Locke objavljuje dvije rasprave o vlasti - povijest

Locke objavljuje dvije rasprave o vlasti - povijest



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1690. engleski filozof John Locke objavio je "Dvije rasprave o građanskoj vlasti". Knjiga je predstavila teoriju ograničene monarhije. U njemu se navodi da postoji društveni ugovor između onih kojima se upravlja i onih kojima se upravlja. Lockes je imao utjecaj na razvoj teorija demokratske vlasti.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti

Kad Shaftesbury nije uspio uskladiti interese kralja i parlamenta, bio je smijenjen 1681., uhićen je, suđen i na kraju oslobođen od londonske porote za izdaju. Godinu dana kasnije pobjegao je u Nizozemsku, gdje je 1683. umro. Nitko od poznatih prijatelja Shaftesburyja sada nije bio siguran u Engleskoj. Sam Locke, koji se pomno promatrao, prešao je u Nizozemsku u rujnu 1683. godine.

Iz tog konteksta proizašlo je Lockeovo glavno djelo u političkoj filozofiji, Dvije rasprave o vlasti (1689). Iako se znanstvenici ne slažu oko točnog datuma njegova sastavljanja, sigurno je da je on u velikoj mjeri sastavljen prije nego što je Locke pobjegao u Nizozemsku. U tom pogledu Dvije rasprave bio je odgovor na političku situaciju kakva je postojala u Engleskoj u vrijeme polemike o isključenju, iako je njezina poruka imala trajniji značaj. U predgovoru djela, sastavljenom kasnije, Locke jasno daje do znanja da su argumenti dvaju traktata kontinuirani i da cjelina predstavlja opravdanje slavne revolucije, koja je dovela na prijestolje protestanta Williama III i Mariju II. bijeg Jakova II u Francusku.

Valja napomenuti da se Lockeova politička filozofija vodila svojim duboko ukorijenjenim vjerskim opredjeljenjima. Tijekom svog života prihvaćao je postojanje Boga koji stvara i ideju da su svi ljudi Božji sluge na temelju tog odnosa. Bog je stvorio ljude s određenom svrhom, naime da žive životom prema svojim zakonima i tako naslijede vječno spasenje najvažnije za Lockeovu filozofiju, Bog je ljudima dao samo one intelektualne i druge sposobnosti potrebne za postizanje tog cilja. Tako su ljudi, koristeći sposobnost razuma, u stanju otkriti da Bog postoji, identificirati njegove zakone i dužnosti koje oni uključuju te steći dovoljno znanja za obavljanje svojih dužnosti i na taj način voditi sretan i uspješan život. Oni mogu uvidjeti da su neke radnje, poput propuštanja brige za svoje potomstvo ili pridržavanja ugovora, moralno vrijedne osude i protivne prirodnom zakonu, koji je identičan Božjem zakonu. Drugi specifični moralni zakoni mogu se otkriti ili spoznati samo putem objave - npr. Čitanjem Biblije ili Kur'ana.

U osnovi protestantski kršćanski okvir Lockeove filozofije značio je da će njegov stav prema rimokatolicizmu uvijek biti neprijateljski raspoložen. Odbacio je tvrdnju o papinoj nepogrešivosti (kako se to uopće moglo dokazati?), A bojao se političkih dimenzija katolicizma kao prijetnje engleskoj autonomiji, osobito nakon što je Luj XIV 1685. ukinuo Nantski edikt, koji je vjersku slobodu dodijelio protestantskih hugenota.


Recenzije i preporuke pojačala

'... vrlo originalna i briljantno argumentirana studija ... Dunnov pristup donosi nešto sasvim novo u Lockeovoj nauci: cjeloviti portret Lockeova uma, prikazan u njegovoj evoluciji u svim njegovim stresovima i nedosljednostima. Rezultat je knjiga podjednako izvrsna po svom učenju i inteligenciji. ' The American Historical Review

'... izvanredna knjiga koju bi zbog ozbiljnog historiografskog smisla trebao pročitati svaki ozbiljan student povijesti filozofije'. Filozofski tromjesečnik


Dvije rasprave o vlasti (1689)

1689. trebao je biti Locke ’s annus mirabilis. U veljači se trijumfalno vratio u Englesku nakon Slavne revolucije. U travnju je Epistola objavljen je u Holland Popple ’s Prijevod na engleski jezik izašao je u Londonu u listopadu. U svibnju je Locke potpisao ugovor s izdavačem da objavi svoj Esej trebao se pojaviti u prosincu. U studenom su Awnsham i John Churchill (koji su trebali biti glavni izdavači Lockeovih djela od 1689. do znatno nakon autorove smrti) objavili anonimnu knjigu pod naslovom Dvije rasprave o vlasti. Predgovor započinje: “Čitatelju, ovdje imate početak i kraj rasprave o vladi što je Sudbina inače riješila spisa koji su trebali ispuniti sredinu, a bili su više od svih ostalih, ’ti ne vrijedi da ti kažem. ” Nedostajuća sredina i dalje je misterij. Početak i kraj, međutim, sastoje se od dvije različite stavke i nagovještavaju dugu i složenu tekstualnu pretpovijest.

Arheologiju ovog teksta započeo je Peter Laslett u svom izdanju iz 1960. (Locke #118). Tvrdio je da svaka rasprava ima poseban odnos prema djelima Sir Roberta Filmera. Prva rasprava, detaljno opovrgavanje Filmerovih filmova Patrijarha, prvi put objavljen 1680. godine, vjerojatno je bio napisan u to vrijeme. Druga rasprava, općenitija rasprava o podrijetlu i svrsi vlade, sadrži odlomke usmjerene na druga Filmerova djela, izvorno objavljena tijekom Interregnuma, a ponovno su ih objavili pristaše vlade Charlesa II 1679. Laslett je tvrdio da je druga rasprava imala napisana je 1679.-80. i da je prva rasprava dodana kasnije nakon pojave Patrijarhije. Djelo je tako napisano u razdoblju Shaftesburyjevog protivljenja Charlesu II, bilo je usmjereno na autora popularnog u rojalističkim krugovima, a dovršeno je prije nego što se Locke povukao u Nizozemsku 1683. Rukopis je vjerojatno ostavljen u Engleskoj gdje je “srednja & #0148 je izgubljen.

Drugi znanstvenici predložili su varijacije ove priče. Hinton vidi odlomke Filmera u Drugoj raspravi kao dodatke nastale oko 1680. tekstu napisanom 1670 -ih. Thompson tvrdi da bi poglavlje o osvajanju moglo potjecati iz 1689. Ashcraft tvrdi da su rasprave napisane nakon 1681., tj. Nakon što su pristaše Shaftesburyja izgubile bitku u parlamentu i krenule prema pobuni protiv vlade. Budući da nema sačuvanih nacrta djela, ima malo konkretnih dokaza. Čini se, međutim, jasnim da je rukopis započet negdje prije nego što je Locke napustio Englesku 1683. i stoga pripada kontekstu protivljenja Karlu II. S druge strane, također je očito da je Locke zadržao objavljivanje do 1689., kada se djelo moglo izdati – s nekoliko revizija koje ukazuju na suvremenu relevantnost njegovih argumenata — kao obrana revolucije koju je postigao William of Orange .

Filter

Filmski ’s Patrijarha uključeno je u Locke #115, #117, #180 (njemački), #187 (talijanski) i #209 (španjolski)

Izdanja oba traktata

Dvije rasprave o vlasti: u prvom, otkrivaju se i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvornik, opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. London, tiskano za Awnsham Churchill …, 1690. [12], 271 [= 467], [3] str. (str. 465-467 pogrešno numeriran 269-271). 8 o.

Datum na naslovnoj stranici nije točan, djelo je licencirano 23. kolovoza 1689., a pojavilo se u listopadu.

Y 29 krilo L2766 L Br 1 J 16 C 19 Br 8 krilo L2766 H&L 1293 [8/175]

Dvije rasprave o vlasti: u prvom, otkrivaju se i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvornik, opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. Drugo izdanje ispravljeno. London, tiskano za Awnsham i Johna Churchilla …, 1694. [8], 358, [2] str. 8 o.

Sadrži neke izmjene i mnoge pogreške Locke je bio izuzetno nezadovoljan tekstom.

Y 30 L Br 2 J 17 C 19 Br 8 Krila L2767 H&L 1293a

Dvije rasprave o vlasti: u prvom, otkrivaju se i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvornik, opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. London: tiskano za Awnsham i Johna Churchilla … 1698. [6], 358, [2] str. 8 o.

“Preizbor stranice za stranicu drugog izdanja ” –Laslett.

Y 31 L Br 3 J 18 C 19 Br 8 Krila L2768 H&L 1294

Dvije rasprave o vlasti: u prvom, otkrivaju se i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvornik, opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. Autor John Locke, Esq Četvrto izdanje. … London: tiskano za Johna Churchilla … 1713. 379, [5] str. 12 o

“Ispisivanje jedne od Lockeovih master kopija ” –Laslettove osnove za tekst 1714. godine Djela–Johnston.

Dvije rasprave bio je uključen u prvo izdanje Lockeovih#0146 Djela (1714) [Locke #848] i u svim sljedećim izdanjima.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti: u prvom, otkrivaju se i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvornik, opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. Peto izdanje. … London: tiskano za A. Bettesworth …, J. Pemberton … i E. Symon … M.DCC.XXVIII [1728]. [8], 308, [4] str. 8 o.

Pretisak 4. izdanja.

Postoje tri stanja ovog izdanja, s različitim naslovnim stranicama. Prvom stanju (gore) nedostaje ime autora, drugo dodaje “Prikladom Johna Lockea Esqa#0148 prije izjave o izdanju, treće stanje uključuje ime autora i formalnu varijantu na popisu izdavača naslovnih stranica drugo i treće stanje su poništenja.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti. John Locke … London tiskano MDCLXXXVIIII [1689] pretiskano, šesti put, A. Millar, H. Woodfall, J. Whiston i B. White, J. Rivington, L. Davis i C. Reymers, R. Baldwin , Hawes Clarke i Collins [i 14 drugih] MDCCLXIIII [1764]. [12], 416 str. + priključak. 8 o.

Uredio Thomas Hollis, povijest ovog izdanja opisana je u Blackburneu, Uspomene na Thomasa Holisa (1780)

Dvije rasprave o vlasti. U prvom se otkrivaju i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvorni opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. Autor John Locke. … Dublin: tiskale Sarah Cotter i J. Sheppard i za njih …, M DCC LXVI [1766]. [6], iii, [1], 331, [1] str. 12 o

Ponovno izdanje 6. izdanja (1764.) koje je uredio Hollis –Laslett.

Pretisak 6. izdanja, uredio Thomas Hollis.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti. U prvom se otkrivaju i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvorni opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. Autor John Locke. … Dublin: tiskano za J. Shepparda i G. Nugent …. M, DCC, LXXIX [1779]. [2], iii, [3], 331, [1] str. 12 o

Pretisak izdanja iz 1766. koje je uredio Hollis.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti. U prvom se otkrivaju i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvorni opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. Autor John Locke. … Dublin: tiskao William M ’Kenzie … 1794. vi, [2], 304 str. 8 o.

Pretisak izdanja iz 1779. uredio Hollis.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti: u prvom, otkrivaju se i ruše lažni principi i temelji Sir Roberta Filmera i njegovih sljedbenika. Potonji je esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvornik, opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. Autor John Locke, Esq Šesto izdanje. … Glasgow, tiskao W. Paton za R. Smitha, knjižara, Paisley i D. Boag, izdavač. 1796. 431, [7] str. 12 o

Tekst 6. izdanja (1764.) uredio Hollis –Laslett.

Locke o građanskoj vlasti: prijedlozi za objavljivanje uz pretplatu, to slavno djelo, naslovljeno, Dvije rasprave o vladi, Johna Lockea / napisao Bernard B. Macanulty. – Salem Mass.: [Macanulty], 1806. – 1 široka tablica.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti / napisao John Locke. – Novo izdanje. ispravljeno. – London: tiskano za Whitmore i Fenn i C. Browna, 1821. – x, 401 str. : luka.

Tekst 6. (1764.) izdanja.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti / napisao John Locke. – London: tiskano za R. Butlera, W. Reida, W. Sharpea i Johna Bumpusa, 1821. – xii, 401 str.

“Pretiskanje stranice za stranicu ” prethodnog unosa –Laslett.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti / napisao John Locke, Esq. – Novo izdanje. – London: tiskano za C. i J. Rivingtona [i drugi], 1824. – 277 str.

Dvije rasprave o civilnoj vlasti / John Locke prethodi Sir Robert Filmer ’s Patrijarha s uvodom Henryja Morleyja. – London: G. Routledge New York: E.P. Dutton, [1884]. – 320 str. – (Univerzalna biblioteka Morley ’s)

Ponovno izdanje izdanja 1690. nemaju svi brojevi izdanje iz 2. izdanja. pojavio se 1887., a ponovno je tiskan 1903. godine.

O građanskoj vlasti: dvije rasprave / napisao John Locke [s uvodom W.S. Stolar]. – London: J.M. Dent New York: E.P. Dutton, [1924]. – xviii, 242 str. – (biblioteka Everyman ’s 751)

“Različit pretisak 1. izdanja ” –Laslett pretiskan 1949. kao Dvije rasprave o građanskoj vlasti.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti / John Locke s dodatkom, Patrijarha autor Robert Filmer uredio Thomas I. Cook. – New York: Hafner, 1947. – xlii, 310 str. – (Hafnerovi klasici 2)

Pretisak 6. (1764.) izd. ponovno tiskano 1956., 1957., 1961. itd.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti / John Locke kritičko izdanje s uvodom i kritikom aparata Petera Lasletta. – Cambridge: University Press, 1960. – xvii, 525 str.

Također: revidirano izdanje, 1963. pretiskano 1964., 1965. 2. izdanje, 1967. studentsko izdanje, s novim pogovorom, 1988.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti / John Locke uvod Ian Shapiro. – Norwalk, Conn.: Easton Press, & copy1991. – x, 260 str.

Dvije rasprave o vlasti i Pismo u vezi tolerancije / John Locke uredio i s uvodom Ian Shapiro s esejima Johna Dunna, Ruth W. Grant, Iana Shapira. – New Haven London: Yale University Press, c2003. – xv, 358 str. – (Promišljanje tradicije zapadne tradicije)

Tekstovi rasprava i pisama preuzeti iz izdanja Locke ’ iz 1823. godine Djela.

ISBN 0-300-10017-5 0-300-10018-3 (pbk.)

Dvije rasprave o vladi: prijevod na suvremeni engleski / Prevoditelj John Locke, F. Lewis Abbott. – [Ažurirano, rev. ur.]. – Manchester: Istraživanje industrijskih sustava, 2009.

Poboljšano izdanje John Locke & rsquos Dvije rasprave o građanskoj vlasti (1689, 1764) / John Locke. & ndash Poboljšano izdanje. & ndash Indianapolis: Fond za slobodu, [2014?]. & ndash 1 online tekst (285 stranica). & ndash (Klasika slobode: poboljšano izdanje)

Sadrži: O Johnu Lockeu & ndash O tekstu & ndash Kronologija Lockeovog života i rada & ndash Uredništvo Literature of Liberty: Važnost Johna Lockea & ndash Karen Vaughn, & ldquoJohn Locke & rsquos teorija vlasništva: problemi tumačenja & rdquo [pretisak članka 1980.] & ldquoUvod u političku misao Johna Lockea & rdquo & ndash & ldquoSloboda je bitna & rdquo internetska rasprava: Eric Mack, & ldquoJohn Locke o imovini & rdquo & ndash Locke & rsquos Dvije rasprave (1764. izd. Hollis).

Dvije rasprave o vlasti / John Locke uredio, s uvodom i bilješkama, Lee Ward. & ndash Indianapolis: Focus, otisak Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., [2016]. & ndash xxxiv, 255 stranica. & ndash (Filozofska biblioteka Focus)

Dvije rasprave o vlasti / John Locke uredio Felix Waldmann. & ndash Oxford: Clarendon Press, u pripremi. & ndash (Clarendonovo izdanje djela Johna Lockea)

Engleski tekst od Dvije rasprave uključen je sa španjolskim prijevodom u Locke #209 (1991).

Izdanja druge rasprave

Esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvorni opseg i kraj građanske vlasti. Kasno učeni John Locke, Esq. Boston: ponovno tiskane i prodane od strane Edes and Gill …, 1773. 129, [1] str. 4 o.

Pretiskano iz 6. izdanja (1764) Dvije rasprave, uredio Thomas Hollis.

Y 38 L Am 1 Evans 12834 J 26 C 100

Esej o pravom izvornom opsegu i kraju civilne vlasti. Autor John Locke. … S bilješkama. … Dublin: George Bonham. 1798. vi, 210 str. 12 o

Tekst 6. izdanja, uredio Thomas Hollis –Laslett.

Za uvod i bilješke Thomasa Elringtona vidi unos u Poglavlje 7.

Ponovno izdavanje prethodne stavke, s otkazivanjem naslovne stranice koja identificira autora bilješki.

Esej o pravom izvorniku, opsegu i kraju građanske vlasti / napisao John Locke, Esq. – Novo izdanje, kojemu je prefiks život autora. – London: tiskano u obnovljenoj Apollo Pressu, J. Bell, 1814. – 157 str.

O građanskoj vlasti i toleranciji / napisao John Locke. – London New York: Cassell, 1889. – 192 str. – (Nacionalna knjižnica Cassell ’s 207)

Tekst 4. izdanja, uvod u 1713 –Laslett potpisan H.M. [Henry Morley] ponovno tiskan 1895., 1905. godine.

Rasprava o građanskoj vlasti i, Pismo u vezi tolerancije / John Locke uredio Charles L. Sherman. – New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts & copy1937. – xv, 224 str. – (izvorne knjige o filozofiji Appleton-Century)

Pretisak izdanja 1690. –Laslett.

“Esej o pravom izvorniku, opsegu i kraju civilne vlasti ” / John Locke. // U: Engleski filozofi od Bacona do Milla / uredio uvodom Edwin A. Burtt. – New York: Moderna biblioteka, & copy1939. – str. 403-503 (prikaz, stručni).

Tekst Sherman ’s izdanja iz 1937. –Laslett.

O civilnoj vlasti: drugi esej / Locke. – Ann Arbor, Mich.: J.W. Edwards, [194-]. – 164 str.

Druga rasprava o civilnoj vlasti i, Pismo u vezi tolerancije / John Locke priredio s uvodom J. W. Gough. – Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1946. – xxxix, 165 str.

Tekst iz izdanja Sherman ’s iz 1937. –Laslett također: Novo izdanje, ispravljeno i revidirano. – Oxford: B. Blackwell New York: Macmillan, 1956. i 3. izd. – Oxford: B. Blackwell New York: Barnes & Noble, 1966.

Recenzije: Anon., T.L.S. 11. siječnja 1947 .: 19 T.J. Higgins, NewSchol. 32: 501-505 C. Pročitajte, Wm. & MaryQ. 3. serija: 5 (1948): 409-412.

O civilnoj vlasti: drugi esej / John Locke. – Chicago: H. Regnery za zakladu Great Books, [1948]. – 150 str.

Nepotvrđeni izvor: NUC.

“Esej o pravom izvorniku, opsegu i kraju civilne vlasti ” / John Locke. // U: Društveni ugovor: eseji / napisali Locke, Hume i Rousseau s uvodom Sir Ernesta Barkera. – London New York: Oxford University Press, 1947. – (Svjetski klasici br. 511). – str. 1-206 (prikaz, ostalo).

Ponovno tiskano 1960 Druga rasprava pojavljuje se na str. 1-143 (prikaz, ostalo).

“Esej o pravom izvorniku, opsegu i kraju civilne vlasti ” / John Locke. // U: Politički filozofi: Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Henry David Thoreau. – New York: Carlton House, 1947. – str. 56-132 (prikaz, ostalo).

Druga rasprava vlade / John Locke uredio uvodom Thomas P. Peardon. – New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1952. – xxviii, 139 str. – (Knjižnica slobodnih umjetnosti 31)

Tekst Cook ’s izdanja iz 1947. [Locke#117] –Laslettova kasnija izdanja: Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952. i New York: Macmillan London: Collier Macmillan, 1986. godine.

Druga rasprava pretiskana je [iz Shermanovog izdanja, Locke #124] u sv. 35 od Velike knjige zapadnog svijeta (1952.) [Locke #867]

O građanskoj vlasti: druga rasprava / John Locke uvod Russell Kirk. – Chicago: H. Regnery, & copy1955. – xiii, 205 str.

Tekst izdanja Sherman ’s iz 1937. [Locke#124] –Laslett drugo izdanje: O civilnoj vlasti: drugi esej / John Locke uvod Russell Kirk. – Chicago: Gateway Editions, distribuira H. Regnery, & copy1955. – 180 str. – (izdanje Gateway 6021)

Druga rasprava vlade / John Locke s uvodom, C.B. Macphersona. – Indianapolis Cambridge: Hackett Pub. Co., & copy1980. – xxiv, 124 str.

Pretisak izdanja iz 1764. [Locke #105].

Druga rasprava o vlasti: esej o pravom izvorniku, opsegu i kraju građanske vlasti / John Locke uredio Richard H. Cox. – Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, & copy1982. – xlviii, 150 str. – (Croftsovi klasici)

Sažetak: PhI 1983:265.

Druga rasprava o civilnoj vlasti / John Locke. – Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1986. – 132 str. – (Sjajne knjige iz serije filozofije)

Prirodno stanje te struktura i ciljevi naših političkih društava / John Locke. – [Mjesto nije dano]: Zaklada za klasične pretiske, [1988?]. – 2 sv.

Radni naslov: Rasprava o civilnoj vlasti.

Druga rasprava vlade / John Locke uvod i objašnjenje Brad Small. – Houston, Tex.: Communican, [1990?]. - 137 str. -(Serija biblioteke velikih filozofa Lincoln-Douglasa)

Druga rasprava o civilnoj vlasti / John Locke uredio Andrew Bailey. & ndash Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2015. & ndash 158 stranica.

Druga rasprava vlade i Pismo o toleranciji / John Locke uredio s uvodom i bilješkama Marka Goldieja. & ndash Prvo izdanje. & ndash Oxford, Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo: Oxford University Press, 2016. & ndash xlvi, 201 stranica. & ndash (Oxford world & rsquos klasici)

The Druga rasprava također je uključen u sv. 35 serije Great Books [Locke #867] i sa Esej u izdanju iz 2014.

Druga rasprava. Skraćivanja.

“Esej o pravom izvorniku, opsegu i kraju civilne vlasti ” / John Locke. // U: Remek -djela vlade: sažeci 13 velikih klasika / uredio Leonard Dalton Abbott. – Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1947. – (serija Masterworks). – str. 321-371 (prikaz, stručni).

“Druga rasprava o civilnoj vlasti (1689) ” / John Locke. // U: Svjetionici zapadne kulture: sažete verzije velikih knjiga i epohalnih javnih djela koja su oblikovala naše duhovno naslijeđe / uredio i s uvodima Erik Achorn. – Boston: Beacon Press, & copy1952. – str. 236-289 (prikaz, stručni).

“Druga rasprava o civilnoj vlasti: esej koji se odnosi na pravi izvornik, opseg i kraj civilne vlasti ” / John Locke. // U: Tradicija slobode: odabir pisaca koji su oblikovali tradicionalne koncepte slobode i pravde u Americi / uredio Milton Mayer za Fond za Republiku. – New York: Oceana Publications & copy1957. – str. 201-280 (prikaz, stručni).

Lockeova druga rasprava o građanskoj vlasti: esej o pravom izvorniku, opsegu i kraju civilne vlasti: suvremeni izbor / skratio i uredio Lester De Koster. – Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans & copy1978. – 83 str. – (Temelji američke demokracije)

Druga rasprava. Izbor.

Veliki dio materijala u ovoj brošuri preuzet je bez priznanja iz Druga rasprava.

O građanskoj politici. London: tiskan M.DCC.LIII [1753]. [2], vi, 10, 7-36 str. 8 o.

“Izvađeno iz gospodina Lockea#0146 Esej o civilnoj vlasti, s nekim izmjenama i dopunama. ”

Duh Johna Lockea o građanskoj vlasti, oživio ga je Ustavno društvo Sheffield. Sheffield: tiskao za društvo J. Gales, a prodao Symonds i Ridgeway, D.I. Eaton, London i svi prodavači knjiga. [1794]. viii, 42 str. 12 o

Laslett opisuje izdanje iz 1800. godine (viii, 78 str.)

Izbori iz druge vladine rasprave Johna Lockea (#0146) (1690) / uredio S.E. Morison. – [Boston, Massachusetts: objavili direktori djela Old South Work, 1921]. – 23 str. – (letci sa Starog Juga 208)

“Locke o civilnoj vlasti. ” // IN: Sukob političkih ideala: izvorna knjiga o demokraciji, komunizmu i totalitarnoj državi / odabrao i zabilježio Albert R. Chandler. – New York London: D. Appleton-Century Co., & copy1940. – str. 21-39 (prikaz, stručni).

Tekst Everyman izdanja, drugo izdanje pojavilo se 1949. godine.

“Esej o pravom izvorniku, opsegu i kraju civilne vlasti ” / John Locke. // U: Čovjek i država: politički filozofi / uredili Saxe Commins & Robert N. Linscott. – New York: Random House, 1947. – (Svijet velikih mislilaca [3]). – str. 57-132 (prikaz, ostalo).

Čovjek i država: moderne političke ideje / uredio William Ebenstein. – New York: Rinehart & copy1947.

Vidi “Demokracija, revolucija i prijetnja anarhije ” (str. 6-9) i “Kraj vlade ” (str. 330-345)

Zbirka je preštampana kao: Suvremena politička misao: velika pitanja / [sastavio] William Ebenstein. – New York: Rinehart & copy1954. – Vidi str. 128-131 i 424-439.

“John Locke (1632-1704). ” // IN: Machiavellija do Benthama / autor W.T. Jones (1947). – Vidi unos u Poglavlje 7.

Uključuje izbore citirane iz Druga rasprava [iz djela iz 1727., Locke #850]

“Prirodna prava ograničavaju vladara ” / Locke. // U: Zapadno političko naslijeđe / [sastavili] William Y. Elliott i Neil A. McDonald. – New York: Prentice-Hall, 1949. – str. 536-554 [1950. tisak, str. 566-599].

Narod će suditi: čitanja u oblikovanju američke politike / odabralo i uredilo osoblje, Društvene znanosti I, Fakultet Sveučilišta u Chicagu. – Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949.

Uključuje odabire iz Druga rasprava (vol. 1: 68-118) i iz Pismo o toleranciji (str. 118-128)

Odlični izrazi ljudskih prava … / uredio R.M. MacIver (1950). – Vidi unos u Poglavlje 7.

Izbori citirani iz Druga rasprava (str. 276-281)

“Podrijetlo i priroda vlasti. ” // IN: Žive ideje u Americi / uredio i s komentarom Henry Steele Commager. – New York: Harper, & copy1951. – str. 116-120 (prikaz, stručni).

Stavci 87, 95-97, 131, 135-136 i 142 Druga rasprava.

Veliki politički mislioci: Platon do danas / [sastavio] William Ebenstein. – New York: Rinehart, 1951.

Vidi str. 362-391 [1960. tisak, str. 384-413]

“A priori liberalizam ” / John Locke. // U: Dokumenti suvremene političke misli / uredio T.E. Utley i J. Stuart Maclure. – Cambridge: University Press, 1957. – str. 15-19.

“Od civilne vlade ” / autor John Locke. // U: Moderne političke ideologije / [sastavili] Alan P. Grimes i Robert H. Horwitz. – New York: Oxford University Press, 1959. – str. 7-20.

“Politička moć ” / John Locke. // U: Klasici u zapadnoj civilizaciji: tijek odabranih čitanja autoriteta. – New York: Philosophical Library Nottingham: Cultural Publications, 1960. – str. 177-183 (prikaz, ostalo).

“Od početka političkih društava: od Dvije rasprave o vlasti (1690) ” / od Johna Lockea. // U: Klasični eseji na engleskom jeziku / uredila Josephine Miles. – Boston: Little Brown, & copy1961. – str. 76-90 [1965. izd., Str. 108-123].

“John Locke. ” // IN: Društvo, pravo i moral: čitanja u društvenoj filozofiji iz klasičnih i suvremenih izvora / uredio s uvodima Frederick A. Olafson. – Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1961. – str. 117-148 (prikaz, stručni).

Iz poglavlja 2-5, 7-9, 11, 13. i 19. poglavlja Druga rasprava.

“Revolucija i prirodno pravo na pobunu ” / John Locke. // U: Revolucija 1688: Whig trijumf ili revolucija palače / uredio uvodom Gerald M. Straka. – Boston: DC Heath, & copy1963. – (Problemi u europskoj civilizaciji). – str. 29-35 (prikaz, stručni).

Zbirka je preštampana kao: Revolucija 1688. i rađanje engleske političke nacije / uredio uvodom Gerald M. Straka. – 2. izd. – Boston: DC Heath, & copy1973. – (Problemi u europskoj civilizaciji). – Vidi str. 71-82 (prikaz, stručni).

“Pravilo brojeva ” / Locke. // U: Politika i moć: tko bi trebao vladati / uredio i s uvodima odabrao Terry Hoy. – New York: G.P. Putnam, & copy1968. – str. 93-113 (prikaz, ostalo).

“Dravo revolucije ” / John Locke. // U: Društvena filozofija: od Platona do Chea / uredili Robert Elias Abu Shanab i Stephen P. Holbrook. – Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, & copy1972. – str. 111-118 (prikaz, stručni).

Poglavlje 19 Druga rasprava.

“Utvrđivanje i raspad političkih društava ” / Locke. // U: Filozofija, moderan susret / [sastavio] Robert Paul Wolff. – Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, & copy1976. – str. 449-461 (prikaz, ostalo).

Iz 8., 9. i 19. poglavlja Druga rasprava.

Zapadni liberalizam: povijest u dokumentima od Lockea do Crocea / uredio E.K. Bramsted i K.J. Melhuish. – London New York: Longman, 1978.

Vidi “Građansko stanje ” (str. 105-117) i “Religijska tolerancija ” (str. 173-184)

“O imovine ” / John Locke. // U: Nekretnine, mainstream i kritične pozicije / uredio, s uvodnim i zaključnim esejem, C.B. Macpherson. – Toronto Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, & copy1978. – str. 15-27 (prikaz, stručni).

“Prava na imovinu ”/ John Locke. // U: Imovina, dobit i ekonomska pravda / [sastavila] Virginia Held. – Belmont, Kalifornija: Wadsworth, & copy1980. – str. 22-38 (prikaz, stručni).

Anglo-američki liberalizam: čitanja u normativnoj političkoj ekonomiji / uredili Conrad Waligorski i Thomas Hone. – Chicago: Nelson-Hall, & copy1981.

Pogledajte “Drugu raspravu vlade ” / John Locke (str. 54-66), “Pismo o toleranciji ” / John Locke (str. 124-138) i “O imovini ” / John Locke (str 177-180)

Odlomci iz Poglavlja XI Dvije rasprave pojavio se u Locke o toleranciji / uredio Richard Vernon (2010.) & ndash str. 47-49 (prikaz, stručni).


Sada Streaming

Gospodine Tornado

Gospodine Tornado izvanredna je priča o čovjeku čiji je revolucionarni rad u istraživanju i primijenjenoj znanosti spasio tisuće života i pomogao Amerikancima da se pripreme za opasne vremenske pojave i odgovore na njih.

Križarski rat protiv dječje paralize

Priča o križarskom ratu protiv dječje paralize odaje počast vremenu kada su se Amerikanci udružili kako bi pobijedili strašnu bolest. Medicinski napredak spasio je nebrojene živote i imao je sveobuhvatan utjecaj na američku filantropiju koja se osjeća i danas.

Američki Oz

Istražite život i vremena L. Franka Bauma, tvorca voljene osobe Čudesni čarobnjak iz Oza.


Priroda protiv njegovanja i prirode

Bibliju, koja je kasnije postala ime njegove rasprave (Fiero, 2011). Ipak, Hobbes vjeruje da ako nema vođe, onda nema opravdanja za dobro ili loše, niti jedan čovjek neće znati je li to što radi uopće pogrešno. Navodi da nema zakona dok ga osoba ne stvori, jer nema pravde ili nepravde u prirodi, već samo u društvu (“Hobbes Leviathan”, 2012.). Hobbes u svoju raspravu također uključuje Levijatan da postoje dvije stvari koje omogućuju ljudima da se oslobode & hellip


Povijest

U sedamnaestom stoljeću u Europu su uvedene mnoge nove filozofske ideje. Stanovnici Europe bili su pod utjecajem renesanse i dovodili su u pitanje sve što je poznato i pokušali povećati svoje znanje. Sedamnaesto stoljeće bilo je doba razuma, temelj svakog znanja morao se sustavno dokazivati ​​pomoću činjenica. Bilo je nekoliko filozofa koji su uvelike utjecali na kasnije generacije. Politički, engleski filozof po imenu John Locke koristio je razum i činjenice za opis idealne vlade. Njegove ideje u njegovim Dvije rasprave o vlasti naglašavaju važnost individualnih prava nad moći vlade. To je u suprotnosti s drugim utjecajnim filozofom, Thomasom Hobbesom, koji naglašava potrebu za jakom vladom. Lockeova gledišta mogu se usporediti s Levellerovima, skupinom radikala generacijom prije Lockea, koja se protivila monarhiji Velike Britanije. Nivelatori su stvorili Sporazum slobodnog naroda Engleske, u kojem iznose svoje poglede na ljudska prava i vladu. Mnoge ideje prikazane u radovima Levellera slične su gledištima Lockea. Most of the Leveller’s ideas are compatible with Locke’s, with slight differences being evident.

The Levellers, a radical group in England during the mid seventeenth century, created a series of petitions to the leaders of England expressing the reforms they wished enforced. The ideas in these petitions were eventually gathered together in 1649 in a document titled An Agreement of the Free People of England . The Levellers, lead by John Lilburne and William Walwyn among others, declared a state of nature was present in England , and that the old government no longer had the right to authority. [1] In the Agreement, the Levellers outline the government they demand, or rather wish, to be created in place of the old government. To begin, they state that England is in a crisis, and being servants of God, it is their moral obligation to do what they can to help their country, which they believe they are doing by creating the agreement. [2] They believe God has created an opportunity to make the country better, and the basis of all their ideas comes from their religious views. They praise God that the situation is not worse than it is, and that they have not made the circumstances worse by their actions. [3] The main points of the Agreement are the abolishment of monarchy, whish they refer to as “arbitrary power,” along with removing secondary leaders, creating restrictions on the government, and the removal of past offenses. [4] The Levellers demand that the supreme power of England resides in a representative body of 400 members who represent the citizens of England . The monarchs of England have no power whatsoever over the people. The representatives are chosen “according to natural right” democratically, and must be over the age of twenty. They can not be a servant, a member of the clergy or military, or hold any other political office such as treasury. [5] In addition, representatives serve only one term. These restrictions to office are to limit corrupt representatives. The Levellers mention that the main power of the representative body is to ensure peace and trade with other nations, and preserve the rights of citizens, which include the right to life, liberty, property, and land. In addition, the body may tax and raise money, increase the freedoms of the people, and pardon criminals. [6] In addition to the rights given the representative body, the Levellers list restrictions. In fact, twenty-one of the thirty paragraphs explain limitations of the body. The majority of these restrictions protect citizens’ rights. The first limitation listed prohibits representatives from creating any laws that force civilians to worship a religion or punishing a person for his religious beliefs. The second limitation prevents the body the ability to force a person to serve in war. Thirdly, no law may be passed concerning a person’s body or property, or to destroy a man’s estate. [7] In addition, no man’s property may be taken away from him by law, and the body does not have the ability to make all land public. Various other restrictions involve legal and financial matters. These include the body’s inability to pass laws punishing a person for refusing to testify in court or depriving a person of witnesses in court, trading to a foreign nation, and passing laws allowing individuals to be exempt from taxes. Capital punishment is banned except in cases of treason and murder. The final limitation is that the Agreement of the Free People may not be altered. [8]

John Locke attempts to use reason to explain the ideal government and its purpose. Locke’s main idea is focused on individual rights, and that the government should serve its citizens. Locke begins the Second Treatise explaining man in the wild, before government existed. He describes men existing before government as living in a State of Nature . [9] The State of Nature contains a law of reason, which God created. Locke deduces that men have complete freedom to do as they see fit according to reason in this natural state. [10] As the law of nature demands self-preservation, all men have natural rights to ensure their survival, such as the right to their own bodies, actions, and property. All men are equal, being children of God, and each have the same individual right. [11] Men have an obligation to punish men who violate others rights, whom are acting against God’s will. [12] Locke states that criminals do not live by reason, and therefore are dangerous to mankind. [13] Locke calls men who violate others as living in a State of War. However, any law against crimes would be useless unless there was some power to enforce the law. It is this reason, Locke determines, that government is created, to protect people’s natural rights from offenders. Individuals consent to being part of whatever government or agreement they please so as to protect their rights from the State of War , therefore creating a social contract between the man and his government. [14]

Locke devotes a large portion of the Second Treatise discussing the rights men have in society. Locke defines natural liberty as the ability to do as one pleases under natural law. [15] However, upon willingly submission into society, an individual forfeits this liberty for a freedom to act under a common law. In addition, by joining society, an individual achieves freedom from absolute power, which one could not guarantee oneself by living in the wild. Being free from absolute power, every man has the right to his own property. Locke defines property systematically. He states that God gave men the Earth so that they may use it to their advantage. As humans own the body God has given them, the actions and labor they commit belong to them as well. [16] Locke further goes to say that human labor creates the difference between community property and individual property. If a man cultivates land and lives off of it, it can be assumed it is his property. However, men cannot take more property than they need. [17] He states, “As much land as a man tills, plants, improves, cultivates, and can use the product of, so much is his property” [18] Locke is very clear that if a man takes more than he is capable of using, and it goes to waste, than it is as if he has robbed other people. Likewise, he who leaves enough land for another to sufficiently use is as if he took nothing at all.

The ideal government for Locke protects people’s natural rights and helps the common good. Locke describes a government with a legislature and an executive power to enforce laws created by the legislature. [19] The legislature is to be made up of representatives of the people, proportionate to the country’s population. Locke determines that while the legislature does not need to constantly be in session, the executive power must always be at work to enforce the laws. This reason determines why executive and legislative powers are to be separate from each other. Locke describes certain limits which the legislature must abide by. First and foremost, the legislature most be devoted to the public good of the society. In addition, nothing except the legislature may pass laws for the country, and members of the society must abide by the laws (assuming the laws are for the common good). As all men are equal, the laws passed by the legislature must apply to all members of the society. [20] Furthermore, the legislature cannot take or tax men’s private property without the consent of those individuals. Lastly, the legislature cannot transfer the power of making laws to other sources, so that the legislature retains the supreme power. Despite these limitations, Locke acknowledges that the government may become corrupt. Should the government lose trust and consent of the majority, it loses legitimacy, and therefore no longer has the right to have authority. [21] Locke mentions that if the government creates policies contrary to the law of nature, or ineffectively defends its citizen’s property, the citizens have the right to dispose of the government, violently if necessary. In this way Locke proposes a morally justifiable cause for rebellion. [22]

There are many ideas that John Locke and the Levellers share, but they differ on a few issues. Both Locke and the Levellers form the basis of their ideas on God. The natural rights of life that Locke describes are natural because they are God-given. Those who violate these rights violate God’s word, and thus need to be punished. Both Locke and the Levellers describe the basic rights of humans similarly. Locke describes basic human rights in the state of nature as the right to life, liberty of action, and the right to property, and attempts to prove these rights systematically. While the Levellers do not try to prove their ideas as correct, most of the human rights they protect in the Agreement are compatible with those of Locke. One of the few differences in human rights involves capital punishment. [23] The Levellers believe a man should not be deprived of his life except in cases of murder and treason, compared to Locke who believed in capital punishment for burglars. In addition, while Locke believes men have God given natural rights to private property, the Levellers believe God’s law does not necessarily grant one private property but rather is indifferent on the matter. [24] Locke’s limitations on government also differ slightly because the Levellers wrote to a specific person during a certain circumstance, while Locke wrote his book aimed at nobody specifically, in an attempt not to anger the government of England . The Levellers addressed many of their demands because of laws the King had created in the past. Thus, the limitations on the representative body are much more specific in Leveller works than in John Locke’s. Locke’s only specific limits are that only the legislature can create laws, all men must be held to the law equally, and individual’s private property cannot be taxed without consent. The Levellers’ restrictions are much more specific, dealing with the protection of individual rights involving religion, taxes, and legal cases. While Locke never mentions that legislature cannot pass laws infringing on specific issues, he does write that the legislature must exist for the good of the people. Most of the limitations expressed in the Leveller Agreement are inferred in Locke’s treatise, for otherwise the legislature would be acting against the common good. The only limitations that differ are the issues devoted to credentials of representatives and the role of monarchy. The Levellers declare that those serving in the representative body cannot be a member of the clergy or military, or hold any other political office. [25] The representative must be elected. Locke merely states that the legislature is made up of men representing the country, but does not mention restrictions on who may serve. In addition, Locke never states that the representatives are elected democratically, but rather are selected by natural right. This issue of monarchy also differs between the Agreement of the Free People and the Second Treatise. The Levellers banish any monarchy from having power over the people. While Locke does not believe in an absolute monarchy, he believes a constitutional monarchy is acceptable. Another difference in ideas is the difference on how to form a new government. According to Locke, should the government create laws contrary the common good, and subsequently lose trust of the majority, it can and should be dissolved and replaced with a new government. [26] The Levellers do not follow Locke’s criteria. The Levellers declared a State of Nature , and that the current government had acted against the people [27] . However, the Levellers were a small minority in England they did not have approval of the majority. While they had the citizen’s best interests in mind, it is not the citizens who were demanding a change in government, it was a group of radicals, the Levellers. According to Locke, the Leveller’s government would not be legitimate because the majority of the people did not create or consent to the Agreement.

The ideas expressed by John Locke and the Levellers during the 17 th century were new to the people of England . The Levellers, a radical political party, created an agreement outwardly condemning the king, by saying he has no power to rule over the people of England , and give full power to a representative body. John Locke, half a century later published Dvije rasprave o vlasti., expressing his views on the ideal government. While many of his ideas are similar to the ideas of the Levellers, the grounds on creating a new government are different, as Locke demands consent of the majority to overthrow while the Levellers were a small minority. It is worthwhile noting that Locke wrote obtusely and not of current events to avoid running a foul of the government. In contrast, the Levellers were outspokenly critical and tried to amass a following for their views. It is possible that many of the difference seen were a result of Locke trying not to anger the government, as opposed the Levellers provoking the ruling monarchy.

[1] Theodore Pease, The Leveller Movement (Washington D.C.: American Historical Association, 1916), 196.

[2] An Agreement of the Free People of England ( London : May 1 st , 1649), 319.


A work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.

The Limits of Democracy

  • Therefore, in encouraging the states to participate in a strong centralized vlada under a new constitution and replace the relatively weak Articles od Confederation, Madison argued in his paper "Federalist No. 10" that a special interest may take control od a small area (such as a state), but could not easily take over a large nation.
  • Without the Convention's proposed central vlada, the framers feared that the United States under the Articles od Confederation would fail to keep the country intact.
  • Several ideas in the Constitution were new, associated with the combination od consolidated vlada, along with federal relationships with constituent states.
  • Locke advanced the principle od consent od the governed in his DvaTraktatiodVlada: essentially, government's duty in a social contract with the sovereign people was to serve them by protecting their rights to life, liberty, and property.
  • In his book The Spirit od the Laws, he argued for the separation od state powers into the legislative, executive, and judicial branches odvlada.

The Bill of Rights

  • Račun od Rights is a series od limitations on the power od sad. vlada, protecting the natural rights od liberty and property.
  • To some degree, the Bill od Rights incorporated the ideas od John Locke, who argued in his 1689 work, DvaTraktatiodVlada, that civil society was created for the protection od property .
  • The dva versions went to the Joint Committee and the Senate's version became the one adopted by joint resolution od Congress on September 25, 1789, to be forwarded to the states on September 28.
  • Račun od Rights plays a key role in American law and vlada, and remains a vital symbol od the freedoms and culture od the nation.
  • Autor odDvaTraktatiodVlada (1689) which argued that civil society was created for the protection od imovine.

Sloboda

  • Liberty, the ability od individuals to have control over their lives, is a central aspect od modern political philosophy.
  • The thinkers od the Enlightenment reasoned that law governed both heavenly and human affairs, and that law gave the king his power, rather than the king's power giving force to law.
  • On Liberty was the first work to recognize the difference between liberty as the freedom to act and liberty as the absence od coercion.In his book, Dva Pojmovi od Liberty, the British social and political theorist Isaiah Berlin formally framed the differences between these dva perspectives as the distinction between dva opposite concepts od liberty: positive liberty and negative liberty.
  • The founders od the United States were heavily influenced by the writings od John Locke, who had declared in DvaTraktatiodVlada that under natural law, all people have the right to life, liberty, and estate.
  • In addition, under the social contract, the people could instigate a revolution against the vlada when it acted against the interests od citizens, and replace it with one that would serve the interests od citizens.

The Constitution

  • Locke advanced the principle od consent od the governed in his DvaTraktatiodVlada.
  • An amendment can be proposed one oddva načine.
  • Both ways have dva steps.
  • Or it can be on demand oddva-thirds od the state legislatures.
  • Constitution, the Taxing and Spending clause gives the federal vladaod the United States its power od taxation.

The American Enlightenment

  • In the decades before the American Revolution in 1776, the intellectual and political leaders od the colonies studied history intently, looking for guides or models for good—and bad—vlada.
  • Locke's DvaTraktatiodVlada (1691) challenged the principle that hierarchical, monarchical systems odvlada originated from God's divine law.
  • Common Sense called for independence and challenged the largely accepted notion that a good vlada employed a balance od monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy.
  • Instead, Paine called for a republican system odvlada, with no king or aristocracy.
  • . to secure these rights [life, liberty, and the pursuit od happiness] governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent od the governed that whenever any form odvlada becomes destructive od these ends, it is the right od the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new vlada.

John Locke

  • DvaTraktatiodVlada, Locke's most important and influential work on political theory, was first published anonymously in 1689.
  • It is divided into the First Rasprava and the Second Rasprava.
  • The Second Rasprava outlines a theory od civil society.
  • He goes on to explain the hypothetical rise od property and civilization, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those that have the consent od the people.
  • Therefore, any vlada that rules without the consent od the people can, in theory, be overthrown.

Baron de Montesquieu

  • The Spirit od the Laws is a treatise on political theory first published anonymously by Montesquieu in 1748.
  • In this political treatise, Montesquieu pleaded in favor od a constitutional system odvlada and the separation od powers, the ending od slavery, the preservation od civil liberties and the law, and the idea that political institutions ought to reflect the social and geographical aspects od each community.
  • He distinguishes this view od liberty from dva other, misleading views od political liberty.
  • Generally speaking, establishing political liberty requires dva things: the separation od the powers odvlada and the appropriate framing od civil and criminal laws so as to ensure personal security.
  • Building on and revising a discussion in John Locke's Second RaspravaodVlada, Montesquieu argues that the executive, legislative, and judicial functions odvlada (the so-called tripartite system) should be assigned to different bodies, so that attempts by one branch odvlada to infringe on political liberty might be restrained by the other branches (checks and balances).

Natural Rights

  • During the Enlightenment, the concept od natural laws was used to challenge the divine right od kings and became an alternative justification for the establishment od a social contract, positive law, and vlada – and thus legal rights – in the form od classical republicanism (built around concepts such as civil society, civic virtue and mixed vlada).
  • Ideja od natural rights is also closely related to that od human rights: some acknowledge no difference between the dva, while others choose to keep the terms separate to eliminate association with some features traditionally associated with natural rights.
  • Natural rights, in particular, are considered beyond the authority od bilo koji vlada or international body to dismiss.
  • The most famous natural right formulation comes from John Locke in his Second Rasprava, when he introduces the state od priroda.
  • The most famous natural right formulation comes from John Locke in his Second Rasprava.

The Song Dynasty

  • The dynasty is divided into dva distinct periods, Northern and Southern.
  • The Song was the first vlada in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, as well as the first Chinese vlada to establish a permanent standing navy.
  • Enormous encyclopedic volumes were compiled, such as works od historiography and dozens odtreatises on technical subjects.
  • Although an early form od the local geographic gazetteer existed in China since the 1st century, the matured form known as "treatise on a place", or fangzhi, replaced the old "map guide", or tujing, during the Song Dynasty.
  • Although the Neo-Confucianists were critical od Taoism and Buddhism, the dva did have an influence on the philosophy, and the Neo-Confucianists borrowed terms and concepts from both.

Defining Accounting

  • It included a 27-page treatise on bookkeeping, "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis" (Latin: "Details od Calculation and Recording").
  • It represents the first known printed treatise on bookkeeping and it is widely believed to be the forerunner od modern bookkeeping practice.
  • Even though Pacioli's treatise exhibits almost no originality, it is generally considered as an important work, mainly because it enjoyed a wide circulation, was written in the vernacular Italian language, and was a printed book.
  • Accounting that provides information to people outside the business entity is called financial accounting and provides information to both current and potential shareholders, creditors such as banks or vendors, financial analysts, economists, and vlada agencies.
  • The body od rules that governs financial accounting in a given jurisdiction is called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP.
Predmeti
  • Accounting
  • Algebra
  • Art History
  • Biologija
  • Poslovanje
  • Račun
  • Kemija
  • Komunikacije
  • Ekonomija
  • Finance
  • Upravljanje
  • Marketing
  • Mikrobiologija
  • Fizika
  • Fiziologija
  • Political Science
  • Psihologija
  • Sociologija
  • Statistika
  • U.S. History
  • World History
  • Pisanje

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Western Paradigm and Thought: Enlightenment and Imperialism

In my previous post about History in the US, I covered a basic history of the systems that have caused and continue to help perpetuate racism in the US at a systemic level. In order to really understand this paradigm in further depth, before unpacking the history of the US more specifically, a closer look and discussion of Imperialism must occur. If you are interested in the difference between Imperialism and Colonialism, you can go here and here. I want to make it very clear that this is a general simple overview.

Western Thought and the Prosvjetljenje

A clear discussion of Imperialism and its impact cannot be done without a basic understanding of Western thought and the influence of the Enlightenment in Europe. The Enlightenment occurred during the 16th-19th centuries, following, and overlapping with, the Age of Exploration. The Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason, was a time for massive progress in Europe in political, philosophical, religious, and scientific thought and advancements. This was the time period of Rousseau, Voltaire, Newton, Locke, Smith, and other major thinkers. It ushered in major components of Western thought such as Individualism, democracy, and capitalism, or the free market. These components are deeply rooted in the US and Western World’s culture they are things that have benefited us and we value deeply and are inherently woven into the systems we create. At the same time this age and the many beliefs and values developed were used to justify slavery and social hierarchies. In 1689-1690 John Locke published Dvije rasprave o vlasti, which outlined social contract theory and justified the Glorious Revolution in the United Kingdom, and became a defense of democracy in some form. It should be noted that, while Locke justified a more democratic government, he was also an advocate of slave labor and felt Africans were strange and inferior. The Dva Treatise of Government actually influenced the US Declaration of Independence (life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness) and other revolutions across the globe.

While racism and prejudice were not new and was rampant across Europe (the Irish being inferior, anti-Semitism, people of Slavic background being seen as less than), and it is well documented that Columbus in 1492 was racist in the Americas, the Enlightenment was seen as an age where rational thought dominated and new justifications for racism developed in the paradigm of this eras’ thinking, setting up structures such as slavery and Imperialism. For instance, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, an anthropologist who studied skulls, classified humans into six races in 1779, the “Ethiopian” or black race being the most inferior and the white or caucasian the purest. Immanuel Kant would add to this hierarchy. These thinker would contribute to “degeneration theory” and a hierarchy of race. While the Enlightenment brought forth some of the greatest advances in European culture and history and those were transplanted across the globe, the impact, unintentional or not, is reverberating today. This belief system became the justification or rationale for the invasion of Asia and Africa, the continuation of slavery because non-whites were not seen to be people and therefore did not get to have democracy or individualism.

Imperijalizam

Imperialism by European countries really occurred in the mid 19th Century, coming at the end of the Age of Reason. Imperialism is simply extending political control over a foreign state or country, usually with (but not always) military force. Most historians will explain European Imperialism with three primary motivations: commerce, Christianity, and civilizing.

Between the 1500s and 1800s, Africa was being used for its human capital, slave labor, but by the mid 19th Century, explorers began mapping Africa and its interior, discovering a land of great resources that could be exploited for European gain. Europeans saw the local cultures as inferior based on major Western thinking (outlined above) and societies they deemed not as advanced. Known as the “Dark Continent” because the mainland was unexplored, Europeans saw these riches as a way to exploit and get a leg up on one another in their drive for progress and economic growth. This competition was inherently built into the culture of Europe and a new economic theory developed by Adam Smith, capitalism (though Imperialism is not a truly free market). This sparked the “Scramble for Africa”, where European nations invaded, fought, dominated, and divided Africa with little to no consideration for the history, nor the ethno-religious composition of the regions they were creating. In European eyes, it was about economics and Africans were black and not seen as equals to whites: a new world view and system were being perpetuated and constructed.

What gave Europeans the right? Enlightenment ideals justified this, including thinkers such as Locke and Blumenbach. It should be noted that the struggle was not easy. France battled Algerians for 50 years before gaining total control and Ethiopia was never dominated by Europeans, until World War II with the Italian invasion. The impacts are egregious. Africa was stripped of many of its natural resources hurting the long term development of regions of the continent. In some cases, such as Algeria, “colonial officials and the European settlers manipulated the stereotype of the sensuous Arab or Muslim woman to oppose granting even limited political representation to French-educated Algerian men. The argument was that: “Algerian women [were]confined to harems and depraved, thus their men [could not] exercise the right to vote intelligently.” So politics, the manipulation of women for imperial ends, and negative visual representations of native women worked hand in hand.” In the case of the Belgian Congo, King Leopold II created genocide and massacred the local ethnic groups. If this were a race, Africa was being forced to start miles behind the starting point, giving European nations an advantage. Many of the issues facing Africa would also face Latin America, though many of those nations gained their independence from Europe in the late 1700 and early 1800’s.

Asia and the Pacific were also taken advantage of by the globe. Japan, which was brought into the western world by the US, would acquire land in Korea, Russia, and a variety of Pacific islands. The US would gain Hawaii, Guam, and the Philippines. The US take over of the Philippines lead to war. President Taft referred to the Filipinos as his “little brown brothers” when he was an Ambassador to the islands.

“So what, Imperialism happened so long ago.” Da i ne. While the origins of Imperialism are hundreds of years old and we are far removed from that, many of the last remnants of the empires either still exist today or came to an end in the mid 20th century with severe consequences. Enlightenment theory and thinking and the imperial conquests of the globe created a paradigm in how the Western world thought. It viewed people of color as less than and justified the killing, conquering, enslavement, and displacement of peoples. Think about when we use the term “3rd” World or call countries shitholes. That is part of our paradigm. What made those countries “3rd” World? The western world did by taking those resources, resources that were very much needed for the sustained development of the country they were taken from. One example is Nigeria. Nigeria gained independence in 1960 from the UK. It is democratic because of the UK, but how do we already view Africa? Did you know Nigeria’s official language is English? We also combined a variety of ethnic groups that now struggle for democratic power and Nigeria, as a developing nation, is dealing with those consequences to meet the needs of competing interests. There is also debate around if Nigeria should accept outside financial help. Why do they need that help? The region’s oil supply is controlled by western countries. A major natural resource that would aid in the development of Nigeria is not fully under the control of the government. Still, despite that, Nigeria is the most populous country on the African continent, has a booming movie industry, Nollywood, and is striving to become a competitor economically on the world stage. The nation just started at a disadvantage and has only had since the 1960’s time to compete and grow. This is the legacy of a system, imperialism. As the world and our education system have focused over the years on Western thought, Ideology, experiences, contributions, and history, it is because of a system that took advantage and put those things at the forefront. This is a single-story, and it is dangerous, as Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie points out in her TED Talk.

If you have questions, comments, corrections, or topics to suggest, please comment on my blog. Thanks for taking part of this journey with me.


Two Treatises on Government : A Translation Into Modern English

John Locke’s 1690 book is one of the most important and influential works on government ever published. The first part demolishes the main authoritarian/totalitarian ideology of its day: the doctrine of the divine right of kings to absolute arbitrary power over their subjects. The second sets out the real social origins, functions and limits of government. Locke demonstrates that far from God and natural law ordaining all-powerful hereditary dictatorship, the only legitimate form of government is one with the consent of the people and committed to upholding their fundamental human rights to life, liberty, and property.

The book justified the Glorious Revolution establishing parliamentary government in England and was an inspiration behind the American Declaration of Independence a century later. Around the world, it continues to have a profound influence on the theory and practice of limited representative government and protecting basic rights and freedoms under the rule of law.

This is a current language version of the book - essentially translating the work into modern English to improve its readability and understandability.

“The Divine Right of Kings”: A Refutation of the Doctrine of Sir Robert Filmer and His Followers

2. Paternal and regal power

3. “Adam’s title to sovereignty by creation”

4. “Adam’s title to sovereignty by donation”

5. “Adam’s title to sovereignty by the subjection of Eve”

6. “Adam’s title to sovereignty by fatherhood”

7. Fatherhood and property as joint foundations of sovereignty

8. Conveying Adam’s sovereign monarchical power

9. Monarchy by inheritance from Adam

10. An heir to Adam’s monarchical power

The Real Origins, Functions and Limits of Government

7. Political or civil society

8. The beginning of political societies

9. The ends of political society and government

11. The limits of legislative power

12. The legislative, executive, and federative powers of the commonwealth


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