauricijus, za časopis Nature. Kemikalije iz nafte mogu prodrijeti u koralje i morsku travu, rekao je Sauzier.

Te bi kemikalije mogle utjecati i na kritično ugrožene ružičaste golubove koji žive na otoku Île aux Aigrettes, malom otoku u blizini olupine.

Ekolozi su također rekli da su deseci dupina prali mrtve u mjesecu nakon izlijevanja. Vlada je prikupljala leševe, ali rezultati obdukcija nisu objavljeni.

"Nikada nećemo znati treba li itko odgovarati za smrt 50 kitova i dupina ako nema javnih informacija", rekla je Happy Khambule, viša voditeljica kampanje za klimu i energiju Greenpeacea u Africi. & quotUmjesto da kupuju vrijeme i smiruju javnost, vlasti na Mauricijusu trebale bi steći njegovo povjerenje otkrivanjem svega što znaju. & quot

Izlijevanje je utjecalo i na mnoge ribare koji su se već borili zbog pandemije COVID-19.

& quotPostoji zajednica od 15.000 ljudi koji žive zajedno i pate zajedno s divljim životinjama ovog malog kutka Mauricijusa, & quot; Adam Moolna, predavač okoliša i održivosti na Sveučilištu Keele u Engleskoj i Mauritian, rekao je za Independent.

Mauricijus, zemlja s 1,3 milijuna stanovnika, uvelike se oslanja na turizam i more. Turizam čini 8,6% nacionalnog gospodarstva i zapošljava 10% radnika, prema Svjetskoj oceanskoj inicijativi. Više od 9% prihoda od izvoza dolazi od industrije plodova mora, što čini 1,3% gospodarstva.

Mitsui O.S.K. Lines je pristao osigurati najmanje 9,4 milijuna dolara za ekološke projekte i podržati lokalne ribarske zajednice, izvijestio je Glas Amerike. Fond za oporavak prirodnog okoliša Mauricijusa pomogao bi u obnovi koraljnog grebena i zaštiti mangrova, morskih ptica i rijetkih vrsta.

Vlasnik broda, japanska Nagashiki Shipping, izjavila je početkom studenog kako bi čišćenje trebalo uglavnom biti završeno do siječnja, izvijestio je Reuters.

Nakon što se Wakashio raspao, prednji dio broda izvučen je u more i potonuo, unatoč molbama ekologa da bi potonuće broda moglo prouzročiti dodatnu štetu.

"Potapanje ovog plovila moglo bi ugroziti nekoliko vrsta kitova i zagađivati ​​ocean velikim količinama toksina teških metala, prijeteći i drugim područjima, osobito francuskom otoku La Réunion", navodi se u priopćenju Greenpeace Africa.

Krma ostaje položena na koraljnom grebenu. Nagashiki Shipping rekao je da će uklanjanje krme započeti krajem prosinca i trajati nekoliko mjeseci.

Kapetan broda uhićen je i optužen za ugrožavanje sigurne plovidbe, izvijestio je BBC.com. Članovi posade rekli su policiji da je na dan kada se nasukao na brodu bila rođendanska zabava. Istražitelji su također istraživali tvrdnje da je brod plovio blizu obale kako bi uhvatio Wi-Fi signal, prema BBC.com.

Vlada Mauricijusa rekla je da je zemlja pretrpjela 30 milijuna dolara štete kao posljedica izlijevanja, prema Glasu Amerike. Mauricijski dužnosnici rekli su da će zemlja tražiti odštetu od Nagashiki Shippinga i njenog osiguravatelja, iako ugovor ograničava koliko bi zemlja mogla prikupiti.

Japanska vlada također razmatra neki oblik ekonomske pomoći Mauricijusu, izvijestio je Nikkei Asia. Ministar vanjskih poslova Toshimitsu Motegi rekao je tijekom posjeta zemlji 14. prosinca da će Japan "kvotutivno razmotriti" zahtjev Mauricijusa za#289 milijuna dolara zajmova za pomoć pri oporavku od izlijevanja, izvijestio je Japan Times. Japan također radi na paketu pomoći koji bi uključivao potporu ribarskoj industriji i obnovu oštećenih mangrova.

Izlijevanje venezuelske nafte

Izlijevanje nafte dvostruko veće od onog na Mauricijusu koje se početkom kolovoza izbacilo na obalu u Nacionalnom parku Morrocoy u Venezueli i pokvarilo je 9 milja tog područja s bijelim pješčanim plažama i ugrozilo osjetljive divlje životinje.

Ekolozi, koji su rekli da su 2. kolovoza prvi put primijetili naftu kako pluta u Karipskom moru uz sjeverozapadnu obalu zemlje,#upozorenja, upozorili su da bi to moglo oštetiti važna močvarna područja parka i koraljne grebene na moru, izvijestio je BBC.com. Autoritarna vlada Venezuele ponudila je malo informacija o izlijevanju.

Nezavisni istraživači i oporbeni zastupnici rekli su da je najvjerojatnije došlo iz rafinerije nafte El Palito kojom upravlja naftna kompanija PDVSA u državnom vlasništvu, navodi Reuters. Satelitski snimci su 22. srpnja u blizini rafinerije pokazali gladak 3,5 milja dug i 1 milju širok. Istraživači su procijenili da sadrži 26.700 barela nafte.

"Predviđamo da bi negativne posljedice na ekosustave i njihove komponente mogle trajati 50 ili više godina", rekla je Julia Alvarez, biologinja iz venezuelskog ekološkog društva SVE.

Eduardo Klein, direktor Laboratorija za daljinske senzore na Universidad Simón Bolívar, rekao je da je izlijevanje prvo od tri velika izlijevanja nafte iz El Palita ovog ljeta i jeseni, izvijestili su Caracas Chronicles.

Samuel Berti, koji 30 godina peca u Puerto Cabellu, rekao je za Caracas Chronicles da je izvlačio ribu iz vode s uljem koje im je izlazilo iz usta.

Izlijevanja su među nekoliko nedavnih incidenata koji uključuju venezuelsku industriju koja se raspada, izvijestio je Washington Post. U rujnu je nafta potekla u more kod Venezuele iz napuklog podvodnog cjevovoda iz rafinerije Cardón, koju je PDVSA pokušala ponovno pokrenuti. Drugi cjevovod izbacio je prirodni plin u more.

U zaljevu Paria, na sjeveroistoku Venezuele, FSO Nabarima, hrđavo skladišno plovilo s 1,3 milijuna barela sirove nafte, preuzima vodu. Aktivisti, antivladini naftni radnici i analitičari zabrinuti su da bi brod mogao potonuti i stvoriti veliku ekološku katastrofu u Karipskom moru.

Matthew Smith, koji piše o nafti i plinu, rudarstvu i infrastrukturi za OilPrice.com, kaže kako će se količina izlijevanja i drugih ekoloških incidenata povezanih s naftnom industrijom Venezuele nastaviti povećavati.

& quotS obzirom da se financijski pritisci na Caracas povećavaju zbog posljedica pandemije COVID-19, znatno slabijih cijena nafte i strogih američkih sankcija, financiranje vitalnih aktivnosti održavanja nafte nastavit će se smanjivati. To znači da će se ionako jako propala naftna infrastruktura nastaviti raspadati, uzrokujući povećanje količine izlijevanja nafte, curenja i drugih incidenata štetnih po okoliš. Oni ne samo da štete okolišu, već i oštro utječu na život i zdravlje svakodnevnih Venezuelaca koji su već zarobljeni usred jedne od najgorih humanitarnih kriza 21. stoljeća. & Quot

Šumski požari u SAD -u

Nacionalni međuagencijski vatrogasni centar izvještava da je od 4. prosinca u SAD -u bilo 52.934 požara koji su ove godine izgorjeli 14.905 četvornih kilometara. To je dva puta veće od kopnene površine države New Jersey i drugo je najveće područje spaljeno u posljednjih 10 godina.

Oregon saw nine people killed and over 4,000 homes destroyed as 1,908 square miles burned in more than 2,000 wildfires.

Colorado saw three of its largest wildfires in state history this year. They forced tens of thousands of people to evacuate. The largest, the Cameron Peak Fire, began on Aug. 13 and burned 326 square miles before being contained on Dec. 5, according to InciWeb. Its cause is being investigated.

The East Troublesome Fire, which started Oct. 14, consumed 302 square miles and killed two people. Its cause is still being investigated. The third-largest, the Pine Gulch Fire, started by a lightning strike, burned more than 217 square miles.

However, no state saw as much wildfire destruction this year as California. Five of the six largest wildfires in the state's history happened in 2020. The largest, the August Complex Fire, burned 1,615 square miles, more than twice the acreage burned by the second-largest fire, according to Cal Fire. Overall, 9,639 wildfires consumed more than 6,527 square miles this year in California. The fires killed 33 people and destroyed or damaged more than 10,000 structures.

"Climate change is having a big role in California's wildfires, and this year puts a cap on the exceptional trend in wildfires we've seen in recent decades," Zeke Hausfather, a climate scientist and energy systems analyst, told weather.com. "We actually have slightly fewer fires in California than we had in the 1980s in terms of the number of fires, but our typical fire today burns about five times more area than it burned in the 1980s."

The huge fires are happening because conditions on the ground have changed, Hausfather said.

"When a spark happens, it's much more likely to catch and to spread rapidly into a major fire," he said.

Two factors play into that: drier vegetation (fuel aridity), driven by changes in precipitation, which hasn't changed all that much, and changes in temperature, which have increased during the fire season, especially in California, he explained.

In addition, California's forest ecosystem naturally adapted to burn every few decades, which clears out the underbrush that fuels big fires. But the forest service has done a "zealous job of extinguishing almost every fire they can manage since the 1920s or so," Hausfather said. That has created a degree of fuel buildup that means once fires do occur, they can grow faster.

"They can be much more devastating than if our forests were in a condition where they had more frequent low-level burns," he said. "It's the combination of those two things: a history of fire suppression leading to fuel build-up and drier vegetation from climate change that are driving the record areas burned we've seen in recent years."

Noah Diffenbaugh, a climate scientist at Stanford University, pointed out that there are multiple contributors to individual wildfires and wildfire risk overall, including the weather, ignition sources, where and how structures are built and how fuels are managed. What's important is how changes in any one of these affect the risk overall, he said.

"With respect to climate change, the area burned in the Western U.S. has increased around tenfold over the past four decades," Diffenbaugh told weather.com. "Careful study shows that about half of that increase in area burned is attributable to long-term warming via the effect of that warming on the fuel aridity."

In a research paper published this summer, Diffenbaugh and his colleagues found that the frequency of extreme wildfire weather in California has more than doubled in the last four decades.

"Days with extreme wildfire weather are much more likely to contribute to large areas burned," said Diffenbaugh. "Long-term warming is driving that increase in extreme wildfire weather days via vegetation aridity."

These conditions are likely to continue, he said, and Hausfather agrees.

"The one really pernicious aspect of climate change is it's not easily reversible," Hausfather said. "Even if I could wave a magic wand and bring all global emissions down to zero tomorrow, temperatures would still remain as they are right now. The best we can hope for is that the current conditions we see in the Western U.S. in terms of dry vegetation are the new normal and it doesn't get worse."

Both scientists also said more resources need to be devoted to forest management and other efforts to reduce the risk of wildfire.

"If this is the new normal in terms of area burned each year, a lot of these forests aren't going to be able to regrow to the level of density or maturity they were in the past," Hausfather said.

Diffenbaugh said, "We're in a 'once in our history' experiment observing the succession of these forests. They're growing back in a new climate. It's yet to be seen how that unfolds."


"Sea Islands" Hurricane - August 27-28, 1893

Estimated death toll: 1000 - 2000
It is estimated that the "Great Storm of 1893" that struck the southern South Carolina and northern Georgia coast was at least a Category 4 storm, but there is no way of knowing​ since measures of hurricane intensity weren't measured for storms before 1900. The storm killed an estimated 1,000 - 2,000 people, mostly from storm surge affecting the low-lying barrier "Sea Islands" off the Carolina coast.


The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused thousands of animal casualties.

While drilling a deep exploratory well in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, the rig known as Deepwater Horizon exploded.

Reports from five years after the disaster estimate that over 800,000 birds, 65,000 turtles, 12% of the area's brown pelican population, and four times as many dolphins than the previous historic rates had died. A reported 10% of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill sank to the seafloor, affecting the seafloor for years to come, according to experts.


Environmental disasters across world in 2020

FILE PHOTO

The year 2020 saw many environmental disasters that have fueled climate change and vice versa across the world, including tropical storms, hurricanes, landslides, and deadly floodings caused by heavy rains.

Thousands of people have been killed and millions of more have been displaced due to these disasters as well as states of calamity announced in different countries.

The following are the major global environmental disasters of 2020 compiled by Anadolu Agency:

- Flash floods in Jakarta, Indonesia in the early hours of the first day of 2020 after overnight rain dumps nearly 400 millimeters of rain, leaving at least 66 dead, and displacing 60,000 in the worst flooding in the area since 2007.

- At least 41 people are killed in two days in Pakistan due to heavy snow.

- Taal Volcano in the Philippines affects nearly 400,000 authorities declare a state of calamity in Batangas, Cavite provinces.

- Deadly heavy rain and floods kill thousands of people, displace more than 30,000 others in southeast Brazil.

- Pyroclastic flows reach 900 meters (3,000 feet) southwest of the crater, while ash and smoke spew 7,000 meters (2,300 feet) after a volcanic eruption in Japan&rsquos Mt. Shindake.

- At least 41 people die after two avalanches in Turkey's eastern Van province.

- Swarms of deadly desert locusts, accelerated by climate change, enter Uganda after ravaging parts of Kenya and causing food shortages.

- The worst of Storm Ciara abates in central Europe after near-hurricane winds have battered the region while Scandinavian countries, as well as Switzerland, France, Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Germany continue to experience downpours and high winds.

- Rivers overflowed cause widespread flooding in Iran's Lorestan province after heavy rain on Feb. 24 leaves roads damaged, bridges destroyed and numerous villages cut off.

- At least 19 people die in the US state of Tennessee as a result of a heavy tornado that also causes major damage to buildings, roads, bridges, utilities, and businesses.

- The death toll in Rwanda rises to 53 from floods caused by heavy rains over the past two months. The floods destroy over 800 houses, damage 23 roads and 17 bridges, and nearly 500 acres of agricultural land.

- More than 3,000 houses, as well as 6,600 hectares of farms, are swept away by floods in Tanzania's Coast region.

- A strong storm in the southern Mersin province of Turkey destroys tens of thousands of almond trees.

- More than 700,000 people in different parts of Zambia are affected by floods that also leave many people in 28 districts in need of relief food.

- The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) warns that much of southern England and Wales will be hit by high levels of air pollution in the month.

- Indonesia&rsquos Anak Krakatau volcano, between Java and Sumatra islands in Lampung province, erupts, spewing ash columns up to 500 meters (1,640 feet) above the craters.

- The death toll from flooding in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo rises to 40.

- Authorities in Afghanistan warn that more than 7 million people are still at risk as at least 56 people die from severe flooding over the past weeks.

- Thousands of people are displaced and affected by flooding and mudslides in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions, northern Tanzania, over the last past days.

- A dam partially collapses due to heavy rain in eastern Uzbekistan, affecting 70,000 people. The waters wash away hundreds of houses.

- Mudslide kills at least 45 miners in the northwestern Grand Cape Mount County of Liberia.

- Heavy rainfall caused by Typhoon Vongfong in Samar Island in the Philippines destroys homes and displaces over 140,000 people.

- Cyclone Amphan, which forces displacement of 3 million people in India and Bangladesh, claims at least 88 lives.

- The death toll from floods pounding the East African nation of Kenya rises to 285. Nearly one million people are affected, announces the government.

- An eruption at Sangay Volcano in Ecuador&rsquos Amazon region leaves several cities covered in ash.

- At least 63 people are killed or missing, while nearly half a million people are displaced, as heavy rains continue to lash southern China.

- Three Gorges Dam in China, the world's largest dam, is at risk of collapse amid historic floods that also put more than 400 million people&rsquos lives at risk.

- A huge cloud of Saharan dust moves from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean and darkens the skies over parts of the Caribbean.

- At least 83 people are killed in lightning strikes in India&rsquos eastern state of Bihar, as monsoon storms hit the country.

- Torrential rains, defined by the country&rsquos meteorological agency as &ldquoonce-in-50-years,&rdquo hit Japan&rsquos Nagasaki.

- At least 110 miners are killed in a landslide caused by heavy rain at a jade mine in the state of Kachin, northern Myanmar.

- Landslides caused by heavy monsoon rain kill at least 60 people and leave over 40 missing in Nepal.

- Tens of thousands of residents are left without electricity as a severe storm and heavy rain hits western Russia, forcing a state of emergency to be declared in Saratov's St. Petersburg area.

- With over 80 people dying in floods in northeastern India and 2.4 million people feeling the impact, more than 100 animals, including 11 one-horned rhinos, also die at Kaziranga park in Assam state.

- At least 119 people die in Bangladesh due to floods caused by monsoon rains and an onrush of river waters from upstream India.

- Landslides and floods caused by heavy rains kill at least 30 people in Suleja city and Gwagwalada area in the Nigerian capital Abuja.

- At least 49 people are killed in a massive landslide in the southern Indian state of Kerala.

- The Sinabung volcano on Indonesia's Sumatra Island erupts spewing ash and smoke 2,000 meters (6,600 feet) above its crater.

- The first typhoon of the season lands in South Korea and is on its way northeast.

- Death toll from floods caused by heavy rains in Yemen rises to 174.

- Death toll from flooding in Turkey's Black Sea province of Giresun rises to 11.

- At least 50 artisanal miners are killed when a gold mine collapses in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo due to landslides caused by heavy rains.

- Hurricane Sally makes landfall on the US Gulf Coast, bringing life-threatening flooding to parts of the Florida panhandle and Alabama.

- At least three people die in hurricane-like "medicane" (Mediterranean hurricane) storm that hits Greece.

- Turkey's largest city Istanbul is hit by hail and heavy rain, causing floods and disrupting traffic.

- At least 31 people are killed and more than a dozen are missing in rain-related incidents in Vietnam and Cambodia.

Oct. 14:
- At least 15 people are killed in the south Indian state of Telangana due to incessant rains.

- At least 39 people die, thousands displaced in flooding in Cambodia.

- Vietnam mobilizes at least 250,000 troops and 2,300 vehicles to combat Typhoon Molave, the "worst storm" facing the country in at least two decades.

- One person dies due to a partial tsunami in Izmir's coastal district of Seferihisar following a magnitude 6.6 earthquake shaking Turkey's Aegean region.

- At least 3,300 homes in Napier, New Zealand are hit by floods, landslides and power outages caused by the heaviest downpour in the country in 57 years.

- Tropical Storm Eta heads to the north of the Yucatan Channel after killing at least 200 people in landslides in Central America and the Caribbean.

- Seasonal Deyr rains, which hit Somalia between October and December, seriously affect the lives of roughly 73,000 people.

- The number of people killed in flooding caused by Typhoon Vamco rises to 53 in the Philippines.

- Hurricane Iota, labeled as a Category 4 and "extremely dangerous", make landfall on Nicaragua's coast.

- At least 17 people are killed, 12 others injured and over 10 remain missing after days of heavy rain causes floods and landslides in northwestern Colombia.

- Cyclone Gati which makes landfall in late September dissipates but rains from the deadly storm continue to pound different towns.

- Record-breaking rainfall hit the Croatian city of Split, causing traffic chaos and flooding homes and businesses as 118.8 mm (4.6 inches) of rain is registered by the country&rsquos meteorological department.

- Floods caused by heavy rains displace more than 3,000 people in Malaysia.

- A massive hailstorm accompanied by heavy rain and drastic temperature drop hit Lebanon's capital Beirut and the surrounding suburbs.

- At least 68 people die from flooding in various parts of Nigeria this year, while no less than 129,000 are affected.

- A major winter storm dumps more than 3 m (9.8 feet) of snow in parts of Italy and Austria and more than 770 mm (30 inches) of rain in the town of Barcis in northern Italy.

- Heavy rain-caused flooding continues to negatively affect lives in several provinces of Iran as at least seven people are killed due to 160 mm (6 inches) of rain, equivalent to two months' worth of rain in the country.

- Italy's historic city of Venice is left partly underwater after a flood defense system does not work on time due to a mistaken weather forecast.


10 Deadly Disasters We Should Have Seen Coming

We know that our readers love to read articles about disasters. Which is fine by us&mdashfor ostensibly being the smartest creatures on the planet, we human beings make enough terrible, terrible mistakes to ensure that we will likely never run out of this type of discussion fodder.

The following events&mdashmost of which are pretty well-known&mdashare tied together by a few common threads. For one, mistakes were made. For two, people died, and&mdashhad common sense prevailed&mdashthey could have been far less deadly, or prevented altogether.

As the only country to ever be on the receiving end of a nuclear weapon deployment, Japan has long vowed to never develop nuclear weapons themselves. For decades, though, a great deal of the country&rsquos electrical power has been provided by nuclear power plants&mdashits first came online in 1966, and its 54 plants rank it among the top countries in the world in that respect.

On a fateful March day in 2012, a tsunami triggered by a powerful earthquake swept through Fukushima nuclear power plant, causing three of its six reactors to melt down and resulting in the worst nuclear accident since Chernobyl. Despite the risks posed by tsunamis to nuclear plants being very well understood&mdashand stringent preventive standards put in place by Japan&rsquos nuclear regulatory commission&mdashthose standards were simply not followed leading up to the incident. A report issued by Japan&rsquos parliament referred to the disaster as &ldquoman-made&rdquo because&mdashwhile it is obviously impossible to prevent or accurately predict earthquakes&mdashthe nuclear accident could easily have been avoided.

While over 20,000 died in the earthquake and resulting tsunami, the actual death toll from the nuclear incident is undetermined. Various reports cite between two and six deaths at the scene the health implications for those exposed to the radiation from the accident may never be fully known.

The single worst marine oil spill in history, the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon rig claimed eleven lives and resulted in an ocean floor oil gusher spewing crude into the sea unabated for almost three months. When all was said and done, nearly five million barrels of oil had been deposited into the Gulf of Mexico, and it didn&rsquot take long to ferret out the root cause of the disaster: lax management by British Petroleum (BP), who owned the well, and a series of simple oversights.

A lengthy report by the national oil spill commission identified nine separate management decisions that saved the company time and/or money that may have been contributing factors, as well as&mdashmost frustratingly&mdasha &ldquoculture of complacency&rdquo among management and an unwillingness to adhere to &ldquoworld-class safety standards&rdquo. The kinds of things that are bad enough when they lead to a grease fire at a restaurant, but are absolutely maddening when they lead to one of the worst environmental catastrophes ever.

If this doesn&rsquot angry up the blood effectively enough, consider: BP had an engineer on board the rig whose job it was to interpret the kind of data that would have effectively prevented the tragedy altogether. This was pretty much his sole purpose for being on board, yet BP employees chose to crunch the data themselves the engineer was never consulted, and the commission stated that if he had been, &ldquoevents likely would have turned out differently&rdquo.

The 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster&mdashin which the shuttle exploded moments after takeoff&mdashtraumatized a nation of schoolchildren, who were watching on live TV as the first teacher in space, Christa McAuliffe, perished along with six other crew members. The cause of that accident was determined to be a faulty O-ring, which sounds innocuous enough this particular O-ring helped to seal one of two solid rocket fuel boosters, and when it was breached, the escaping gases were hot enough to burn a hole in the shuttle&rsquos external fuel tank. It exploded, taking the shuttle with it. This would seem like a fluke, had NASA not ignored partial failures of the same O-ring on previous launches, or been warned about their susceptibility to cold weather (it was 36 degrees at the time of the launch). They did, and they were but, if there was a lesson to be learned here, it would take another disaster for NASA to learn it.

That would be the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, in which the shuttle vaporized upon re-entry to Earth&rsquos atmosphere, again killing all seven crew members. This happened when a chunk of insulating foam&mdashreferred to as &ldquobriefcase-sized&rdquo in most accounts&mdashtore free of an external fuel tank and struck the left wing of the craft. The extent of the damage wasn&rsquot known until the doomed attempt at re-entry, and officials concede that had they known, there still was nothing they could have done to prevent the explosion.

But, studies as far back as 1990 warned that these foam tiles were vulnerable points, and that ice buildup could cause them to break free, which is exactly what happened to Columbia. Heavy rainfall leading up to the launch almost certainly contributed to this as well, and we once again seem to be talking about a &ldquoculture of complacency&rdquo&mdashand a mindset that rewards achievement at all costs over safety. The 2003 incident resulted in the permanent cancellation of the shuttle program.

For ten years up until 1991, the Imperial Foods processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina, churned out chicken nuggets and strips for fast food chains and grocery stores around the country. Nearly 200 people were employed at the plant in &rsquo91, and for the decade it had operated, state safety inspectors had not paid it one solitary visit.

Accounts vary as to whether the problem was flies getting in or stolen chicken getting out, but owner Emmett Roe&rsquos solution was as simple as it was obviously hazardous&mdashto padlock all the doors. On September 3, 1991, seven of the plant&rsquos nine doors were locked or otherwise inaccessible when a hydraulic line failed, spewing gallons of hydraulic fluid which was ignited by gas burners for the frying vat. This caused a fire that produced voluminous amounts of extremely toxic smoke, toxic enough to incapacitate a person within seconds.

25 people lost their lives. As a result of the disaster, the state levied the highest fines it ever has for safety violations before or since, exceeding $800,000 Roe pleaded guilty to 25 counts of involuntary manslaughter and served just under five years of a 19-year sentence.

New Zealand&rsquos Pike River coal mine was supposed to bring in ridiculous amounts of export income for the country. It was to be opened in 2008, but &ldquotechnical difficulties&rdquo with some of the machinery forced it first load of 60,000 tons of coal to be pushed back to early 2010, which was an early indicator that perhaps this operation was not proceeding smoothly.

In fact, the owners of the mine were under a lot of pressure from their financiers to produce, and because of this&mdashyou may see a theme developing here&mdashsafety became secondary to production. In an absolutely astonishing oversight, there was only one active sensor to detect levels of methane in the mine it failed, and the only surprising thing about what happened next is that it didn&rsquot happen sooner.

On November 19, 2010, an explosion trapped 29 workers within the mine. Rescuers could not enter due to the risk of another explosion, and if that sounds callous, it may have been&mdashbut the fear was not unfounded. On the 24th another explosion did take place, followed by another on the 26th, and another on the 28th. All 29 miners lost their lives, and as of January 2011 the mine&mdashwhich was projected to generate 170 million dollars in annual income for New Zealand&mdashhas been sealed, and attempts at recovery abandoned.

The Airbus A330 is one of the most sophisticated and popular passenger planes in the modern aviation industry. It has downright futuristic autopilot controls&mdashto the extent that once a flight path has been programmed, pilots only have to spend about three minutes manually controlling the plane about a minute and a half during takeoff, and during landing.

Unfortunately, this is a bit of a double edged sword&mdashpart of a pilot&rsquos experience is knowing how a plane handles in all conditions, including adverse ones, like the ones that met Air France Flight 447 over the Atlantic Ocean on June 1, 2009.

Flying through a thunderstorm, the plane&rsquos speed sensor became clogged with ice and began relaying inaccurate information to the flight crew. It was determined in an investigative report by the French government that confusion reigned among the inexperienced crew, who &ldquoseemed to have trouble looking past the automation they were accustomed to and not really able to continue with the old raw information that pilots used to depend on&rdquo. Because of the clogged sensor, the autopilot eventually returned manual control of the plane to the crew, who failed to properly diagnose what was happening and stalled the plane. It crashed into the Atlantic, killing all 228 people aboard.

In January 2013, a perfect storm of oversights and neglect&mdashcombined with one excruciatingly stupid decision&mdashled to a fire that devastated the Kiss nightclub in Sao Paulo, Brazil, killing more than 230 people. It was one of the worst such incidents in the country&rsquos history, and the fact that the club was operating with an expired fire safety certificate is only the most obvious indicator that it should not have been operating at all.

The club was reported to have a capacity of 2,000, despite 1,300 being the maximum allowable occupancy for its square footage under Brazilian law there were no working fire extinguishers, sprinklers or emergency lighting, nor were there clearly marked emergency exits&mdashas evidenced by the fact that some panicked clubgoers tried to cram themselves into the restrooms, thinking them to be exits.

The stupid decision? The band that was playing that night decided to introduce pyrotechnics to this tinderbox. Pyrotechnics that were designed for outdoor, not indoor use, because&hellip the outdoor versions cost a buck twenty five, while the indoor flares cost 35 bucks apiece. Sparks from the flares ignited soundproofing tiles on the ceiling, and the rest is maddening, tragic history.

Louisiana, like most states in the southeastern portion of the U.S., is no stranger to hurricanes. Katrina, the storm which devastated New Orleans in 2005, was a category 3 hurricane, like the more recent hurricane Sandy, which struck the East Coast in 2012. Sandy was directly or indirectly responsible for 285 deaths, however Katrina was responsible for ever eighteen hundred. Most of the death toll was due to flooding, the result of the catastrophic failure of New Orleans&rsquo levee system.

Three teams of engineers independently reached the same conclusion in investigating the aftermath of the storm&mdashKatrina, while it would have caused modest flooding and wind damage in any event, was amplified into the full-scale catastrophe it was due to design flaws in the levees, which were built by the Army Corps of Engineers specifically to protect the city against just such a hurricane. Explained Ray Seed, head of one of the teams, at a press conference: &ldquoPeople didn&rsquot die here because the storm was bigger than the system could handle&hellipPeople died because mistakes were made and because safety was exchanged for efficiency and reduced costs.&rdquo

Reduced costs, indeed. In addition to the ridiculous, unnecessary and predictable loss of life, Katrina became hands-down the costliest natural disaster in United States history, with cleanup and recovery costs currently estimated at 108 billion dollars&mdashand counting.

Most of the disasters on this list played out over relatively brief periods of time&mdashmost in weeks or months, some in as little as a day. The scourge that has come to be known as the Dust Bowl played out over the entire decade of the 1930s, in the heartland of America.

It was during this time that thousands of East Coast dwellers began heading west to seek relief from the hardships wrought by the Great Depression. The key factor here is that the preceding few years had brought uncharacteristically heavy rains few remembered that after the Civil War, settlers passing through the area had continued straight through to the West Coast because the land was practically uninhabitable&mdashon some maps of the late 1800s, the area is referred to as the &ldquoGreat American Desert&rdquo.

The rains had brought heavy grass and plant growth to the area&mdashgiving the new settlers the mistaken impression that the area was suitable for farming. And farm it they did, or at least they tried&mdashplowing and plowing again, vast stretches of land that had its moist topsoil eradicated, leaving only dry dirt and dust. And when the wind kicked up, this dirt and dust became a malevolent, deadly force.

On the heels of a ten-year drought, these dust storms literally choked the life out of hundreds of square miles of land. Nobody knows how many died due to starvation or illness due to respiratory and other diseases. The drought finally broke in the fall of 1939&mdashjust in time for the outbreak of World War II.

As of 2010, there was probably no country on Earth more ill-suited to withstand a catastrophic earthquake than the tiny island nation of Haiti. An underdeveloped country, Haiti has never had a robust infrastructure there are literally no such thing as building codes. This alone was a recipe for disaster, but when that disaster finally struck, geologists the world over were less than surprised&mdashthey&rsquod been predicting just such an event for years.

You see, one of the world&rsquos largest fault lines&mdashcomparable to California&rsquos famed San Andreas&mdashruns quite close to Haitian capital of Port-Au-Prince. The fault had been creeping along at seven millimeters a year&mdashfor two and a half centuries. It was literally not a question of if, but when the year before the quake, one professor of geology at Oregon State University said in an unrelated interview that a big quake striking the West Coast of the States concerned him far less than the situation in Haiti.

That situation came to its terrible fruition on January 12, 2010. The 7.0 magnitude quake killed over 300,000 people, injured that many more, and left a million homeless. A pair of geophysicists who specialize in Caribbean fault lines, Eric Calais and Paul Mann, warned that this was imminent in 2008. And while it&rsquos not like it would have been feasible to abandon the island, it seems like there must have been a course of action preferable to the one that was taken&mdashnone.

There are more interesting lists on Floorwalker&rsquos blog, and the cool kids follow him on Twitter.


9 The Sinking Of The Luzitanija

The sinking of the British RMS Luzitanija by a German U-boat during World War I wasn&rsquot supposed to be unexpected or surprising, since Germany had ran several advertisements in The New York Times, warning of the ship&rsquos impending doom. The advertisements ran for several weeks until the morning of the day that the Luzitanija left the United States. That day, it even appeared on the same page that informed people of the ship&rsquos departure back to England from New York.

The British government also warned the captain of Luzitanija to avoid areas around the British shore where German U-boats were active and that if he ever passed such areas, he should zigzag his way through. The captain received more warnings as he entered just such an area, but for some reason, he ignored them and slowed the ship down. He also stayed too close to the shore and refused to zigzag, all of which made the Luzitanija the perfect target. The ship was torpedoed, and 1,195 people were killed.


1. Nuclear Weapons Detonations at the Nevada Test Site

After the end of World War Two, the U.S. and the Soviet Union entered a period known as the Cold War, a time when both sides tested numerous nuclear devices – both below ground and above. At first, the U.S. exploded its bombs in the South Pacific, and then in January 1951 they began nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. At times, the mushroom clouds from these detonations could be seen in the city of Las Vegas, only 65 miles from the site. Moreover, parts of Nevada, Arizona and Utah had radioactive fallout sprinkled upon its residents for years during the atmospheric tests.

But the town of St. George in Utah may have gotten the worst of the fallout, because it was downwind of the test site. In fact, a John Wayne movie, The Conqueror, was filmed around St. George when a bomb nicknamed 𠇍irty Harry” was exploded, and afterwards the film&aposs cast and crew experienced an unusually high rate of cancer.

Furthermore, deaths from various forms of cancer increased in the test site area from the middle 1950s into the 1980s. After testing at the site ended in 1992, the Department of Energy estimated that 300 megacuries of radioactivity remain at the site, making it the most radioactive place in the U.S. Nevertheless, public tours are allowed here, though you have to wonder why anybody would want to visit such a terrible place!


Gledaj video: ŠKOLJKE I VINČIJEV MOST TIK PRIJE PUNJENJA DUBRAVSKOG JEZERA