Bitka za Kaliforniju - povijest

Bitka za Kaliforniju - povijest


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Američke snage su zaplenile Kaliforniju od meksičkih snaga koristeći kombinaciju, obmane, slučajnosti i grube sile. Predsjednik Polk poslao je niz agenata da potaknu pobunu i preuzmu vlast od Meksikanaca koji su je držali samo slabo. Osim toga, naredio je američkoj mornarici da u slučaju rata zauzmu lučke gradove, što su i učinili kad je rat izbio. Konačno je mala snaga pod vodstvom generala Kearnyja poslana u Kaliforniju. Ta je sila bila ključna za dobivanje konačne kontrole od Meksikanaca.

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Sjedinjene Države bile su spremne oduzeti Kaliforniju od Meksika. U trenutku izbijanja rata, u lipnju 1845., komodor John D. Sloat (iz američke pacifičke eskadrile) dobio je zapovijed da zauzme San Francisco. U isto vrijeme, kapetan John Fremont vodio je malu ekspediciju na zapad kako bi bio spreman zauzeti Kaliforniju - ako se ukaže prilika. U Kaliforniji je bilo 15.000 meksičkih i oko 800 anglosa. Fremont je planirao iskoristiti Anglos kao prethodnicu pobune protiv Meksikanaca. Pobuna je počela 14. lipnja 1846. Međutim, ova se pobuna transformirala nekoliko dana kasnije, kada je stigla američka mornarica. Američka mornarica uspješno je zauzela Monterey, bez krvoprolića. 8. srpnja zaplijenjena je Yerba Banana (preimenovana u San Francisco). Uskoro je cijela Kalifornija bila u američkim rukama.

Priča tu nije završila. Amerikanci su bili previše samouvjereni. Lokalno španjolsko stanovništvo započelo je pobunu u rujnu 1846. Oni su opkolili i pregazili američki garnizon u Los Angelesu. Kad je komodor Stockton (koji je bio u San Franciscu) čuo za pobunu, požurio je na jug, s kombiniranim pomorskim i armijskim snagama. Stockton nije uspio vratiti Los Angeles. Morao je čekati dolazak generala Kearnyja, koji dolazi iz Novog Meksika. Konačno, združene snage Stocktona i Kearnyja uspjele su pobijediti Španjolce u bitci za Los Angeles.


Kad je Kalifornija (nakratko) postala vlastita nacija

U zoru, 14. lipnja 1846., krpeća skupina od 30-ak Amerikanaca s oružjem ušla je u Sonoma, gradić na meksičkom teritoriju Alta California. Spremni da silom zauzmu grad, umjesto toga sjeli su na rakiju s pukovnikom meksičke vojske Marianom Vallejom i prihvatili njegovu predaju. Sljedećih 25 dana Kalifornija je bila neovisna država: Republika Kalifornija.

Poznat kao Revolt medvjeđe zastave, referenca na kratkotrajnu republičku zastavu, ovaj je događaj bio nešto između američke invazije i minijaturnog rata za neovisnost. Iako su borbe bile ograničene, a država koju je osnovala trajala je manje od mjesec dana, pobuna Medvjeđe zastave dovela je izravno do američkog stjecanja današnje najmnogoljudnije države.


Legende Amerike

Zakon o vladi i zaštiti Indijanaca (1850) – Usvojen od strane zakonodavnog tijela Kalifornije 22. travnja 1850., ovaj je zakon dopustio doseljenicima da nastave kalifornijsku praksu hvatanja i korištenja domorodaca kao prisilnih radnika. On je također pružio osnovu za porobljavanje i trgovinu domorodačkim domorodačkim radom, posebno onim ženama i djecom, koje se nastavilo kao legalno poslovno poduzeće. Napadi na sela vršeni su kako bi se zadovoljila potražnja, mlade žene i djeca odvedeni su na prodaju, a muškarci i preostali ljudi često su ubijani. Ova je praksa učinila mnogo za uništavanje domorodačkih plemena tijekom kalifornijske zlatne groznice. Više …

Gila ekspedicija (1850) – Također nazvan Morehead War, ovaj napad milicije dogodio se između travnja i 13. rujna 1850. Ekspedicija Kalifornijske milicije imala je namjeru kazniti Indijance Yuma za masakr u Glantonu koji se dogodio u blizini ušća rijeke Gile u Rijeka Colorado u Arizoni. Bio je to početak Yuma rata koji je trajao od 1850. do 1853. 16. travnja 1850. 142 ljudi započelo je ekspediciju protiv Yume, ali je vojna operacija prošla loše i članovi ekspedicije bili su opsjednuti do 16. rujna. Zbog napuhanih troškova robe i plaća tijekom Zlatne groznice, cijena operacije dosegla je 113.000 dolara, što je državu Kaliforniju skoro bankrotiralo kao prvu od njenih vojnih operacija protiv američkih Indijanaca.

Juma rat (1850-1853) – Niz vojnih operacija Sjedinjenih Država provedenih u južnoj Kaliforniji i današnjoj jugozapadnoj Arizoni. Rat je izbio nakon pokolja u Glantonu i ekspedicije u Gili. Jumani su bili primarni protivnik vojske Sjedinjenih Država, iako su se angažirali Amerikanci i druge domorodačke skupine u regiji. Sukobi su općenito poprimili oblik gerilskog rata, a tijekom tri godine vojska se bavila progonom neprijateljskih domorodaca, štitila američke doseljenike koji su prelazili rijeku Colorado i sprječavala sukobe među domorodačkim plemenima. U ljeto 1853. potpisan je mirovni sporazum kojim su okončana neprijateljstva između Yume i Sjedinjenih Država, ali je izazvao kratki rat između Yume i Cocopaha. Tijekom sukoba izgrađena je povijesna utvrda Yuma koja je postala važno uporište na granici.

Masakr na krvavom otoku (1850) – Također nazvan masakr na jezeru Clar, ovo je bila odmazda za ubojstvo dva naseljenika s čistog jezera koji su porobljavali i ubijali Indijance Pomo. Pokolj se 15. svibnja 1850. dogodio na otoku zvanom Pomo, Bo-no-po-ti (otočno selo), na sjevernom kraju Clear Lakea, u Lake Countyu u Kaliforniji. Bilo je to mjesto gdje se Pomo tradicionalno okupljao na proljetno mrijest ribe. Nakon ovog događaja postao je poznat kao Krvavi otok. Više …

Indijski rat u El Doradu (1850-1851) – Sukob između Indijanaca i rudara i milicije Kalifornije u tadašnjoj okrugu El Dorado u Kaliforniji. U to je vrijeme Kalifornija upravo bila primljena kao 31. država, a Indijanci su smatrani nepoželjnim stanovnicima. Peter Burnett, prvi guverner Kalifornije, pozvao je na istrebljenje indijanskih plemena i započeo rat protiv njih te donio Zakon o vladi i zaštiti Indijanaca, koji je djelomično izjavio da ni u kojem slučaju bijelac ne smije biti osuđen za bilo koje djelo po iskazu Indijanca. ” To je bio jedan od mnogih razloga zbog kojih su Indijanci i Kalifornijci postali nemirni u vrijeme rata. Isti je čin također omogućio neindijancima da prođu kroz proces i preuzmu skrbništvo nad indijskom djecom, što je izazvalo ilegalno tržište i blizu 20.000 indijske djece stavljeno je u ropstvo.

Sredinom ljeta, Kalifornijci su ubili skupinu Indijanaca, a Indijanci su iz osvete ubili nekoliko kalifornijskih rudara. Osim toga, Indijanci su optuženi za krađu iz državnog rudnika ugljena. Zbog toga je oko 200 državnih milicajaca pozvano u napad na Indijance Miwok. U prvoj bitci kalifornijska milicija ubila je samo tri Indijanaca i smatrala je to neuspjehom. Nakon toga, ratnici Miwoka počeli su upadati u kalifornijske rudare, ubivši nekoliko njih. Milicionari su tada planirali još jedan napad, koji je rezultirao smrću 15 Indijanaca Miwoka, a dvojica pripadnika milicije izgubila su živote. Ova borba završila je jednomjesečnom kampanjom koja je okrug El Dorado koštala više od 100.000 dolara. Nakon dvije bitke, vodeći zapovjednik državne milicije započeo je pregovore kojima je okončan Indijski rat u El Doradu.

Rat u Mariposi (1850–1851) – Sukob između Indijanaca Yosemite i Chowchilla s rudarima i milicije Kalifornije. Sukob je trajao od prosinca 1850. do lipnja 1851. u golemoj županiji Mariposa.

Bitka kod paklenih spilja (1867) – Nakon brojnih napada na bijele doseljenike u okrugu Modoc u Kaliforniji, general George Crook poslan je na zapad da uguši indijske ustanke. U rujnu 1867. general Crook sa 39. pješačkom pješaštvom pratio je skupinu Indijanaca, koju je činilo oko 75 Paiuta, 30 rijeka Pit i nekoliko ratnika Modoca, do pustoga mjesta na granici Kalifornije i Oregona, zvanog Paklene špilje . Od 26. do 27. rujna dogodila se dvodnevna bitka u kojoj je poginulo 20 Indijanaca, uključujući brojne žene i djecu. U bitci je poginulo osam vojnika. Paklene špilje, poznate i kao Paklene špilje, nalaze se 6,5 milja zapadno od Likelyja u Kaliforniji i 1 milju južno od Ferry Rancha u okrugu Modoc u Kaliforniji. Bojno polje Infernal Caverns sada je kalifornijska povijesna znamenitost i uključuje grobove šest vojnika.


Ubod pobjede: Bitka nakon građanskog rata | Ross Eric Gibson, lokalna povijest

General Konfederacije Robert E. Lee predao se u dvorskoj kući Appomattox na Cvjetnicu, 9. travnja 1865. Kao najveća sila Konfederacije, Leejeva predaja označila je za mnoge kraj američkog građanskog rata.

Stražarski oglas za stari luksuzni hotel izgrađen 1853. (doprinos) Philip Alexander Bell bio je vodeći crni novinar koji je zastupao okrug Santa Cruz na Kalifornijskoj konvenciji obojenih građana 1865. godine. (Prilog)

Slavilo se u cijeloj županiji Santa Cruz, a crkve su se na uskrsnu nedjelju pripremale za posebne službe. Ipak, u subotu je tjednik Sentinel prenio alarmantnu vijest da je Abraham Lincoln ubijen 14. travnja. Za one koji nisu čuli, smatralo se da je dosadno zvonjenje crkvenih zvona na Uskrs ujutro u velikoj mjeri broj stradalih u ratu.

Užas prvog atentata na američkog predsjednika pogoršali su lokalni simpatizeri juga koji su se javno radovali ubojstvu Lincolna. To je dovelo do uhićenja najočitijih pjevača, koji su poslati u zatvor Konfederacije u Fort Alcatrazu. Njihovi su slučajevi odbačeni nekoliko tjedana kasnije, uvjetovano "gutanjem psa", kako su rekli simpatizeri. To je značilo gušenje zakletve na lojalnost Sjedinjenim Državama, koja je također ukorila svaku vjernost takozvanoj Konfederaciji. ”

Pobjeda je postala vrijeme preklapanja radosti i tuge. Područje Santa Cruz/Watsonville bilo je jedno od najjačih pristaša države za očuvanje nacije i okončanje ropstva. Još u rujnu 1861. Albert Brown je u Santa Cruz regrutirao Union Company L 𔃀. Kalifornijsku konjicu, koja je neko vrijeme kampirala između rijeke San Lorenzo i potoka Branciforte. Zatim je 22. studenog 1861. vojni bal za prikupljanje sredstava održan u prvom luksuznom hotelu u gradu, hotelu San Lorenzo & Exchange Steamboat Exchange. Volonteri s tog događaja pomogli su u osnivanju jedinice koja je postala Union Company K 𔃃. kalifornijska pješadija. Godine 1864. Watsonville je oformio Union Company A 𔃆.th California pješaštvo, koja je svoju karijeru provela čuvajući obalu.

Tvrtka K poslana je u Camp Union u Sacramentu, gdje su se borili, ne vojnici, već strašne poplave u cijeloj državi 1861-62. Neko su vrijeme proveli u tvrđavi Alcatraz, a zatim su nakon ožujka 1862. poslani u kamp Drum u blizini Los Angelesa kako bi zaustavili invaziju u Teksasu pokušavajući zauzeti Novi Meksiko, Arizonu i južnu Kaliforniju za Konfederaciju. Invazija nikada nije stigla do južne Kalifornije, pa je tvrtka K zauzela pljačkaške Apače sjeverno od Tucsona, a zatim otišla u Novi Meksiko kako bi zaštitila rutu Overland Trail. Sakupljeni u studenom 1864, vratili su se u Santa Cruz u siječnju 1865.

Bitka na ranču Palmito u Teksasu od 12. do 13. svibnja 1865. bila je besmislena svađa bez ikakvog cilja. Većina je vjerovala da je rat završio, ali neki su se bojali da je Lincolnova smrt ohrabrila Konfederaciju da napravi novu ofenzivu na Zapadu. Činilo se da su se u Santa Cruzu te brige ostvarile, kada su se 21. svibnja u 3:30 ujutro, ljudi probudili zbog onoga za što su strahovali da je bombardiranje zveckalo obalom. Pokazalo se da je to bio prilično snažan potres, možda 5 na Rhickterovoj ljestvici, koji je oborio stvari s polica.

19. lipnja

U međuvremenu je generalni sindikat Gordon Granger stigao u Galveston u Teksasu, otkrivši da su vijesti o proglašenju emancipacije oskudne. Usvojen je na Novu godinu 1863., ali su robovlasnici čuvali vijesti od robova kako bi spriječili pobunu ili bijeg. Tako je 19. lipnja 1865. Granger izdao Opću naredbu broj 3.

Dijelom je pisalo:
“ …Stanovnici Teksasa obaviješteni su da su, u skladu s proklamacijom izvršne vlasti Sjedinjenih Država, svi robovi slobodni. To uključuje apsolutnu jednakost osobnih prava i imovinskih prava između bivših gospodara i robova, a dosadašnja veza između njih postaje ona između poslodavca i najamne radne snage …. ”

Proslava nacionalne emancipacije počela se nazivati ​​19. lipnja. Ipak, neki su robovlasnici u to vrijeme osudili ove “Yankee laži ” i obećali ubiti svakoga tko je pobjegao ili nije radio tako teško kao prije rata.

Santa Cruz je zasigurno nastavio pratiti ovu vrstu vijesti, jer iako je okrug imao malu populaciju crnaca od oko 50 ljudi, oni su uključivali i neke impresivne aktiviste. Joe McAfee bio je jedan od osam crnih vojnika u pobuni Medvjeđe zastave 1846., a sada je bio govornik lokalne Republikanske stranke i crnac. Došao je u Santa Cruz 1862. godine sa Samuelom Padmoreom, rudarom i domarom, kao i Georgeom Chesterom, popularnim restoranom. Chester je postao glasnogovornik crnačke zajednice, i dočekao je vagone novih crnaca u gradu, često ih stavljajući u svoju kuću i vidjevši da su našli dom i zaposlenje. Chester je došao sa suprugom i troje djece, no ubrzo po dolasku supruga mu je umrla te je pokopana na londonskoj parceli Nelson na groblju Evergreen, gdje je pokopan i Samuel Padmore, kada je 1863. umro od tuberkuloze.

Pismenost je zasigurno pomogla njihovom interesu za građanska prava. Novinar Philip Alexander Bell radio je za Williama Lloyda Garrisona ’s “Liberator, ” i bio prijatelj Fredericka Douglassa. Bell se 1860. preselio u San Francisco, gdje je 1862. pisao za crne novine "Pacific Appeal." ” sa sloganom “Jednakost prije zakona. ” Oba lista bila su popularna u cijeloj državi sa abolicionistima.

Kalifornijska konvencija o građanima u boji za listopad 1865. bila je hitnija nego prije, jer se zamah obnove proširio na građanska prava crnaca. Održan u Sacramentu, novinar Philip Bell predstavljao bi okrug Santa Cruz, dok je Joe Smallwood (budući Santa Cruzan) bio delegat San Francisca. Jedan od sinova Smallwooda bio je osobni tajnik Salmona P. Chasea: Abraham Lincoln, ministar financija, zatim 1864. predsjednik Vrhovnog suda.

Prva Kalifornijska konvencija obojenih građana održana je u studenom 1855. u zgradi A.M.E. Crkva u Sacramentu. Na toj konvenciji Wm. H. Mills je predstavljao okrug Santa Cruz, a Joe Smallwood okrug El Dorado. Pitanja su bila okončanje ropstva, pristup javnom obrazovanju, glasanje i jednaka prava. Grupa se ponovno sastala u Sacramentu 1856. i u San Franciscu 1857. godine.

Lanac događaja

Zatvor u okrugu Santa Cruz izgrađen je poput tvrđave i bloka od teških drvenih greda. Sjedila je pokraj Katoličke crkve. U lipnju 1865. njezin jedini zatvorenik, Pedro Lorenzana, alarmirao je zgradu u plamenu. Pedro je spašen, ali je zgrada stara 10 godina izgubljena. Ubrzo je zamijenjen zatvorom od kamenih blokova.

Zatim je u srpnju veliki požar odnio veći dio jednog bloka u centru grada od četiri bloka. Spalio je hotel San Lorenzo (na Pacifiku i Plaza Lane), susjednu trgovinu odjeće Alfreda Baldwina i tržnicu Almus Rountree ’s “Washington. ” Južno od hotela vatra je dopirala do ulice Locust Street, uništivši Jamesa Kirkpatricka i Postolarska radnja#8217s, trgovina suhe robe S. Barnet i#8217s i medicinski uredi dr. Baileyja#8217s.

Vlasnici hotela San Lorenzo bili su Wm. Moore i Amasa se mole. Pray je također bio dijelom vlasnik trgovine General s podružnicama na Upper Plaza i Lower Plaza u kući Santa Cruz. Ova pionirska soba nije bila zamjena za luksuzni hotel, s niskim stropovima i skučenim prostorijama, ali dao je sve od sebe da to popravi kao zamjenu, dok se gradio njegov novi luksuzni hotel od opeke. Zatim je u kolovozu primijećen još jedan požar na drugom katu Wm -a. Newton ’s Saloon, ali ovaj put je ugašen prije nanošenja štete. Dokazi o paljevini ubrzo su doveli do uhićenja Wm -a. O ’Conner, simpatizer juga, koji je zamjerio ovo ujedinjeno uporište abolicionizma.

Zatim je 8. listopada 1865. došlo do brzog potresa, zatim potresanja zemlje toliko snažne (možda 6,5) da je poslalo ljude na ulice kad su se dimnjaci izvili ili prevrnuli. Ljekarna Hihn & amp Field ’s izgubila je dugačku vitrinu posuđa. Novi hotel u izgradnji izgubio je dio zida na kojem se malter tek trebao stvrdnuti, a zgrada Flatiron imala je pukotinu na stražnjoj strani.

Ti požari i potresi bili su samo manifestacije nemirnog razdoblja pobjede Unije. Mir nije lako došao na jug, zbog opsega razornosti, predsjednik Andrew Johnson odbio je poslati dovoljno vojnika za održavanje reda ili sredstava za obnovu, te opsjednutost nekim krivim osim Konfederacije.

Tennessee je bio podijeljen u sredini između onih koji su se protivili otcjepljenju i Konfederacija, a njihova poslijeratna nezadovoljna utakmica rodila je Ku Klux Klan. Marshall Law proglašen je u Arkansasu u ratu za suzbijanje Klana, a sjeveroistočni Teksas je bio toliko bezakonjen da je pokrenuo rat između Lee Gange i Lewisa Peacocka. Konačno 1871. godine, američki Grant pribavio je vojnike za Teksas, nakon izvještaja o 5.000 zločina nad crncima.

Još u Santa Cruzu, novi hotel otvoren je 1866. godine kao posljednja riječ u luksuzu. Ulica je upravo promijenila imena iz Willow Street u Pacific Avenue, pa se novi hotel zvao Pacific Ocean House. 1868. Joseph Smallwood i Robert Francis preselili su se iz San Francisca u Santa Cruz, te otvorili svoju brijačnicu u kući Tihog oceana. A kad je 1870. ratificiran 15. amandman Ustava koji je svim ljudima jamčio pravo glasa, Smallwood i Francis su zabilježeni u Sentinelu koji se registrirao za glasovanje.

Ross Eric Gibson bivši je kolumnist povijesti časopisa San Jose Mercury News.


Bizarna bitka za Los Angeles u Drugom svjetskom ratu

U ludim tjednima nakon napada na Pearl Harbor, mnogi su Amerikanci vjerovali da su neprijateljski napadi na kontinentalne Sjedinjene Države neizbježni. Dana 9. prosinca 1941., neutemeljeni izvještaji o približavanju zrakoplova izazvali su manju paniku u invaziji u New Yorku i doveli do pada cijena dionica.  

Na Zapadnoj obali, neiskusni piloti i radari zamijenili su ribarske brodove, trupce, pa čak i kitove za japanske ratne brodove i podmornice. Napetosti su bile velike, a porasle su tek nakon što je američki ratni ministar Henry Stimson upozorio da bi američki gradovi trebali biti spremni prihvatiti ȁpovremene udarce ” neprijateljskih snaga.  

Samo nekoliko dana kasnije, 23. veljače 1942., japanska podmornica pojavila se ispred obale Santa Barbare u Kaliforniji i bacila preko desetak topničkih granata na naftno polje i rafineriju. Iako u napadu nije bilo žrtava, a nanesena je samo manja šteta, to je bio prvi put da su kopnene Sjedinjene Države bombardirane tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata.

Vojnici u sastavu protuzračnih topova u New Yorku. (Zasluge: Bettmann/Getty Images)

Dan nakon napada na naftno polje, paranoja i svrbež prstiju zajedno su proizveli jedan od najneobičnijih ratnih incidenata. Počelo je 24. veljače 1942. navečer, kada su pomorske obavještajne službe uputile postrojbe na obali Kalifornije da se čekiraju za potencijalni japanski napad.  

Sljedećih nekoliko sati svi su ostali mirni, ali malo poslije 2 sata ujutro 25. veljače vojni je radar uhvatio neprijateljski kontakt nekih 120 milja zapadno od Los Angelesa. Oglasile su se sirene zračnih napada i na snazi ​​je zamračenje u cijelom gradu. U roku od nekoliko minuta, postrojbe su imale protuzračne topove s posadom i počele brisati nebo reflektorima.

Tek nakon 3 sata ujutro počela je pucnjava. Nakon izvješća o neidentificiranom objektu na nebu, trupe u Santa Monici oslobodile su paljbu protuzračnih i mitraljeza kalibra .50. Ubrzo su se pridružila i mnoga druga gradska oružja za obalnu obranu.  

“PMoćni reflektori s bezbroj stanica probadali su nebo briljantnim probnim prstima, ” Los Angeles Times napisao je, ”ok su protuzračne baterije prošarale nebo prekrasnim, iako zlokobnim, narančastim rafalima gelera. ”  

U sljedećih nekoliko minuta vladao je kaos. Činilo se da je Los Angeles bio napadnut, ali mnogi od onih koji su gledali prema nebu nisu vidjeli ništa osim dima i odsjaja vatre iz vatrenog oružja.  

“Imaginacija je mogla lako otkriti mnoge oblike na nebu usred te čudne simfonije buke i boje, kasnije je napisao pukovnik obalnog topništva John G. Murphy. 𠇊li hladni odred nije otkrio nijedan avion bilo koje vrste na nebu —prijateljski ili neprijateljski. ”

Za druge se, međutim, činilo da je prijetnja vrlo stvarna. Iz cijelog grada stizali su izvještaji koji opisuju japanske zrakoplove koji lete u formaciji, padajuće bombe i neprijatelja

Zračni reflektori iz doba Drugog svjetskog rata. (Zasluge: Bettmann/Getty Images)

padobranci. Bilo je čak i tvrdnji o padu japanskog aviona koji je sletio na ulice Hollywooda. “I su jedva mogli vidjeti avione, ali bili su gore gore, ” kasnije je u pismu napisao obalni topnik Charles Patrick. “I je mogao vidjeti šest aviona, a granate su pucale oko njih. Naravno, svi mi, momci, bili smo nestrpljivi da uložimo svoja dva centa ’ u vrijednost, a kad je stigla naredba, svi su se razveselili kao pištolj. ”  

Baraž se na kraju nastavio više od sat vremena. Kad je kasnije tog jutra izdana konačna naredba 𠇊ll-clear ”, topničke su baterije Los Angelesa ’ ispumpale u nebo preko 1400 metaka protuzrakoplovnog streljiva.

Tek su na svjetlo dana američke vojne jedinice došle do zagonetnog otkrića: čini se da nije bilo neprijateljskog napada. 𠇊Iako su izvješća bila kontradiktorna i ulažu se svi napori da se utvrde činjenice, jasno je da nijedna bomba nije bačena i avioni nisu oboreni, ” je pročitano priopćenje Zapovjedništva Zapadne obrane vojske.

Ironično, jedino oštećenje tijekom �ttle ” došlo je od prijateljske vatre. Protuavionski geleri padali su po cijelom gradu, razbijajući prozore i probijajući zgrade. Jedan je dud prešao na golf igralište Long Beach, a nekoliko je stanovnika djelomično uništilo svoje domove topničkim granatama od 3 inča.  

Iako nije bilo ozbiljnih ozljeda u pucnjavi, izviješteno je da je najmanje pet osoba umrlo od posljedica srčanog udara i prometnih nesreća koje su se dogodile tijekom produženog zamračenja. U pregledu histerije koja će uskoro pratiti japansko interniranje, vlasti su također uhitile 20-ak Japanaca-Amerikanaca zbog navodnog pokušaja signaliziranja nepostojećih zrakoplova.

Čovjek čisti prijateljsku štetu od požara iz zračnog napada. (Zasluge: Peter Stackpole/Zbirka slika LIFE/Getty Images)

U sljedećih nekoliko dana vlada i mediji izdali su kontradiktorna izvješća o onome što je kasnije postalo poznato kao �ttle u Los Angelesu. ” Tajnik mornarice Frank Knox odbacio je vatrenu borbu kao lažnu uzbunu izazvanu živcima “jittery. , ”, ali ratni tajnik Henry Stimson ponovio je vojničke čelnike rekavši da je gradom zujalo najmanje 15 aviona. Čak je iznio i provokativnu teoriju da su fantomski lovci možda bili komercijalni zrakoplovi s kojima su surađivali neprijateljski agenti, nadajući se da će izazvati strah u javnosti.  

Stimson je kasnije odbacio svoje tvrdnje, ali i dalje se radilo o tisućama vojnog osoblja i civila koji su tvrdili da su vidjeli zrakoplove na nebu iznad LA -a. New York Times, neki su očevici špijunirali 𠇊 veliki plutajući objekt nalik na balon, ” dok su drugi uočili bilo gdje od jednog aviona do nekoliko desetaka. “Što se više ispituje cijeli incident od ranog jutra 25. veljače u okrugu Los Angeles, ” članak je pročitao, “ to postaje nevjerojatniji. ”

Što je uzrokovalo pucnjavu iznad Los Angelesa? Japanska vojska kasnije je tvrdila da nikada nije letjela zrakoplovom nad gradom tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata, dajući gorivo za niz bizarnih teorija koje uključuju vladine zavjere i posjete letećih tanjura i vanzemaljaca.  


Jedini "piratski" napad u Kaliforniji u povijesti zapravo se odnosio na neovisnost

1 od 5 rekonstruktora koji prikazuju argentinske privatnike/gusare koji kreću prema obali kako bi srušili španjolsku zastavu i podigli argentinsku zastavu iznad Montereya dok se španjolske trupe povlače tijekom dvjestogodišnje rekonstrukcije bitke za Monterey u subotu, 11./17. 2018. u Montereyu u Kaliforniji . Patrick Tehan / Posebno za The Chronicle Prikaži više Prikaži manje

2 od 5 rekonstruktora koji prikazuju argentinske privatnike/gusare došli su na obalu kako bi srušili španjolsku zastavu i podigli argentinsku zastavu iznad Montereya dok se španjolske trupe povlače tijekom dvjestogodišnje rekonstrukcije bitke za Monterey u subotu, 11./17. 2018. u Montereyu u Kaliforniji. Patrick Tehan / Posebno za The Chronicle Prikaži više Prikaži manje

3 od 5 rekonstruktora koji prikazuju argentinske privatnike/gusare spremaju se srušiti španjolsku zastavu i podignuti argentinsku zastavu iznad Montereya dok se španjolske trupe povlače tijekom dvjestogodišnje rekonstrukcije bitke za Monterey u subotu, 11./17. 2018. u Montereyu u Kaliforniji. Fotografije Patrick Tehan / Posebne za The Chronicle Prikaži više Prikaži manje

4 od 5 Lady Washington sudjeluje u dvjestogodišnjoj rekonstrukciji bitke za Monterey u subotu, 11./17. 2018. u Montereyu u Kaliforniji. Patrick Tehan / Posebno za kroniku Prikaži više Prikaži manje

5 od 5 Glumac, Howard Burnham, glumi francusko-argentinskog privatnika/gusarskog kapetana Hiplita Boucharda obraćajući se okupljenima ispred povijesne Carinarnice tijekom dvjestogodišnje rekonstrukcije bitke za Monterey u subotu, 11./17. 2018. u Montereyu , Kalifornija. Patrick Tehan / Posebno za The Chronicle Prikaži više Prikaži manje

Chronicle je pokrenuo novi tjedni bilten o putovanjima! Prijavite se ovdje.

Domet topovske vatre odjeknuo je adobima Montereya, a zatim je uslijedila skupina privatnih vojnika koji su s topova, mušketa i štuka iz grada jurišali na grad. Na kraju su povukli španjolsku zastavu prije nego što su podigli plavo-bijele pruge Argentine pod kalifornijskim nebom.

Scena se odigrala u studenom 1818., kada je francusko-argentinski privatnik po imenu Hip & oacutelito Bouchard i 200 njegovih ljudi otpustilo Monterey, kraljevsku španjolsku prijestolnicu Alta California, u ime revolucije i plijena. Dvjesto godina kasnije, 17. studenog, skupina muškaraca i žena ponovno je odigrala bitku na Custom House Plaza u Montereyu. Iako je neobičan i kičast, prikaz je pokušao preinačiti najpoznatijeg gusara u Kaliforniji u hrabrog kapetana koji se borio za meksičku vladavinu Kalifornije, i prisjetiti se često pogrešno shvaćenog događaja u ranoj povijesti države.

& ldquoŠpanjolci su ga u to vrijeme smatrali gusarima, a ljudi su od tada prihvaćali tu ideju, & rdquo kaže Michael Melzer, pisac u Pasadeni čija knjiga iz 2016. godine & ldquoPatriotski gusar & rdquo opisuje život i vrijeme Boucharda. & ldquoU svakom slučaju, Bouchard predstavlja pokret za neovisnost Latinske Amerike. & rdquo

Rekonstruktori koji prikazuju španjolske vojnike stoje u formaciji ispred povijesne Carinarnice tijekom dvjestogodišnje rekonstrukcije bitke za Monterey u subotu, 11./17. 2018. u Montereyu u Kaliforniji. Patrick Tehan / Posebno za The Chronicle

Godine 1818. revolucionarna žestina u španjolskim i američkim kolonijama rsquos nadvladala je vladavinu kralja od Argentine do Meksika. Ipak, u isto vrijeme, Alta California bila je gotovo feudalna rukavica odana kraljevskom poretku, kaže pomorski povjesničar okruga Monterey John Middleton-Tidwell.

Bouchard, rođen u jugoistočnoj Francuskoj 1780. godine, stigao je do Buenos Airesa do 1810. godine, gdje se brzo pridružio argentinskom ratu za neovisnost, boreći se i na kopnu i na vodi, rekao je Melzer. U dobi od 37 godina, nakon sedam godina slave i zloglasnosti u službi revolucije, 1817. primio je svoja markovska pisma, dajući mu dopuštenje da upada u luke i brodove odane španjolskoj kruni po cijelom svijetu, širi revolucionarne ideale i ubira plijen. .

Kapetan i njegova posada šepali su na Havajske otoke sredinom 1818. praznih ruku nakon što su samo nanijeli manju štetu Španjolcima na Filipinima, rekao je Middleton-Tidwell. Tamo je Bouchard nabavio drugi brod, Santa Rosa, i čuo za ranjivi glavni grad provincije, Monterey.

Dva broda pod zapovjedništvom Bouchard & rsquos uočili su Španjolci kod Point Pinosa u današnjem Pacific Groveu 20. studenog 1818. U to vrijeme kapetanska & rsquos markovna pisma argentinske vlade su istekla, pa bi Španjolci smatrali on gusar bez obzira na to, prema slovu zakona, svaki napad bio bi piratski čin.

Veći brod La Argentina ostao je dalje, a Santa Rosa je plovio blizu obale pokušavajući prevariti Španjolce da vjeruju da su to američka trgovačka plovila, ali španjolski je već dojavio američki kapetan koji je naišao na planove Bouchard & rsquos na Havajima i pojačali su obranu, rekao je Middleton-Tidwell.

Sljedećeg dana Santa Rosa je održala niz izravnih pogodaka iz dva smjera, prisiljavajući naoružani brod da podigne bijelu zastavu predajući se dok je bijesni Bouchard gledao iz daljine. Trojica muškaraca izišla su na obalu pod prijetnjom, a uhićeni su, drugi su veslali prema Argentini, dok su ranjenici ostavljeni da čekaju nepoznatu sudbinu na brodu Santa Rosa.

22. studenog Bouchard je iskrcao 200 ljudi i četiri topa oko današnjeg Lovers Point -a. Njegova posada daleko je premašila broj ljudi borbene dobi u Montereyu. U pripremama za napad, Pablo Vicente de Sol & aacute, kraljevski guverner Alta California, naredio je gradu da se evakuira u Rancho del Rey, u blizini današnjeg Salinasa, i sa sobom ponese sve vrijedne stvari.

Muškarci Bouchard & rsquos brzo su prestigli postavljanje topova i zamijenili tamošnju španjolsku zastavu s Argentinom & rsquos. Na čelu optužnice bila je skupina golih havajskih otočana koji su se pridružili Bouchard -u na Oahuu.

& ldquoPogled na odjevene Havajce uplašio je Španjolce i mogao je ubrzati njihovo povlačenje ", kaže Middleton-Tidwell.

Privatnici su otišli na nekadašnje mjesto presidio oko današnje katedrale San Carlos i ponovno pregazili Španjolce. Sol & aacute i njegovi preostali ljudi pobjegli su u Rancho del Rey.

Dva dana Bouchard i njegovi ljudi slavili su pobjedu i počeli popravljati oštećenu Santa Rosu. Trećeg dana, Bouchard je poslao poruku Sol & aacuteu rekavši da će, ako ne vrati tri zarobljenika, opaliti grad. The governor didn&rsquot respond, so the captain burned Spanish property, killed the remaining livestock and torched the orchards, while sparing Catholic churches and non-Spanish homes.

But the small provincial capital didn&rsquot yield Bouchard and his men much booty or revolutionary sympathizers. Solá would later claim that the main losses incurred by Spanish forces were of ham, butter and blankets.

Middleton-Tidwell notes that the Hawaiian fighters left wearing Spanish clothing, some pieces of which were from Solá&rsquos own wardrobe.

Bouchard and his men sailed south from Monterey around Nov. 27 and made three more destructive stops along the Alta California coast, looking for supplies and booty. He never returned to California but continued his revolutionary fight in South America. The story of his North American exploits was left to be told by those who survived his attacks.


Povijest [uredi | uredi izvor]

Early Attacks [ edit | uredi izvor]

On January 18th, 2025, the Korean People's Army had launched a massive, full-scale invasion of California while the state was still rebuilding. Korean bombers had flown in and began a massive aerial bombardment of Los Angeles and other shoreline cities and began to destroy the area and set the cities on fire. Ground Forces soon landed and began to whip out any resistance they saw within miles. Los Angeles was soon attacked and the LAPD was the only form of resistance to the Koreans as the had attempted to stop the assault but they were overpowered and soon the KPA took the whole city and progressed deeper into California. Immediately the US Army was sent in to stop the Korean advancements but years of economic downfall had left the military weak and vulnerable and was soon wiped out.

American Response [ edit | uredi izvor]

The US Government had been quick to realize that the KPA had broken through and needed to respond. A large battalion of the American Troops were sent in mainly made up of soldiers from the Deathless Battalion in order to retake the state. California's Governor had lost contact with the US Government and the California National Guard was taking heavy casualties making the response a rushed response.


Battle of California - History

California III
(BB-44: dp. 32,300 1. 624'6" b. 97'4" dr. 30'3” s. 21
k., cpl. 1,083 a. 12 14", 14 5", 4 3", 2 21" tt., cl.Tennessee )

The fifth California (BB - 44) was launched 20 November 1919 by Mare Island Navy Yard sponsored by Mrs. R. T. Zane, and commissioned 10 August 1921 Captain H. J. Ziegemeier in command and reported to the Pacific Fleet as flagship.

For 20 years from 1921 until 1941, California served first as flagship of the Pacific Fleet, then as flagship of the Battle Fleet (Battle Force), U.S. Fleet. Her annual activities included joint Army-Navy exercises, tactical and organizational development problems, and fleet concentrations for various purposes. Intensive training and superior performance won her the Battles Efficiency Pennant for 1921-22, and the Gunnery "E" for 1925-26.

In the summer of 1925 California led the Battle Fleet and a division of cruisers from the Scouting Fleet on a very successful good-will cruise to Australia and New Zealand. She took part in the Presidential reviews of 1927, 1930, and 1934. She was modernized in late 1929 and early 1930 and equipped with an improved antiaircraft battery.

In-1940 California switched her base to Pearl Harbor. On 7 December 1941 she was moored at the southernmost berth of "Battleship Row" and was with other dreadnoughts of the Battle Force when the Japanese launched their aerial attack. As she was about to undergo a material inspection, watertight integrity was not at its maximum consequently the ship suffered great damage when hit. At 0805 a bomb exploded below decks, setting off an antiaircraft ammunition magazine and killing about 60 men. A second bomb ruptured her bow plates. Despite valiant efforts to keep her afloat, the in rushing water could not be isolated and California settled into the mud with only her superstructure remaining above the surface. When the action ended, 98 of her crew were lost and 61 wounded.

On 26 March 1942 California was refloated and dry docked at Pearl Harbor for repairs. On 7 June she departed under her own power, for Puget Sound Navy Yard where a major reconstruction job was accomplished, including improved protection, stability, AA battery, and fire control system.

California departed Bremerton 31 January 1944 for shakedown at San Pedro, and sailed from San Francisco 5 May for the invasion of the Marianas. Off Saipan in June, she conducted effective shore bombardment and call fire missions. On 14 June she was hit by a shell from an enemy shore battery which killed one man and wounded nine. Following Saipan, her heavy guns helped blast the way for our assault force in the Guam and Tirrian operations (18 July 9 August). On 24 August she arrived at Espiritu Santo for repairs to her port bow damaged in a collision-with Tennessee (BB 43).

On 17 September 1944 California sailed to Manus to ready for the invasion of the Philippines. From 17 October to 20 November she played a key role in the Leyte operation, including the destruction of the Japanese fleet in the Battle of Surigao Strait (25 October). On 1 January 1945 she departed the Palaus for the Luzon landings. Her powerful batteries were an important factor in the success of these dangerous operations driven home into the heart of enemy-held territory under heavy air attack. On 6 January while providing shore bombardment at Lingayen Gulf she was hit by a kamikaze plane 44 of her crew were killed and 155 were wounded. Undeterred she made temporary repairs on the spot and remained carrying out here critical mission of shore bombardment until the job was done. She departed 23 January for Puget Sound Navy Yard, arriving 15 February, for permanent repairs.


Battle of California - History

The Beginning and The Great War

The 40th Infantry Division (Mechanized) was born at Camp Kearney California at San Diego on 16 September 1917 in response to the nation's entry in to World War I. Known simply as the 40th Division (there were not yet cavalry or armored divisions) it was made up of National Guard unit from Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. It was soon decided that the new division's nickname would be the "Sunshine" Division since its patch was a sun on a field of blue. The division was one of the best prepared for the great mobilization since a majority of the units had just been released from active duty on the Mexican Border.

In November the Division moved to Camps Lewis and Funston where the division received over 9,000 fresh draftees and recruits and training for war began in earnest. But almost immediately trained soldiers of the division were siphoned off to form new units. The first to go were 1,200 engineers who were used to form the 20th Engineer Regiment and the 534th Pontoon Train. This was a start of what the division would experience for the rest of the war. In April of 1918, 1,500 riflemen were transferred out to other divisions. Again though the division was tasked to support other units with a contribution of 5,000 infantryman and 1,500 artillerymen.

Before departing overseas, the unit were forced to give up their traditional state militia titles and so the 159th and 160th Infantry Regiment were born out of the 2d, 5th, and 7th California Infantry Regiment. Likewise, the 1st and 2d California Field Artillery Regiments became the 143d and 144th Field Artillery Regiment while the 1st Squadron, California Cavalry turned in their horses and became the 145th Machine Gun Battalion.

When the division arrived in France in August of 1918, the Germans had just completed a series of offensives that started on 21 March and ended on 15 July 1918. These offensives were designed to destroy the American Expeditionary Force before it could be fully constituted. They almost succeeded. It was decided that the new divisions would be used as depot divisions, supplying fresh troops to the more experienced combat divisions. By the end of the war, over the 40th Division provided over 27,000 replacements to the 26th, 28th, 32d, 77th, 80th, 81st, 82d, and 89th Division.

The most famous of these former "Sunshiner" was Captain Nelson Holderman, who commanded the former Company L, 7th California Infantry from Santa Ana. This company was to gain everlasting fame as part of the "Lost Battalion" of the 308th Infantry Regiment, 77th ("Metropolitan") Division. Captain Holderman was decorated with the Medal of Honor and the California Medal of Valor for his actions during the Battle of the Argonne. Another company commander in that battalion was Captain Leo Stromee from the old Company K, 7th California who received the Silver Star. The old 7th also provided Captain Arthur King who received the Distinguished Service Cross for his service the 1st Division.

At the end of the war, the 40th ("Sunshine") Division had 2,587 members killed in action an 11,596 wound. An additional 103 were to die of their wounds at the Camp Kearney Post Hospital. On 20 April 1919, the division stood down and was demobilized at Camp Kearney, where they were form just two years before.

To view the 1917 Order of Battle CLICK HERE

The division was reconstituted on 18 June 1926 with its headquarters in Berkeley. This was later changed to Los Angeles in 1937. The division was organized pretty much as it was in 1917 with a lot of the units coming from Nevada and Utah. However, the "teeth" of the division was mostly Californian with the Arizona and Colorado regiments replaced by two new California Regiments, the 184th and 185th.

For the most part, the normal peacetime routine existed until 1934. In November of that year, prisoners at the Folsom State Prison seized control of the main buildings and took several of the staff as hostages. The warden was unable to control the situation and asked the Governor for the National Guard. Telephone calls and announcements over the radio were made. Theaters stopped their shows to announce ". all National Guardsmen report to your armory." The entire 184th Infantry Regiment, and supporting troops, under the command of Colonel Wallace Mason, assembled and moved to Folsom. When the action was over, 11 inmates were dead and 11 wounded.

For the rest of the 1930s the unit kept busy with their weekly evening drills and the "summer camp" at Camp Merriam between San Luis Obispo and Morro Bay. Several of the enlisted members who had joined the unit during the twenties and thirties would work their way through the NCO and commissioned officer ranks. One of the most notable was Sacramento dentist Roy A. Green, who joined the 184th Infantry Regiment as a private in 1918, and went on to be commissioned and command Company A, the 1st Battalion, and later the entire regiment. When the war ended, he was the officer who accepted the Japanese surrender at Seoul, Korea. He was to eventually become a Major General, commanding the 49th Infantry Division.

To view the 1940 Order of Battle CLICK HERE

In response to the war in Europe, the California's 40th Infantry Division was mobilized on 3 March 1941 and sent to Camp San Luis Obispo where it remained, except for divisional maneuvers at Fort Lewis, Washington, until the attack on Pearl Harbor. While most of the division was from California, some of the supporting artillery, quartermasters and medics were also from Nevada and Utah. Almost immediately, two elements were split off to serve as separate units.

The 40th Tank Company from Salinas was sent to the Philippine Islands in 1941 and became Company C, 194th Tank Battalion. That battalion, made up of National Guardsmen from California, Minnesota, and Missouri, along with the 26th Cavalry Regiment (Philippine Scouts) were the covering force during the retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. When Bataan fell, these brave Californians, along with other US Army, Philippine Scouts, and Philippine Commonwealth Army soldiers, were part of the Bataan Death March and the subsequent imprisonment and slavery.

The division's observation squadron, the 115th was sent to the newly formed Army Air Forces where the served throughout the war. The 115th was later to form the backbone of the California Air National Guard when the Air Force was formed in 1947.

Within 48 hours of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Camp San Luis Obispo was a ghost town as elements of the 40th Infantry Division took defensive and security positions over a 350,000 square mile area that stretched from Southern and Central California to Yuma, Arizona and Salt Lake City, Utah. They dug in and prepared for what was thought to be the inevitable Japanese invasion of the West Coast.

In February of 1942, the division was reorganized from the old four regiment "square" division to the three regiment "triangular" division. This resulted in the 184th Infantry Regiment being made excess. That regiment went on to do great things during the war as part of the 7th Infantry Division. To read about the 184th's history, CLICK HERE . Later in the war, the 159th was replaced by the 108th Infantry Regiment from New York. They, along with the 3d Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard), went on to reconstitute the badly mauled 106th Infantry Division during the Battle of the Bulge.

In April 1942, the division moved to Fort Lewis, Washington for further training and preparation for overseas service. And soon that day would come. On 25 July, the division received orders to move to the Port of Embarkation at Camp Stoneman, California. By 8 August, the men of the division boarded a troopship, just as the fathers did during the First World War. And just as there forefathers did, the soldiers of the 40th established the shipboard routine of fire drills, gunnery drills, and abandon ship drills.

In September 1942 the division arrived in Hawaii and moved to defensive positions in the outer islands. In July 1943, the division moved to positions on Oahu. In October, with the threat of a Japanese invasion passing, the 40th took up jungle and amphibious training in preparation of offensive operations.

During December, the division moved to Guadalcanal for further training and limited combat patrolling. While on the "canal", the division didn't battle the Japanese. They instead fought the island's muddy conditions, its swamps, and mosquito-borne malaria. The division, now part of the 1st Marine Amphibious Corps, then moved to Cape Gloucester on New Britain Island and relieved the 1st Marine Division on 23 April 1944. The 40th conducted combat operations until 27 November 1944, when it was relieved by the 5th Australian Division. The 40th then assembled at Borgen Bay the next day and departed New Britain on 9 December 1944 for the their next objective, The Philippines.

After brief stopovers on New Guinea and Manus Island, the 40th Infantry Division landed in the Lingayen area of Luzon at 09:36 hours on 9 January 1945. It was followed up with another landing at Bamban. While opposition during the first landing was light, Bamban was a different story. The division battled the main Japanese force in the Bamban Hills, Fort Stotsenburg and Clark Field, The Zambales Mountains, Snake Hill, Storm King Mountain, The Seven Hills, and the mountain known as the Top of the World. In the final phase the battles moved to Scobia Ridge, Hill 1700, and Williams Ridge. On 2 March, the division was relieved by the 43d Infantry Division.

The division left Luzon on 15 March 1945 and conducted unopposed landings on Paney Islands on the 18th. They conducted combat operations in those islands until the division next moved to Los Negros Island where it conducted multiple landings with little or no opposition. The division regrouped on 8 April for an attack on the Japanese forces in the Negritos-Patog area. Prior to that attack, the 503d Parachute Infantry Regiment was assigned to the division, replacing the 108th Infantry Regiment. The division attacked with all three regiments (The 160th and 185th Infantry, and the 503d) on 9 April and immediately ran into stiff resistance and counterattacks. To make matters worse, the weather turned bad. Torrential rainstorms made air support impossible. Hill 3155 switched hands between the 160th Infantry Regiment and the Japanese Army several times between 18 and 23 May. Organized resistance ceased on 31 May and the 40th moved to the Otag-Santa Barbara-Taguan area for rehabilitation and training. The division was in this area when the war ended.

But while the shooting had stopped, the 40th's mission didn't end just yet. On 22 September 1945 the division arrived in Korea at the port of Inchon to take up occupation duties in that country. They remained in Korea until March 1946 when it returned to Camp Stoneman on 6 April 1946 and was inactivated. When it was all over, the 40th added three more streamers for the divisional colors: BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO, SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES , and LUZON .

To view the 1945 Order of Battle CLICK HERE

When the California National Guard was reconstituted after the Second World War, it was determined that the state could support two infantry divisions. So the state was divided in two with the newly organized 49th Infantry Division taking the 159th, 184th and 185th Infantry Regiments and the 40th Infantry Division consisting of the 160th Infantry Regiment and the newly organized 223d and 224th Infantry Regiments.

Peace did not last long though. On 25 June 1950, the North Korean People's Army invaded the southern Republic of Korea. Two days later, the United States were at war again. A month later, the 40th Infantry Division received their warning orders for mobilization for Korea.

By 15 September 1950, the entire division was encamped at Camp Cooke (now Vandenberg AFB) in coastal central California. Almost immediately, new recruits and draftees began arriving to fill out the division's ranks. Basic and advance training continued through the fall and winter until 29 March 1951, when the division's main body departed California for the Japanese island of Honshu. Almost immediately, they were given the mission of defending the northern part of the island while continuing to train for further deployment to the Korean Peninsula.

Three day before Christmas the division was alerted for that deployment, with the advance party leaving 26 December 1951. There mission was to relieve the battle hardened 24th Infantry Division which had been there since the day that the ill-fated Task Force Smith landed on the peninsula in 1950. On 6 and 7 January 1952, the division boarded troopships bound for Pusan, near Seoul. By 10 February 1952 the division had relieved the 24th, and took their place in the front line.

It was bad enough that the North Koreans and the Chinese "volunteers" dropped artillery and mortars on the division's area when ever they could. But when your own air forces do it, that just added insult to injury. On 2 March 1952, US Marine Corps F4U Corsairs strafed and bombed the division's rear area killing several members of the division's postal section.

About this time, the Company E, 224th Infantry Regiment received two new second lieutenants as replacements. Now normally, such personnel don't pique the interests of military historians, but these two new "butter bars" were special. One was Donald E. Rosenblum. Later in his career he would wear the three stars of a Lieutenant General and Commanding General of the First United States Army. But even with that outstanding career, his partner would have an even more stellar rise through the ranks. Second Lieutenant of Infantry Edward C. "Shy" Meyer would get four stars and serve as the Chief of Staff of the United States Army.

Five days after reporting to the Company Commander, First Lieutenant Arthur Belknap, they would participate in a combat patrol led by Lieutenant Belknap, and consisting of themselves, all four platoon sergeants, six other sergeants, three corporals and one private. Their mission was to rescue the crew of a T6 "Mosquito" observation plane. Unfortunately, the plane crashed 75 yards from the Chinese and over 1,000 yards from the American lines. Other Air Force units covered the position, keeping the Communists at bay. When this rank heavy patrol finally reached the wreck, they found the pilot dead. But the other crewman, First Lieutenant Peter Tolputt, Royal Artillery, alive and only slightly injured. When the patrol was approaching, the British Gunner called to the other aircraft over his radio, "Here comes a bloody lot of American sergeants!"

Offensives and counteroffensives would last through the rest of 1952 and well into 1953. By April 1953, were at the Ihyon-Ni-Kalbakkumi sector, better known as the "Punchbowl." Later they would replace the 45th Infantry Division in the "Heartbreak Ridge-Sandbag Castle" sector. But, finally a truce was declared on 27 July 1953.

The division would remain in Korea until May 1954 and was returned to state control on 30 June 1954. Commemorating their service in Korea, the division colors have added the campaign streamers: SECOND KOREAN WINTER, KOREA SUMMER-FALL 1952, THIRD KOREAN WINTER , and KOREA SUMMER 1953 . The division was also awarded the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation. Members of the division would earn three Medals of Honor, nine Distinguished Service Crosses, 246 Silver Stars, and 675 Bronze Star Medals for Valor.


To view the 1953 Order of Battle CLICK HERE

To view photgraphs of the 40th Infantry Division in Japan and Korea, CLICK HERE

The very next day after their demobilization, the 40th Infantry Division became the 40th Armored Division. This was a great change, not only in names, but also familiar titles and regimental identities. Regiments were replace by Combat Commands A, B, and C. These were later replaced by more familiar Brigades and the return of regimental titles.

With that reorganization complete, the division once again settled into the routine of drills and summer camps. But as the nation entered the 1960's and the Vietnam era, heated passions and the search for civil rights collided in the Los Angeles community of Watts in 1965. For almost two weeks the sight of National Guardsmen with rifles loaded and bayonets fixed became a common site. As with many of these incidents, a majority of the residents of Watts were responsible citizens, seeking change through the ballot box, peaceful protest, and other legal means. These people, and those in the surrounding communities, were the ones that the guard were serving and protecting.

In 1968, the National Guard was reorganized and the division was broken up into the 40th Separate Armored Brigade, the 40th Separate Infantry Brigade, and the 223d General Support Group, as well as other separate units.

To view the 1956 Order of Battle CLICK HERE

To view the 1968 Order of Battle CLICK HERE

On 13 January 1974, the 40th Infantry Division was reborn with its headquarters at Long Beach. The headquarters was later moved to the former Naval Air Station, Los Alamitos where it remains today. During this period the concept of a "Total Force" was the driving force. Infantry battalions would rotate to Korea to participate in TEAM SPIRIT exercises, observers from the Japanese Ground Self Defense Force attended divisional exercises. Staff officers and NCOs participated in training exercises world wide.

Although the division did not deploy any elements to the Persian Gulf War, it did provide highly trained, professional soldiers to other California National Guard and Army Reserve units that did deploy to Saudi Arabia.

But once again, the division was called out to protect the people of California. In April 1992, a jury in Simi Valley found four Los Angeles police officers not guilty of beating Rodney King. Almost immediately, rioting broke out throughout Los Angeles County. So widespread was this incident, that the division was federalized and reinforced by the 49th Military Police Brigade, as well as the 7th Light Infantry Division from Fort Ord and the 1st Marine Division from Camp Pendleton. Once again, as in Watts, a majority of the residents appreciated the presence of the troops. Several local organizations would adopt a platoon or company as their own. Residents of senior citizens' centers slept well knowing their facility wad a platoon of infantry patrolling their block.

From its formation through the present, the division continued to train for war and serve in peace. The Northridge earthquake and the Floods of 1997 are just the latest in a long list of operations that the division has participated in. It is a proud record that speaks well of California and its citizen-soldiers. We hope that this will continue for many years to come.

To view the 1994 Order of Battle CLICK HERE

Other Available Histories

FURTHER READING ON THE 40th INFANTRY DIVISION:

The Fighting Fortieth in War and Peace by Major General James Delk History of California's 40th Infantry Division by a former Division Commander. ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB: 40th Infantry Division (Mechanized) Website The Association of 40th Infantry Division Korean War Veterans
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After the Conquest of California [uredi | uredi izvor]

Treaty of Cahuenga [ edit | uredi izvor]

The "Treaty of Cahuenga" was signed on January 13, 1847, and essentially terminated hostilities in California. The treaty was drafted in English and Spanish by José Antonio Carrillo, approved by American Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Frémont and Mexican Governor Andrés Pico at Campo de Cahuenga in what is now North Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. It was later ratified by Frémont's superiors: Commodore Robert F. Stockton and General Stephen Kearny (brevet rank).

California Reinforcements [ edit | uredi izvor]

In July 1846, Colonel Jonathan D. Stevenson of New York was asked to raise a volunteer regiment of ten companies of 77 men each to go to California with the understanding that they would be muster out and stay in California. They were designated the 1st Regiment of New York Volunteers and took part in the California Campaign and the Pacific Coast Campaign. In August and September 1846 the regiment trained and prepared for the trip to California. Three private merchant ships, Thomas H Perkins, Loo Choo, i Susan Drew, were chartered, and the sloop USS Preble was assigned convoy detail. On 26 September the four ships sailed for California. Fifty men who had been left behind for various reasons sailed on 13 November 1846 on the small storeship USS Brute. The Susan Drew i Loo Choo reached Valparaíso, Chile by 20 January 1847 and they were on their way again by 23 January. The Perkins did not stop until San Francisco, reaching port on 6 March 1847. The Susan Drew arrived on 20 March and the Loo Choo arrived on 26 March 1847, 183 days after leaving New York. The Brute finally arrived on 17 April 1847.

After desertions and deaths in transit the four ships brought 648 men to California. The companies were then deployed throughout Upper-Alta and Lower-Baja California (captured by the Navy, but later negotiated away) from San Francisco to La Paz, Mexico. The ship Isabella sailed from Philadelphia on 16 August 1846, with a detachment of one hundred soldiers, and arrived in California on 18 February 1847, the following year, at about the same time that the ship Švedska arrived with another detachment of soldiers. These soldiers were added to the existing companies of Stevenson's 1st New York Volunteer Regiment. Β] These troops essentially took over nearly all of the Pacific Squadron's on-shore military and garrison duties and the California Battalion's garrison duties.

The Mormon Battalion served from July 1846 to July 1847 during the Mexican–American War. The battalion was a volunteer unit of between 534 Γ] Δ] and 559 Ε] Latter-day Saints men were led by Mormon company officers, commanded by regular United States Army senior officers. During its service, the battalion made a grueling march, at nearly 2,000 miles in length from Council Bluffs, Iowa to San Diego. This remains one of the longest single military march in U.S. history.

The Mormon Battalion arrived in San Diego on January 29, 1847, after a march of some 1,900 miles from Iowa. For the next five months until their discharge on July 16, 1847 in Los Angeles, the battalion trained and did garrison duties in several locations in southern California before their discharge. Discharged members of the Mormon Battalion were helping build a sawmill for John Sutter when gold was discovered there in January 1848 starting the California Gold Rush.

In January 1847 Army lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman and about 100 regular U.S. Army soldiers arrived in Monterey. American forces in the pipeline continued to dribble into California.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo [ edit | uredi izvor]

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in February, 1848, marked the end of the Mexican–American War. In that treaty, Mexico formally ceded Alta California along with its other northern territories east through Texas, receiving $15,000,000 in exchange. This largely unsettled territory constituted nearly half of its claimed territory with about 1% of its then population of about 4,500,000. Ζ] Η]


Gledaj video: History of America in Hindi. अमरक क इतहस क रमचक कहन. Historic Hindi


Komentari:

  1. Rydge

    Beskonačnost rasprave :)

  2. Ashvin

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  3. Seorus

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  4. Goltigore

    Directly in the apples

  5. Ozzy Lebron

    Kositar!

  6. Friedrich

    divno, jako dobra informacija



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