Povijest Brattleboroa, Vermont

Povijest Brattleboroa, Vermont

Brattleboro je selo u Vermontu u okrugu Windham, oko sedam milja sjeverno od granice s Massachusettsom uz rijeku Connecticut. Unutar njegovog područja nalazi se utvrda Dummer, izgrađena 1724. godine kao ispostava za Massachusetts. Godine 1753. mjesto utvrde, za koju je utvrđeno da je u New Hampshireu, dobilo je pukovnik William Brattle, koji ju je nazvao po sebi. Brattleboro je osnovan 1763. William Fisk, metodistički ministar i prosvjetni radnik, rođen je u Brattleboro 1792. McKim i Stanford White oformili su zapaženu arhitektonsku tvrtku McKim, Mead i White. The Brattleboro Retreat, izvorno Vermont Azil for Insane, smješten je u kampusu od 1.000 jutara i sadrži zgrade koje su datirane od njegova osnutka u 1838. 20. veljače 1849. prvi vlak iz Bostona u Massachusettsu stigao je u Brattleboro na prugama novoizgrađene željeznice Vermont & Massachusetts. Na sreću, stanica je spašena od rušenja i ponovno je otvorena kao Muzej i umjetnički centar Brattleboro 1972. Prva bolnica u Brattleborou izgrađena je sa 100.000 dolara dostupnih 1901. iz Thompson Trusta. Izvorni naziv bio je The Hemlocks Hospital, ali to je imalo konotacije za Sokrata i samoubojstvo, pa je, kad je otvoreno 1904., izabran naziv Memorial Hospital Brattleboro.


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Tiskovni grad: Brattleborova ostavština riječi predstavlja više od 30 autora povezanih s Brattleborom, a svi oni daju jedinstvenu perspektivu i stil za ispričati priču o dugoj povijesti Brattlebora i trajnom naslijeđu, o tiskanju, izdavaštvu i "riječima".

“ Najzad će se konačno ispričati važna povijest Brattlebora kao tiskanog grada i sve njegove implikacije jer je to mikrokozmos priče o naciji općenito. ”

Jeff Potter, Glavni urednik, The Commons, Brattleboro, VT

„Koristeći kreativnost svoje zajednice da ispriča raznolike i zabavne priče koje ovaj grad čine nacionalno značajnim književnim središtem, Brattleboro Words Staza izniman je resurs i atrakcija kako za turiste tako i za lokalno stanovništvo, nudeći više destinacija oko intrigantne središnje teme za one koji potražite jedinstveno iskustvo Vermonta. ”

Povjerenik za turizam i marketing Vermonta

“Okupljajući partnere iz različitih sredina kako bi sudjelovali u zajedničkoj misiji, projekt Brattleboro Words pomaže ujediniti zajednicu u vrijeme kada postoji previše podjela u svijetu. ”

Američki senator, država Vermont

“Područje Brattleboro ima sramotu bogatstva što se tiče njegove povijesti izdavanja knjiga, tiskarstva, književnosti i slično, ali malo ljudi koji ovdje žive, a još manje vanjski ljudi, cijene tu povijest. Projekt Brattleboro Words ove činjenice stavlja na vidjelo na zabavan i kreativan način koji ima za cilj uključiti cijelu zajednicu s vremenom. ”


Sadržaj

Vermont je povremeno bio pokriven plitkim morem od kambrijskog do devonskog razdoblja. Većina sedimentnih stijena položenih u tim morima deformirana je gradnjom planina. Fosili su, međutim, uobičajeni u regiji jezera Champlain. Donja područja zapadnog Vermonta ponovno su poplavljena, kao dio doline Svetog Lovre i doline Champlain uz Vermontsko jezero čija je sjeverna granica slijedila taljenje ledenjaka krajem posljednjeg ledenog doba, sve dok nije stiglo do oceana. To mjesto zamijenili su jezero Vermont i more Champlain, kada se zemlja još nije odbila od težine ledenjaka koji su ponekad bili debeli 3,2 km. Ljuske slatkih mekušaca, zajedno s kostima kitova beluga, pronađene su u regiji jezera Champlain. [1]

Jezero Vermont povezano je sa ledenjačkim zapadnim jezerom u blizini današnjeg Velikog jezera. Dopustili su zapadnoj ribi da uđe u državu, zbog čega Vermont ima više autohtonih vrsta od bilo koje druge države Nove Engleske, 78. Otprilike polovica njih je zapadnog podrijetla. [2]

Malo se zna o pretkolumbovskoj povijesti Vermonta. Između 8500. i 7000. godine prije Krista, glacijalna aktivnost stvorila je slano more Champlain Sea. Taj je događaj uzrokovao da se pepelnica, atlantski losos i miris duge izgube na moru. [2]

Indijanci su nastanjivali i lovili u Vermontu. Od 7000. do 1000. godine prije Krista bilo je arhaično razdoblje. Tijekom tog doba Indijanci su migrirali tijekom cijele godine. Od 1000. godine prije Krista do 1600. godine naše ere bilo je šumsko razdoblje, kada su uspostavljena sela i trgovačke mreže, a razvijena je keramika i tehnologija luka i strijele. Zapadni dio države postao je dom malom broju plemena koja govore algonkijskim jezikom, uključujući mohikanske i abenakijske narode. [ potreban je citat ]

Sokoki su živjeli u današnjem južnom Vermontu, Cowasucks u sjeveroistočnom Vermontu.

Između 1534. i 1609., irokezi Mohawksi istjerali su mnoga manja starosjedilačka plemena iz doline Champlain, kasnije su to područje koristili kao lovište i ratovali s preostalim Abenakijima. [3]

Francusko istraživanje i naseljavanje Edit

Francuski istraživač Samuel de Champlain tvrdio je da područje današnjeg jezera Champlain daje ime, Verd Mont (Zelena planina) u regiju koju je pronašao, na karti iz 1647. godine. [4] Dokazi ukazuju na to da se ovo ime počelo koristiti među engleskim doseljenicima, prije nego što se prebacilo u "Vermont", cca. 1760. [5]

Kako bi pomogao i impresionirao svoje nove saveznike u Abenakijima, Champlain je pucao i ubio jednog vođu Irokeza arkebusom, 29. srpnja 1609. Iako su Irokezi već bili neprijatelji s Abenakijima, oni su s ovim incidentom stvorili trajno neprijateljstvo s Francuzima. Francuzi većinu svog najrazvijenijeg posjeda u Novom svijetu, uključujući osporavano područje većine Vermonta, na kraju Francuskog i Indijskog rata 1763. [ potreban je citat ]

Francuska je polagala pravo na Vermont kao dio Nove Francuske, a 1666. podigla je utvrdu Sainte Anne na otoku La Motte u sklopu utvrđenja jezera Champlain. Ovo je bilo prvo europsko naselje u Vermontu i mjesto prve rimokatoličke mise.

Tijekom druge polovice 17. stoljeća, nefrancuski doseljenici počeli su istraživati ​​Vermont i okolicu. 1690. skupina nizozemsko-britanskih doseljenika iz Albanyja pod kapetanom Jacobusom de Warmom uspostavila je De Warm Stockade u Chimney Pointu (osam milja zapadno od Addisona). Ovo naselje i trgovačko mjesto nalazilo se izravno preko jezera od Crown Pointa u New Yorku (Pointe à la Chevelure). [ potrebno pojašnjenje ]

Bilo je redovitih razdoblja okršaja između engleskih kolonija na jugu i francuskih kolonija na sjeveru, a područje Vermonta bilo je neizgrađena granica. 1704. godine De Rouville je prošao rijekom Winooski (luk) kako bi stigao do Connecticut -a, a zatim se spustio u Deerfield, Massachusetts, na koji je izvršio raciju. [6]

Britansko naselje Edit

Tijekom rata oca Ralea, prvo stalno britansko naselje osnovano je 1724. godine izgradnjom utvrde Dummer na krajnjem jugoistoku Vermonta pod zapovjedništvom poručnika Timothyja Dwighta iz Connecticuta. Ova je utvrda štitila obližnja naselja Dummerston i Brattleboro u okolici. Ova naselja su napravili ljudi iz Massachusettsa i Connecticuta. Drugo britansko naselje u Benningtonu u jugozapadnom kutu Vermonta neće biti postignuto prije 37 godina sukoba u regiji. [ potreban je citat ]

Godine 1725. 60 naoružanih ljudi ušlo je u Vermont s grubim kartama, s ciljem napada na selo sv. Franje, ali se okrenulo natrag kod Crown Pointa. [7]

1731. Francuzi su stigli u Chimney Point, u blizini Addisona. Ovdje su izgradili malu privremenu drvenu ogradu (Fort de Pieux) sve dok radovi na tvrđavi St. Frédéric nisu počeli 1734. Kad je ova utvrda dovršena, Fort de Pieux je napušten kao nepotreban. [ potreban je citat ]

Bilo je još jedno razdoblje sukoba od 1740. do 1748. godine, Rat za austrijsko nasljedstvo ili Rat kralja Georgea. Bilo je napada na privatni obrambeni rad, Bridgemanovu utvrdu, u Vernonu, Vermont. [8]

Tijekom francuskog i indijskog rata, 1755-1761, neki naseljenici iz Vermonta pridružili su se kolonijalnoj miliciji pomažući Britancima u napadima na Francuze u Fort Carillonu. [ potreban je citat ]

Rogers 'Rangersi izveli su napad na selo Saint-Francis u Quebecu iz jezera Champlain u Abenakiju 1759. Odvojivši se nakon toga, pobjegli su od razjarenih Francuza i Abenakisa kroz sjeverni Vermont natrag na sigurno u jezero Champlain i New Hampshire. [9]

Nakon gubitka Francuske u Francuskom i Indijskom ratu, Pariški ugovor iz 1763. prepustio je Britancima kontrolu nad cijelom regijom. Britanci su kolonijalno naselje ograničili na zemlje istočno od Apalačaca, a Vermont je bio podijeljen gotovo na pola u nazubljenoj liniji koja je išla od Fort Williama Henryja na jezeru George dijagonalno sjeveroistočno do jezera Memphremagog. Zemlje sjeverno od ove crte, uključujući cijelu dolinu Champlain, bile su rezervirane za Indijance. [ potreban je citat ] Tijekom tog vremena francuske su obitelji u velikoj mjeri istjerane, iako su znanstvenici Arheološkog društva iz Vermonta postavljali pitanje je li francuski utjecaj potpuno uklonjen, ističući da su neke udaljene farme možda izmakle obavijesti britanskih kolonista. [10]

Kraj rata doveo je nove doseljenike u Vermont. Prvi namirivač potpora bio je Samuel Robinson, koji je 1761. godine počeo čistiti zemljište u Benningtonu. [11]

U 28 godina od 1763. do 1791. neindijsko stanovništvo Vermonta poraslo je sa 300 na 85.000. [12]

Utvrda u Crown Pointu izgrađena je 1759., a vojna cesta Crown Point protezala se preko Zelenih planina od Springfielda do Chimney Pointa, čineći putovanje iz susjednih britanskih kolonija lakšim nego ikad prije. Tri kolonije polažu pravo na to područje. Pokrajina Massachusetts Bay potraživala je zemljište na temelju povelje iz kolonije Massachusetts Bay iz 1629. godine. Provincija New York polagala je pravo na Vermont na temelju zemljišta dodijeljenog vojvodi od Yorka (kasnije kralju Jakovu II & amp. VII) 1664. godine. Provincija New Hampshire, čije zapadne granice nikada nisu bile utvrđene, također je tvrdila Vermont, djelomično na temelju dekretom Georgea II iz 1740. 5. ožujka 1740. George II je donio odluku da će sjeverna granica Massachusettsa na ovom području biti s točke u blizini rijeke Merrimack prema zapadu (njeno sadašnje mjesto). Granicu je pregledao Richard Hasen 1741. godine, a utvrđeno je da se utvrda Dummer (Brattleboro) nalazi sjeverno od crte. Kolonijalni ured iz New Hampshirea narednih je godina naručio odredbe i podršku za Fort Dummer. [13]

Izuzetno popularan guverner New Hampshirea, Benning Wentworth, izdao je niz od 135 zemljišnih potpora između 1749. i 1764. pod nazivom New Hampshire Grants. Mnogi od njih bili su u velikoj dolini na zapadnoj (ili New York strani) Zelenih planina i samo četrdesetak milja od Albanyja. Grad je osnovan 1749., a nakon rata 1761. naseljen je. Grad je dobio ime Bennington po Wentworthu. Položaj grada bio je sjeverno od granice Massachusettsa postavljene dekretom 1740. godine i istočno od poznate istočne granice New Yorka, dvadeset milja istočno od rijeke Hudson. Konačno, do 1754. godine Wentworth je dodijelio zemljišta za 15 gradova. [14]

20. srpnja 1764. kralj George III uspostavio je granicu između New Hampshirea i New Yorka uz zapadnu obalu rijeke Connecticut, sjeverno od Massachusettsa, i južno od 45 stupnjeva sjeverne širine. Prema ovoj uredbi, okrug Albany u New Yorku, kakav je tada postojao, implicitno je dobio zemlju koja je danas poznata kao Vermont. Iako su sporovi povremeno izbijali kasnije, ova je linija postala granica između New Hampshirea i Vermonta i moderna je granica. Kada je New York odbio priznati zemljišne naslove putem New Hampshire Grantsa (gradova koje je New Hampshire ranije stvorio u sadašnjem Vermontu), nezadovoljni kolonisti organizirali su se u opoziciji, što je dovelo do stvaranja neovisnog Vermonta 15. siječnja 1777. [15] [16 ]

New York je deklaraciju iz 1764. primijenio retroaktivno i smatrao je stipendije New Hampshirea nevažećim. Stoga je od vlasnika zemljišta zahtijevalo da od New Yorka kupuju nove grantove za istu zemlju. New York je tada stvorio okruge u regiji, sa sudovima, šerifima i zatvorima, te započeo sudske postupke protiv onih koji su posjedovali zemljište isključivo iz donacija New Hampshirea. [17]

Tajno vijeće 1767. zabranilo je New Yorku prodaju zemljišta u Vermontu koje je bilo u suprotnosti s potporama iz New Hampshirea, poništivši odluku iz 1764. godine. [18]

Godine 1770. Ethan Allen - zajedno sa svojom braćom Ira i Levi, kao i Sethom Warnerom - regrutirao je neformalnu miliciju, Green Mountain Boys, kako bi zaštitio interese izvornih doseljenika iz New Hampshirea protiv novih migranata iz New Yorka. Do značajnog zastoja došlo je na farmi Breakenridge u Benningtonu, kada je šerif iz Albanyja došao sa 750 ljudi da otjera Breakenridge. Stanovnici su podigli tijelo od oko 300 naoružanih ljudi kako bi pružili otpor. Šerif iz Albanyja zatražio je Breakenridgea i bio je obaviješten: "Ako pokušate, mrtvi ste čovjek." Šerif se vratio u Albany. [19]

Kada je njujorški sudac stigao u Westminster s doseljenicima iz New Yorka u ožujku 1775., izbilo je nasilje kad su bijesni građani zauzeli zgradu suda i nazvali šerifovo imanje. To je rezultiralo smrću Daniela Houghtona i Williama Frencha u "Westminsterskom masakru".

U ljeto 1776. u Dorsetu u Vermontu održana je prva opća konvencija slobodnjaka iz New Hampshire Grantsa, na kojoj je odlučeno "poduzeti odgovarajuće mjere da se New Hampshire Grants proglasi slobodnom i neovisnom" okrug. "[20] 15. siječnja 1777. predstavnici New Hampshire Grantsa sazvali su se u Westminsteru i proglasili svoju zemlju neovisnom republikom, Republikom Vermont. Prvih šest mjeseci postojanja republike država se zvala New Connecticut.

2. lipnja u Westminsteru se sastala druga konvencija od 72 delegata, poznata kao "Westminsterska konvencija". Na ovom sastanku izaslanici su usvojili naziv "Vermont" na prijedlog dr. Thomasa Younga iz Philadelphije, pristaše delegata koji je napisao pismo savjetujući ih kako postići državnost. Delegati su odredili vrijeme sastanka mjesec dana kasnije. Dana 4. srpnja, ustav Vermonta izrađen je tijekom silovite oluje u taverni Windsor u vlasništvu Elijaha Westa. Delegati su ga usvojili 8. srpnja nakon četiri dana rasprave. Ovo je bio prvi pisani ustav u Sjevernoj Americi koji je predviđao ukidanje ropstva (za odrasle), biračko pravo za muškarce koji nisu posjedovali zemlju i javne škole. (Vidi također Povijest ropstva u Vermontu.) Konoba je sačuvana kao Stara ustavna kuća, upravljana kao državno povijesno mjesto. Kršenja ukidanja ropstva trajala su neko vrijeme. [21]

Proizvodnja potaše krajem 18. i početkom 19. stoljeća rezultirala je krčenjem velikog dijela Vermonta. [22]

Ropstvo u Vermontu Edit

Broj stanovnika robova Amerikanaca u Vermontu izračunat je na 17 1770. prema Dvjestogodišnjem izdanju Ureda za popis stanovništva Sjedinjenih Država Povijesna statistika Sjedinjenih Država: Colonial Times do 1970 [23] [24], a zabilježeno je 1690. godine 1790. prema suvremenoj studiji Povratak cijelog broja osoba u nekoliko okruga Sjedinjenih Država. [24] [25] Ukupna populacija Vermonta bila je niža od prosjeka pojedinih trinaest kolonija.

Bitke kod Benningtona i Saratoge prepoznate su kao prekretnica u američkom ratu za nezavisnost. Oni su bili prvi veliki poraz britanske vojske i uvjerili su Francusku da su američki pobunjenici vrijedni vojne pomoći. General John Stark, koji je zapovijedao pobunjeničkim snagama u bitci kod Benningtona, postao je nadaleko poznat kao "heroj Benningtona". "Dan Benningtonske bitke" (16. kolovoza, godišnjica bitke) pravni je praznik u Vermontu. [26] Ispod portika državne kuće u Vermontu, pored granitnog kipa Ethana Allena, nalazi se mjeden top koji je zarobljen u Benningtonu. [27]

Bitka kod Benningtona, vođena 16. kolovoza 1777., bio je ključan događaj u povijesti države Vermont. Republikanska vlada u nastajanju, stvorena nakon godina političkih previranja, suočila se s izazovima iz New Yorka, New Hampshirea, Velike Britanije i novih Sjedinjenih Država, od kojih nitko nije priznao njezin suverenitet. [ potreban je citat ]

Tijekom ljeta 1777., invazijska britanska vojska generala Johna Burgoynea presjekla je svoj put prema jugu kroz gustu šumu, od Quebeca do rijeke Hudson, zauzela strateško uporište Fort Ticonderoga i odvezla kontinentalnu vojsku u očajničko povlačenje prema jugu. Napadne grupe britanskih vojnika i domorodačkih ratnika slobodno su napadale, pljačkale i palile pogranične zajednice doline Champlain i prijetile svim naseljima na jugu. Granica Vermonta srušila se uslijed britanske invazije. Zakonodavno tijelo New Hampshirea, bojeći se invazije sa zapada, mobiliziralo je državnu miliciju pod zapovjedništvom generala Johna Starka. [ potreban je citat ]

General Burgoyne dobio je podatke da se velike zalihe konja, hrane i streljiva drže u Benningtonu, koji je bio najveća zajednica na području dodjele zemljišta. Poslao je 2600 ljudi, gotovo trećinu svoje vojske, da zauzmu tamošnje kolonijalno skladište, nesvjesni da su postrojbe generala Starka iz New Hampshirea tada prelazile Zelene planine kako bi se pridružile Benningtonu s kontinentalnim pukovnijama Vermonta, kojima je zapovijedao pukovnik Seth Warner, lokalna milicija Vermonta i zapadna Massachusetts. Kombinirane američke snage, pod Starkovim zapovjedništvom, napale su britansku kolonu u Hoosicku u New Yorku, odmah preko granice od Benningtona. General Stark navodno je izazvao svoje ljude da se bore do smrti, rekavši im da: "Tu su vaši neprijatelji, crveni ogrtači i torijevci. Oni su naši, ili ove noći Molly Stark spava udovica!" U očajničkoj, cjelodnevnoj bitci koja se vodila na jakim ljetnim vrućinama, vojska farmera Jenkija pobijedila je Britance, ubivši ili zarobivši 900 ljudi. Burgoyne se nikada nije oporavio od ovog gubitka i na kraju se predao u Saratogi 17. listopada. [ potreban je citat ]

1778. David Bending, osuđen kao izdajnik kolonija i špijun za Britance, obješen je u Benningtonu. [18]

Prva tiskara u državi osnovana je u Dresdenu 1779. [18]

Republika Vermont nastavila se vladati kao suvereni entitet sa sjedištem u gradu Windsoru na jugoistoku zemlje 14 godina. Thomas Chittenden djelovao je kao glavni sudac u Vermontu od 1778. do 1789. i od 1790. do 1791. 1780 -ih Chittenden, braća Allen i drugi politički čelnici vodili su pregovore s Frederickom Haldimandom, britanskim guvernerom Quebeca, o mogućnosti da Vermont postane Britanska provincija. Ti su pregovori na kraju djelomično propali zbog pravovremene predaje Cornwallisa u Yorktownu 1781. [28]

Prva Opća skupština izglasala je osnivanje dvije županije, Bennington na zapadu i Unity na istoku. Usvojila je opće pravo Engleske kao osnovu za svoj pravni sustav. Izglasano je oduzimanje torijevske zemlje i njihova prodaja za financiranje milicije. Ovo je bio prvi "porez" u državi. [29]

Prve novine u državi su izlazile 1781., tjednik Vermont Gazette. [30]

Godine 1784. država je uspostavila poštansku službu koja povezuje nekoliko gradova i Albany, New York. [31]

Godine 1786. guverner Vermonta odgovorio je na zahtjeve iz Massachusettsa o Shayevoj pobuni, rekavši da je voljan izručiti članove pobune, iako je njegov odgovor bio "pro forma" samo budući da si država nije mogla priuštiti obeshrabrivanje useljavanja. [32]

Godine 1791. Vermont se pridružio saveznoj Uniji kao četrnaesta država - postavši prva država koja je ušla u Uniju nakon prvotnih trinaest kolonija i kao protuteža robovlasničkom Kentuckyju, koji je primljen u Uniju sljedeće godine. [33] [34]

U lipnju 1791. Thomas Jefferson i James Madison obišli su državu. [35]

Zbog blizine Kanade, Vermonteri su bili pomalo uznemireni tijekom rata 1812. Pet tisuća vojnika bilo je u jednom trenutku stacionirano u Burlingtonu, nadmašujući broj stanovnika. [36] Suvremena izvješća ukazuju da je gotovo 1.300 vojnika liječeno od raznih bolesti, a preko 100 ih je umrlo između svibnja 1814. i travnja 1815. [37] Ekspedicijske snage dobrovoljaca istočnih općina Quebec uništile su vojarnu izgrađenu u Derbyu bez ljudskih žrtava. [38] Rat, koji se vodio oko onog što se činilo opskurnim pomorskim razmatranjima za Vermont bez izlaza na more, nije bio popularan.

U srpnju 1830. država je doživjela ono što se pokazalo kao najgora poplava 19. stoljeća. Zvali su ga "Bujica 1830." [39]

Ovce merino uvedene su 1812. To je na kraju rezultiralo ciklusom buma-poprsja vune. Vuna je dosegla cijenu od 57 centi po funti 1835. Do 1837. godine u državi je bilo 1.000.000 ovaca. Cijena vune pala je na 25 centi po funti krajem 1840 -ih. Država nije mogla odoljeti učinkovitijoj konkurenciji zapadnih država, a ovčarstvo je propalo. [40]

Vermont je imao jednodomno zakonodavno tijelo do 1836.

U lipnju 1843. odbjegli robovi sakrili su se na farmi Shaftsbury, u prvom zabilježenom slučaju u Vermontu podzemne željeznice. [18]

1846. godine slomljeno je tlo za izgradnju prve pruge u Vermontu, Central Vermont Railway, u Northfieldu. [30]

1853. Vermont je donio strogi zakon koji zabranjuje konzumaciju alkoholnih pića. Neki su gradovi slijedili zakon, dok su ga drugi ignorirali. [41]

Izvješće Senata Vermonta o ropstvu iz 1854. ponovilo je prvi članak Ustava Vermonta o pravima svih ljudi, postavljajući pitanje kako bi vlada mogla favorizirati prava jednog naroda nad drugim. Izvješće je potaknulo rast pokreta za ukidanje države, a kao odgovor na to rezolucija Generalne skupštine Georgije odobrila je izvlačenje Vermonta na more. [42] Sredinom do kraja 1850 -ih došlo je do prijelaza iz Vermontersa koji je uglavnom favorizirao obuzdavanje ropstva, u daleko ozbiljnije protivljenje instituciji. Kako se stranka Whig smanjivala, Vermont je promijenio svoju vjernost u nastajanju Republikanske stranke. 1860. glasovalo se za predsjednika Abrahama Lincolna, dajući mu najveću pobjedu u bilo kojoj državi.

Francusko-kanadsko useljavanje počelo je u prvim desetljećima devetnaestog stoljeća. Već 1810-ih Burlington je imao francusko-kanadsko stanovništvo od približno 100. [43] Ti su brojevi počeli brzo rasti 1820-ih i 1830-ih godina dok je Donja Kanada (današnji Quebec) prolazila kroz gospodarske i političke krize. Imigracija se nastavila do kraja stoljeća, a nastavila se krajem 1910 -ih i 1920 -ih. Nastavak dolaska francuskih Kanađana i Iraca spriječio je pad stanovništva Vermonta u drugoj polovici devetnaestog stoljeća. Francuski Kanađani našli su zaposlenje u poljoprivredi, u tvornicama Burlington i Winooski, u kamenolomima Rutland i Barre, u željezničkim stanicama St. Johnsbury i St. Albans te u drugim sektorima. Povremeno su se sukobljavali s Ircima oko kontrole nad resursima Katoličke crkve i s raznim skupinama u radnim sporovima. Nativizam s kojim su se borili često je bio manje očit nego u drugim državama. [44] [45] [46] [47]

Više od 28.100 Vermontera služilo je u dobrovoljačkim postrojbama Vermonta. Vermont je postavio 17 pješačkih pukovnija, jednu konjičku pukovniju, tri baterije lakog topništva, jednu četu teškog topništva, tri satnije strelaca i dvije čete pogranične konjice. Umjesto da zamijeni jedinice kad su bile iscrpljene, Vermont je redovito osiguravao novake kako bi postrojbe na terenu vratile na normalnu snagu. Mnogi vojnici nikada nisu bili izvan vlastite županije, a još manje države. Na jugu su se osjećali kao da su na drugom planetu. [48]

1863. u Zapadnom Rutlandu došlo je do nereda nakon što je država donijela nacrt. [49]

Gotovo 5000 Vermontera služilo je u jedinicama drugih država, u vojsci Sjedinjenih Država ili mornarici Sjedinjenih Država. 54. pješaštvo Massachusettsa (obojeno) uključivalo je 66 crnaca Vermonta, ukupno 166 crnaca Vermontera koji su opsluživani od 709 stanovnika u državi. Vermonteri, ako ne i jedinice Vermonta, sudjelovali su u svakoj velikoj ratnoj bici.

Vermonters je izgubio ukupno 1832 ljudi ubijenih ili smrtno ranjenih u borbi, a još 3362 umrla su od bolesti, u zatvoru ili iz drugih razloga, za ukupan gubitak od 5.194. Više od 2.200 Vermontera zarobljeno je tijekom rata, a 615 od njih je umrlo u zatvoru ili kao posljedica toga. Među najpoznatijim Vermontskim postrojbama bile su 1. Vermontska brigada, 2. Vermontska brigada i 1. Vermontska konjica.

Veliki dio Vermontovih državnih i nacionalnih političara nekoliko desetljeća nakon građanskog rata bili su veterani.

Najsjevernija kopnena akcija rata, racija St. Albans, dogodila se u Vermontu.

Tijekom dva desetljeća nakon završetka američkog građanskog rata (1864–1885) došlo je i do gospodarske ekspanzije i kontrakcije, te do prilično dramatičnih društvenih promjena.

Sindikalni veterani udružili su se u domoljubne i bratske organizacije, uglavnom u Velikoj vojsci Republike. Odjednom je bilo 116 postova. [50]

Mills u Lowell -u, Massachusetts, počeo se popunjavati. Regruti su bili poslani po cijeloj Novoj Engleskoj, uključujući Vermont. U početku su pronašli dovoljno radnika iz novih udovica, samohranih roditelja. [51] Taj je zahtjev ispunjen do kolovoza 1865., a novačenje Amerikanaca iz Lowella naglo je prestalo.

Do 1860. država je bila vodeći proizvođač hmelja u zemlji sa 640.000 funti (290.000 kg), odmah iza New Yorka. Ovaj usjev zgodno je stigao kao zamjena za nestanak trgovine ovcama Merino. I hmelj je nestao. Uključeni su brojni čimbenici: biljna bolest 1909., [52] migracija sadnje u Kaliforniju 1853–1910, gdje se uzgoj obavljao učinkovitije, te zabrana na državnoj i nacionalnoj razini. [53]

Željeznički sustav Vermonta proširio se i bio povezan s nacionalnim sustavima, poljoprivredna proizvodnja i izvoz su porasli, a prihodi porasli. No Vermont je također osjetio posljedice recesije i financijske panike, osobito Paniku iz 1873. koja je rezultirala značajnim egzodusom mladih Vermontera. Tranzicija u razmišljanju o pravima građana, koju je prvo dovelo do vrhunca izvješće Senata Vermonta o ropstvu 1854. godine, a kasnije i Lincolnovo Gettysburško obraćanje u promjeni načina na koji su građani doživljavali građanska prava, potaknula je agitaciju za pravo glasa žena. Prvi izbori na kojima je ženama bilo dopušteno glasati bili su 18. prosinca 1880., kada su žene dobile ograničeno pravo glasa i prvo im je bilo dopušteno glasati na gradskim izborima, a zatim i na državnim zakonodavnim utrkama.

Počevši od 1870. godine, brojni gradovi u Vermontu satirično su se odjenuli za Dan neovisnosti u Antičkoj i užasnoj povorci. Namjera je bila ismijavati političare i druge poznate ličnosti. To je uvelike izumrlo do 1900. [54]

Godine 1902. Vermonters je odobrio zakon za lokalnu opciju prodaje alkoholnih pića, suprotstavljajući se prethodnom zakonu iz 1853. koji ih je u potpunosti zabranio. Te godine 94 grada odobrila su lokalnu prodaju alkoholnih pića. Broj odobrenih gradova padao je svake godine sve dok ih nije bilo samo 18 1917. godine, neposredno prije nego što je nacionalna zabrana postala zakon. [41]

1920 -ih godina članstvo u Ku Klux Klanu doseglo je 80.300 u državi. Glavna meta njihove mržnje bili su francusko-kanadski imigranti katolici. [55] [56] Eugenički projekt očito je ciljao Indijance, indijsko-francuske Kanađane i Afroamerikance u državi radi prisilne sterilizacije između 1931. i 1936. [57] [58]

Godine 1923. država je donijela zakon koji ograničava redovni radni tjedan žena i djece na 58 sati. [30]

Populacije dabrova ponovno su uvedene u Vermont 1924. godine i tamo nastavljaju uspijevati. [59]

Poplave velikih razmjera dogodile su se početkom studenog 1927. Tijekom ovog incidenta poginulo je 85 ljudi, od kojih 84 u Vermontu.

Vrhovni sud SAD -a odlučio je da granica New Hampshirea obuhvaća veći dio rijeke Connecticut, uspostavljajući istočnu granicu Vermonta u Vermont protiv New Hampshirea - 290 US 579 (1934). [60]

Prije 1935. godine, 5,5 milijuna šećernih javora ubrano je za sirup. Za kuhanje soka koristilo se manje ekspanzivno meko drvo za kondenzaciju u javorov sirup. [22] Uragan u Novoj Engleskoj 1938. u jesen te godine srušio je 15.000.000 jutara (61.000 km 2) drveća, što je trećina ukupne šume u to vrijeme u Novoj Engleskoj. Spašeno je tri milijarde stopa. Danas su mnoga starija stabla u Vermontu stara oko 75 godina, a potječu nakon ove oluje. [61] Do 2017. nije postignut stari rekordni broj javora ubranih za šećer, bilo je preko 2 milijuna stabala. Međutim, više sirupa proizvedeno je učinkovitijim i manje radno intenzivnim metodama. [22]

Hidroenergija je 1940. opskrbila 90% državnih potreba za električnom energijom. [62]

U rujnu 1941. činilo se da će Amerika biti uključena u Svjetski rat koji je započeo 1939. u Europi. Uzimajući u obzir izjavu predsjednika SAD-a, zakonodavac je odobrio plaćanja nalik građanima uključenima u vojsku. To je dovelo do facioznih naslova da je Vermont objavio rat Njemačkoj. [63]

Oko 6.000 Vermontera bilo je u vojsci tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. [64] Oko 874 od njih je umrlo. [65]

94 Vermontera poginulo je u Korejskom ratu. [66]

Raširena upotreba DDT -a za istrebljivanje štetočina insekata nakon rata dovela je do smanjenja raznih divljih životinja, primjetno ptica i većih divljih životinja, poput losa i medvjeda. [67] Pesticid je zabranjen 1972. što je na kraju dovelo do obnove mnogih ptica i većih sisavaca. Na primjer, populacija medvjeda udvostručila se od 1980 -ih na 6000 u 2013. [68]

Godine 1964. Vrhovni sud SAD-a prisilio je preusmjeravanje "jednog čovjeka, jednog glasa" na Vermont, dajući gradovima jednak udio glasova u oba doma za cijelu zemlju. [69] Until that time, rural counties were often represented equally by area in state senates and were often unsympathetic to urban problems requiring increased taxes.

In 1965, the Northeast Blackout of 1965, the worst blackout until then, left Vermont without electricity for about 12 hours.

In 1968, the state took over welfare support for the indigent. [18] This had formerly been the responsibility of the towns, under the Overseer of the Poor. This had been a nearly insupportable burden for many small towns. The last poor farm was closed. [70]

A flood occurred in 1973, when the flood caused the death of two people and millions of dollars in property damage.

In 1984, the state had 2,500 square miles (6,500 km 2 ) in farmland. This declined to 1,900 square miles (4,900 km 2 ) in 2013. [71]

On April 25, 2000, as a result of the Vermont Supreme Court's decision in Baker v. Vermont, the Vermont General Assembly passed and Governor Howard Dean signed into law H.0847, which provided the state-sanctioned benefits of marriage to gay and lesbian couples in the form of civil unions. Controversy over the civil unions bill was a central issue in the subsequent 2000 elections.

In 2001 Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple syrup, about 25% of U.S. production. For 2005 that number was 410,000 US gallons (1,600,000 l 340,000 imp gal) accounting for 37% of national production. [72]

In 2007, with three-quarters of the state opposing the Iraq War, the state nevertheless had the highest rate of war-related deaths in the nation. This was due to volunteers and participation by the Vermont National Guard. [73]

During the late-2000s recession, state median household income dropped furthest, or second furthest, depending on how it is computed, of any state in the nation from −3.2% or −10%, depending on whether a two-year or three-year moving average was used. [74]

In 2011, Tropical Storm Irene caused widespread flooding, particularly in the southern part of the state, closing at least 260 roads. [75] Federal assistance for recovery included $110 million for emergency relief and assistance, $102 million for federal highway repair, and $23 million for individual assistance within the state. [76]

In 2014, the Center for Public Integrity rated Vermont last out of the 50 states for state government accountability and integrity. This was the result of the revelation of a continuing number of municipal scandals including the $1.6 million Hardwick Electric embezzlement. [77]

Vermont is more heavily forested in 2017 than it was during the 19th and early 20th centuries. A new way of producing potash was found not requiring the intensive destruction of trees. [22]

Early period (1791–1860) Edit

Though some members of the Federalist Party found electoral success, in its early years of statehood Vermont generally preferred the Jeffersonian Party, which became the Democratic Party in the early 1820s. Vermont stopped voting Democratic in the 1830s, initially over a fear of Jacksonian return to political parties [78] later, perhaps, over increasing opposition to the spread of slavery. The state voted Anti-Jackson, Anti-Masonic, Whig, and then Republican Party.

The Vermont legislature chose presidential electors through the general election of 1824. Vermont citizens first started voting directly for presidential electors in 1828.

Upward mobility for politicians (1830–1916) Edit

In the 1830s Vermont was one of the strongholds of Anti-Masonry. While the party elected only one governor, William A. Palmer, it was able to prevent the other major parties from winning majorities in some statewide races, which meant that the Vermont General Assembly chose the winner.

From the founding of the Republican party in the mid-1850s until the 1958 election of William H. Meyer to the United States House of Representatives, Vermont elected only Republicans to statewide office. [79]

Politicians aspiring to statewide office in Vermont normally had to be nominated at a state convention or "caucus." Factions dominated these caucuses. Some of these were family. A look at the list of Governors, Senators and Representatives over time shows the Chittendens, Fairbanks, Proctors, and Smiths. [80] Nomination was tantamount to election. The state legislature chose US senators until 1913. Up to six seats in the US House of Representatives gave ambitious politicians an ample stage for their talent.

Until 1870, all state officials were elected for one-year terms. In 1870, the term was changed to two-years. [81] Governors then normally served just one term of two years.

The Green Mountains effectively split Vermont in two. Culturally the eastern Vermonters were often descended from immigrants from New Hampshire. Western Vermonters often had their roots in New York. Recognizing this as a source of potential problems, politicians began following an unwritten "mountain rule", rotating the Lieutenant Governor and Governor residing in opposite sides of the state. [82]

The first election in which women were allowed to vote was on December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited suffrage and were allowed to vote in school board elections.

Statewide primaries (1916–1946) Edit

General annoyance with this system of selecting leadership by a few people, led to statewide primaries in 1916. [83] Down to only one congressional seat to compete for, Governors started trying to serve two terms, beginning with Governor Weeks in 1927. This worked until World War II.

Senator Ernest Gibson, a Republican, died in 1940. Governor George Aiken, also a Republican, and a liberal ally of the Gibsons appointed the late Senator's son, Ernest W. Gibson Jr. to fill the seat until a special election for the remainder of the term. The younger Gibson did not run, enabling Aiken's election to the seat. Instead Gibson devoted himself to preparing the state for entry into World War II. He served in the South Pacific and emerged as a highly decorated Colonel. There was a tsunami in 1946 in American politics. Returning veterans were popular. Gibson ran an unprecedented campaign against the incumbent Governor, Mortimer R. Proctor, and ousted him in the primary. [80] Gibson won the general election, won reelection in 1948, and served until resigning in 1950 to accept appointment as Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Vermont.

Interregnum — Liberal Republicans prevail (1946–1962) Edit

The elder Gibson, a former member of the Progressive Party, was the first of the liberal Republicans. While conservatives like Harold Arthur and Lee E. Emerson were elected Governor, they seem, in retrospect, to be transitory figures.

The "normal" path to the governorship for Republicans, which Ernest Gibson Jr. explicitly campaigned against in 1946, was to serve in the Vermont House of Representatives and hold a leadership position such as Speaker of the House service in the Vermont State Senate and a leadership role such as President Pro Tem election to the Lieutenant Governor's office and election as Governor.

Successful Republican candidates for the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate were also almost always veterans of leadership positions in the Vermont Legislature or statewide office.

In 1962, Philip Hoff was elected Governor, the first Democrat since before the Civil War.

Democratic dominance (1962–present) Edit

The demographics of the state had changed. In 1960, 25% of the population was born outside the state. Most of these immigrants were from Democratic states and brought their voting inclinations with them. Anticipating this change, the Republicans conducted a massive free-for-all in 1958, the last good chance many of them saw to capture a congressional seat. [80] They were wrong. Democrat William H. Meyer won, the first from his party in 102 years.

While the climate had changed, the legislature had not. With one representative per town and two senators per county, the rural areas dominated and set the agenda much to the frustration of urban areas, particularly Chittenden County. In 1964, the US Supreme Court forced "one-man, one-vote" redistricting on Vermont, giving cities an equitable share of votes in both houses. [69]

Unlike yesteryear, no party nominee can be assured of election. The unwritten "two term" rule has been jettisoned. Governors usually serve as long as they can, not being able to guarantee that their policies will be continued after they leave office. Vermonters have alternated parties in the Governor's office since 1962. Democratic governors have served longer. [ potreban je citat ]

Transportation around this mountainous state was a challenge to the original colonists. While this challenge has been met in the current era by turnpikes and limited rail service, public transportation for the majority of Vermonters has often remained elusive.

The state highway system was created in 1931. [30]

In 2008, the Vermont Transit Lines, a subsidiary of Greyhound Lines went out of business. It had begun operating in 1973. [84] Limited service continued under the direct aegis of Greyhound. This has been replaced by subsidized regional NGO corporations which provide limited service for most, but adequate service for those needing medical treatment.

In colonial times, like many of its neighboring states, Vermont's largest religious affiliation was Congregationalism. In 1776, 63% of affiliated church members in Vermont were Congregationalists. At that time, however, only 9% of people belonged to a specific church due to the remoteness of population centers. [ potreban je citat ]


A history of Brattleboro's connection to the natural world

The garden walk near the Retreat Gardens in Brattleboro.

Cold Spring, located on Retreat grounds on Upper Dummerston Road, was a destination of Wesselhoeft Water Cure patients.

In the 1830s most people in New England lived on farms and grew their own food. By 1880 most New Englanders lived in cities, bought their food, and worked for wages. This shift from agriculture to industry, and all of the changes in lifestyle that came with it, caused many people to examine their connection with the natural world.

Here in Brattleboro the rise in manufacturing was seen in the progress of the Estey Organ Company. In the 1850s the business had 8 employees. By the 1880s there were over 200 people constructing organs in the Estey complex on Birge Street.

In the 1870s Jacob Estey attempted to humanize this rise of mechanization by creating Esteyville. A neighborhood was mapped out on the hillside just south of the Estey manufacturing site. Individual building lots were established with the intent of supporting workers in their pursuit of private home ownership. The neighborhood was developed on a human scale.

A schoolhouse was built, the company created a small park, the residents established a church and the company built a bandstand for neighborhood gatherings.

According to the book “Manufacturing the Muse” by Dennis Waring, . ”when conditions within large, noisy, unsanitary, and often dangerous urban factory systems were creating deep class schisms and crises of impersonality, Estey’s workers were able to retain their identity and sense of self-worth more easily because of the intimate village atmosphere.”

The Vermont Asylum for the Insane, (now Brattleboro Retreat), opened in 1836. The hospital’s approach was based upon Quaker principles of care embedded within the moral treatment of its patients. The emphasis was on a family-like setting in natural surroundings. Patients were to be treated with warmth and respect. Treatment included good food, daily outdoor exercise, cultural activities and purposeful work tailored to the individual.

The original goal of the hospital was to serve up to 300 patients. However, the Asylum Trustees had lobbied for legislative funding to help establish the hospital and had entered into an agreement to accept Vermont state-assigned patients. By 1880 there were almost 450 patients and concerns about overcrowding. Despite this pressure the hospital continued to reach for its original patient-friendly goals.

More than 20 miles of nature trails, footpaths and carriage roads were established on hospital property. The Asylum farm had grown with the hospital so that it produced most of the food eaten by the patients. There was a dairy herd, beef cattle, vegetable gardens, fruit orchards, poultry flocks and a piggery. Patients also worked on the farm.

In 1880 the hospital joined with the town and built Cedar Street. The 30-acre tract of land between the hospital and Cedar Street was developed into a park for use by patients and employees. A Boston landscaper was hired to beautify the setting and slopes were graded to establish plateaus for outdoor games and activities.

Dr. Joseph Draper began as the Asylum’s superintendent in 1873. His interest in getting patients outdoors and engaged in recreational activities continued earlier hospital practices. In 1881 Dr. Draper and his wife went on a three month vacation to Europe. He visited mental hospitals in Scotland and England and came back with proposals to establish summer retreats for patients that would remove them from the growing institutional atmosphere of the Asylum.

Summer retreat buildings were established away from the hospital for both male and female patients. Small groups of patients were rotated through the Retreat buildings during the summer months. In 1885 the hospital began a camping program and a permanent shelter was established on a ridge south of the ice pond. Groups of 15 or less would hike to the camping area for the day. A carriage road was built so more infirm patients could also participate. Despite the pressures of increased patient populations and society’s move towards mechanization, the Asylum continued to create opportunities for patients to connect with nature on a human scale.

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Dr. Draper also came back from Europe with the idea that a tower similar to those he saw on the continent would be a good building project for patients. The tower would be the capstone of the park established on the hillside. Draper was a good friend of local businessman George Crowell.

In 1882, land developer and businessman George Crowell bought 30 acres of land on the hill next to Asylum Park. Crowell renamed the property Chestnut Hill and developed a reservoir to supply a portion of the town with water and fire hydrants. Crowell also created a park for public use.

In 1884 the Chestnut Hill reservoir began operation and Highland Park was presented to Brattleboro as a place where the community could come and enjoy the beauty of the outdoors. The reservoir served many in the eastern portion of town, including Main Street.

The park grounds were well landscaped and maintained by Crowell’s employees. Just north of the reservoir Crowell built a log cabin designed for children to enjoy. A “crow’s nest” pavilion was built to the east of the reservoir for birdwatchers. A bandstand was also built on a rise in the northeast section of the park and a three story “cottage” was also constructed southwest of the reservoir.

Crowell invited the public to visit Highland Park and use it as a free local resource. Clay croquet grounds were located near the bandstand. Swings were hung from trees near the cottage. Young “Fresh Air” visitors and city dwellers were welcomed to the cottage during summer months, sponsored by local religious organizations.

While Crowell was a land developer by trade, he believed that the stresses associated with an increased mechanization of society could find an anecdote in the natural spaces of public parks.

The Brattleboro Hydropathic Institution, known locally as the Wesselhoeft Water Cure, opened in 1845 on Elliot Street. The Water Cure promoted a healthy lifestyle of diet and exercise. It was thought that many of the ailments facing people during the rise of industrialization stemmed from poor medical treatments that caused more harm than cure. Dr. Wesselhoeft thought pure water applied inside and outside of a patient could wash away many diseases. He felt that much of the sickness in society came from laziness, lack of exercise and what we would call “junk food” today. Daily hikes from Elliot Street to Cold Spring, on Asylum property, were part of the healthy Water Cure routine.

Around 1848 a comfortable path to the top of Mt. Wantastiquet was established by local man Robert Pender and people from the Water Cure. Pender even built a three-story log house on the summit that was later destroyed by fire in 1860. The cabin served as a shelter for those who hiked or rode a carriage to the top of the mountain. Dr. Wesselhoeft believed in the curing power of the outdoor environment.

Pender was an outdoor enthusiast who collected wild and domesticated plants for the creation of natural remedies. Local newspaper editor and feminist Clarina Nichols publicly recommended Pender’s Green Mountain Vegetable liquid as a cure for poison ivy.

The pathway to Wantastiquet’s summit that was built during the heyday of the Water Cure fell into disrepair after the Civil War. In 1891, local outdoor enthusiasts joined together to revitalize and widen the path so carriages could easily travel up and down the mountain. Two local men, Walter Childs and David Perry, spearheaded the effort and the summit of Mt. Wantastiquet became a weather reporting station for the New England Meteorological Society.

As the Industrial Age grew throughout New England, and people became less connected with the outdoor environment, there were local leaders in the Brattleboro area who worked to provide the community with human scale connections to the natural world.


Illuminating History: The Vermont African American Heritage Trail

When curator David Rios Ferreira invited Jennifer Mack-Watkins to create a new body of work to be exhibited at BMAC, Mack-Watkins, whose artwork explores issues surrounding Black visibility and representation, began researching the history of African Americans in Vermont. It was not long before she encountered the Vermont African American Heritage Trail and, from there, the legacy of Daisy Turner (1883-1998), which would become an important source of inspiration for Mack-Watkins’s BMAC exhibit, Children of the Sun.

The Vermont African American Heritage Trail identifies museums, historical societies, and historic roadside site markers commemorating the people and places that inspire local pride and promote appreciation of Vermont’s African American heritage. Originally consisting of 16 sites, it has since grown to 30, with plans to expand further in the future.

In this live Zoom presentation, Brattleboro’s Curtiss Reed, Jr., who founded the Vermont African American Heritage Trail in 2013, will discuss the history and future of the trail and the vital heritage it illuminates.

The Vermont African American Heritage Trail is an initiative of Vermont Partnership for Fairness and Diversity in collaboration with the Vermont Department of Tourism and Marketing and selected local historical societies and museums.

ADMISSION: Free

Curtiss Reed, Jr. is President of the CRJ Consulting Group, L3C and Executive Director of Vermont Partnership for Fairness and Diversity. Reed provides expert training and coaching on inclusion, bias, and equity to state agency, municipal, institutional, and business clients as well as community organizations across Vermont. He serves as Chair of the Vermont Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights and sits on statewide commissions dealing with law enforcement, education, and minority health issues.

Reed is the driving force behind four statewide initiatives: the Vermont African American Heritage Trail, the Vermont Vision for a Multicultural Future, I Am A Vermonter, and the Think Tank for Vermont Leaders of Color. After 18 years working and living overseas in Arabic, Portuguese, and French speaking countries, Reed returned to Vermont in 2001. Reed’s consulting experience spans four decades in both international and domestic markets. In 2015 the School for International Training Graduate Institute awarded Reed a Doctorate of Humane Letters Honoris Causa for his life’s work to make Vermont a desirable destination for all.


  • In 1834 the Brattleboro Retreat for the mentally ill was founded
  • Ten years later the third pure water cure in the country was established in Brattleboro, which then became a curative health resort.
  • The Whetstone Brook’s rushing falls fueled watermills which then powered sawmills and gristmills
  • By 1859 Brattleboro had a woolen textile mill, a paper mill, a flour mill, a maker of papermaking machinery, melodeons, and carriages, four printers an two machine shops

History of Brattleboro, Vermont - History

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Loads of laundry history in Brattleboro

Brattleboro Steam Laundry bought by the Sparks Brothers in 1905.

It seems cleaning the laundry has always been a challenging domestic task. In 1843 a female writer to the Vermont Phoenix, (Brattleboro’s local paper), proposed the creation of a public laundry and “wondered why the fertile genius of some Yankee has not taken this branch of domestic labor, as it has carding, spinning, etc. and applied such mechanical aids whereby a large amount of labor may be accomplished by the aid of steam.” She went on to share her frustrations with attempting to hire women to help her with her washing and other domestic chores.

The editor of the paper, William Ryther, replied, “We shall be glad to see any plan carried into effect to lighten the labors of our wives and daughters, or to diminish the expenses of housekeeping. We are aware of the difficulty of obtaining ‘help.’ Most young women who go out to work prefer labor in the factories to labor in families. In factories they command higher wages, and feel more independent. The young women who are brought up among our green mountains, and breath our free air, do not relish the idea of going into families to work where they are required to eat at a ‘second table,’ and at church are seated in the ‘pew for help.’ We suppose they are somewhat tinctured with the democratic notion that all women ‘are created equal,’ as well as all men.”

In the early 1840s the railroad had not yet arrived this far north, bringing with it immigrants willing to become “hired help.” However, by the end of the decade Irish immigrants would come to town because of the railroad. They had not been “brought up among our green mountains” and they would fill many domestic roles.

Meanwhile, in 1843 local mechanic Samuel Foster rose to the challenge and “constructed machinery for the purpose of washing clothes.” The Phoenix called Foster “an ingenious and worthy mechanic.” The paper went on to say, “We judge from an examination of the machine and its appendages that it will not only save much hard labor, but do its work with the least possible wear to the clothes.”

We can find no record of what happened to Foster’s machine but a United States patent for a hand powered washing machine with a drum was not issued until 1851. We know the patent was not issued to Brattleboro’s Samuel Foster.

The next mention of a laundry business in local papers does not occur until 1872. On South Main Street, in a small building owned by Jacob Estey, a steam laundry began. It was owned by L.F. Pettee and the paper declared “the washing, drying and ironing apparatuses are of the latest and most approved pattern.”

A steam laundry did not use steam to directly clean clothes. Instead, steam power was used to run engines that powered the laundry machinery. A steam engine ran multiple belt driven machines at once. The belts were connected to overhead spindles. The washers and dryers were run through their cycles by the belts attached to the spindles. This technology was similar to that of a cotton mill. Pettee’s steam laundry proved to be a success.

In 1881 a competing public laundry opened. Wong Lung, a young man from China, began a laundry in the basement of Main Street’s Union Block. This was not a steam laundry. This laundry washed by hand and used hot irons to dry and press the fabrics. Wong Lung had two other Chinese men join him in his business. They had traveled from Los Angeles, California. The newspaper reported that the Chinese men were a curiosity to many of the local residents. Most Brattleboro residents had never seen a person from China before. The next year Sing Kee, a Chinese immigrant from Holyoke, Massachusetts, took over the Union Block laundry.

In 1882 the United States Senate was debating a bill to restrict Chinese immigration for up to twenty years. According to the Vermont Phoenix, “It is undeniably the case that New England sentiment does not sympathize with the restrictive policy toward the Chinese.” However, Vermont Senator George Edmunds “made a speech defending the principle on which the bill is based. Mr. Edmunds said the fundamental prosperity of a republic consists in the homogeneity of its people that the Chinese here do not assimilate socially or politically, and are not homogeneous with our population … The immigration of the Chinese has created discontent and political discord among the people of the Pacific coast, and he believed it only right that the nation should exercise its just power and suspend immigration.” The paper went on to say, “It will be hard to cure New Englanders of the belief that Californian opposition to the Chinese is founded in prejudice, narrow jealousy and intolerance but the fact that Mr. Edmunds takes another view of the question will lead a good many people to hold their views with more moderation.”

The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by the Senate and signed into law by President Chester A. Arthur. Arthur was born in northwestern Vermont and grew up in upstate New York. The Exclusion Act was the first significant law restricting immigration into the United States.

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The local public laundry business continued with steam laundries competing with hand laundries. In 1889 the Phoenix reported Lu Chin, “a bright young Chinese laundryman has caught on to the American idea of not getting left behind.” The City Steam Laundry on Flat Street made a cut in its prices, reducing shirts from 12 cents to 8, so Chin matched the price and then cut his other prices so they would be 25 percent less than his competition.

The prejudice and intolerance mentioned in the Phoenix may have been on display during a few incidents reported in the following years. In 1885 a 14-year-old boy was caught stealing money from the drawer of a Chinese laundry. The boy was brought before a judge and when the judge heard the evidence he sided with the boy and the laundry lost about $5 from its till. The judge gave the boy a warning. The paper reported the accent of the laundryman was hard to understand so the judge gave the boy the benefit of a doubt.

In 1893 a Chinese laundryman chased students into St. Michael’s School and threatened them. The nuns challenged the man and asked him to explain himself. He said the boys had been throwing objects into the laundry in order to torment the laundryman and disrupt his ability to work. The laundryman said he wanted to cut the ears off the two boys who had been harassing him. The police were called and they visited Charlie Sing, the owner of the laundry. He was told that he would need to replace the laundryman with another worker. During the ensuing years there were many reports of attempted robberies at local Chinese laundries.

Washing laundry at home with domestic help, having it picked up by the steam laundry’s delivery wagon, or dropping it off at the Chinese hand laundry was a function of economics, social status, immigration policy, and personal preference.

Chinese and steam laundries spread to Elliot, Flat, Church, High and Main streets. From the 1880s to the 1930s there were always multiple commercial laundry options in Brattleboro. One of the last steam laundries closed in 1932 when Custom Laundry bought out Brattleboro Steam Laundry. The last Chinese laundry closed in 1944. It operated in the Manley Building on High Street.

One of the most enduring laundries was begun by Mrs. William Russell in 1887. She owned and operated a laundry business on Elliot Street until 1919. It began as a hand wash laundry and evolved into steam powered machines. Mrs. Russell’s Laundry became the Custom Laundry when she sold the business to Hugh Agnew. Custom Laundry dominated the Brattleboro commercial laundry business until it closed in 2010.

The first coin operated laundry in Vermont appeared at the bottom of Brattleboro’s Main Street in 1958, across from the Holstein Building. Shaw’s Dime Laundromat debuted in April and was open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Their advertisement claimed, “You can do a 35 lb. laundry for only 80 cents . and dry this load for only 40 cents, a total of $1.20 for a whole week’s laundry. Where can you do it any cheaper? Not even at home!”

The introduction of electricity allowed laundry machine manufacturers to attach little electric motors to each machine, making them portable. Steam power went out of fashion and the introduction of electricity allowed for the rise of home washing machines and public do-it-yourself operations.

After World War II electric home washing machines were status symbols that became ammunition in the Cold War “Kitchen Debate” between the Soviet Union and the United States. The historical answers to the challenges of cleaning laundry may be found in the mixture of immigration policies, the advancement of technology, the struggle for women’s equality and the desire for clean socks.


Vermont

Podrijetlo imena: From the French ??vert mont,? meaning ??green mountain?

10 largest cities (2010 est.): Burlington, 42,417 Essex, 19,587 South Burlington, 17,993 Colchester 17,067 Rutland, 16,495 Bennington 15,764, Brattleboro 12,046 Milton, 10,352 Hartford, 9,952 Springfield, 9,078 Barre, 9,052 Williston, 8,698 Middlebury, 8,496

Geografsko središte: In Washington Co., 3 mi. E of Roxbury

Broj županija: 14

Najveća županija po broju stanovnika i površini: Chittenden, 156,545 (2010) Windsor, 971 sq mi.

Državne šume: 300,000 ac.

2010 resident census population (rank): 625,741 (49). Male: 308,206 (49.3%) Female: 317,535 (50.7%). White: 596,292 (95.3%) Crno: 6,277 (1.0%) American Indian: 2,207 (0.4%) Asian: 7,947 (1.3%) Other race: 2,105 (0.3%) Two or more races: 10,753 (1.7%) Hispanic/Latino: 9,208 (1.5%). 2010 percent population 18 and over: 79.3 65 and over: 14.6 median age: 41.5.

The Vermont region was explored and claimed for France by Samuel de Champlain in 1609, and the first French settlement was established at Fort Ste. Anne in 1666. The first English settlers moved into the area in 1724 and built Fort Dummer on the site of present-day Brattleboro. England gained control of the area in 1763 after the French and Indian Wars.

First organized to drive settlers from New York out of Vermont, the Green Mountain Boys, led by Ethan Allen, won fame by capturing Fort Ticonderoga from the British on May 10, 1775, in the early days of the Revolutionary War. In 1777 Vermont adopted its first constitution, abolishing slavery and providing for universal male suffrage without property qualifications.

Vermont leads the nation in the production of monument granite, marble, and maple products. It is also a leader in the production of talc. Vermont's rugged, rocky terrain discourages extensive agricultural farming, but is well suited to raising fruit trees and to dairy farming.

Principal industrial products include electrical equipment, fabricated metal products, printing and publishing, and paper and allied products.

Tourism is a major industry in Vermont. Vermont's many famous ski areas include Stowe, Killington, Mt. Snow, Okemo, Jay Peak, and Sugarbush. Hunting and fishing also attract many visitors to Vermont each year. Among the many points of interest are the Green Mountain National Forest, Bennington Battle Monument, the Calvin Coolidge Homestead at Plymouth, and the Marble Exhibit in Proctor.

Vermont has become a trailblazer for gay rights. In April 2009, Vermont became the fourth state to legalize gay marriage. It was the first state to legalize gay marriage by a legislature's vote. The House and Senate voted to override Governor Jim Douglas' veto. Prior to this vote, Vermont was the first state to legalize same-sex civil unions.


Brattleboro Ski Hill

The primary people, with a far reaching vision of skiing, who got together in the early summer of 1937 and formed a plan to build and operate a ski tow in Brattleboro were Robert Billings, Elliot Barber, Floyd Messenger and John Dunham. These men, who were looking to the future, were prominent citizens in town.

On November 10, 1937, on the Charles Clark Farm, where the Living Memorial Park is now located, construction of the &ldquoGuilford Street Ski Tow&rdquo was begun in earnest. It was an 1100 foot rope tow that had its&rsquo terminal building built up on two large timbers and located across the street from the William Cushman house which still stands today. IT was quite modern by any standards in that it had a fairly large electric motor for power that would easily handle 300 skiers per hour. When the rope reached the top it traveled around a three foot bull wheel and came back to the bottom riding on Model A Ford wheels fixed to the top of light poles about 16 feet high and 60 feet apart. At the end of the day the bottom rope that traveled along the ground pulling skiers to the top of the fill was lifted up by a ski patrol member and placed on the lower wheel about five feet off the ground so that it would not freeze to the ground.

It was planned to open the Guilford Street Ski Tow to the public in December that year however, there was very little snow. While some old timers say they skied there in December, it is generally believed that these were the five prominent citizens and their families and friends along with prospective members of the soon to be organized Brattleboro Ski Patrol. The facility opened to the public the first Saturday in January 1938. An all day ticker cost 35 cents, after 1:00 p.m. the half-day ticket cost 25 cents. In 1939, lights were added, and the tow operated three nights each week and the ticket price was 25 cents. There were numerous promotions, such as four tickets for 75 cents.

After war was declared on December 8, 1941, there were many changes in the town. Members of the Vermont National Guard unit in Brattleboro left in mass, more that 200 at one time. Men were being drafted, and men and women were volunteering in considerable numbers. Of the four original men, only John Dunham remained behind, and with the help of Holland Douglas and several others the Ski Area continued to operate during the war.

The Brattleboro Ski Patrol was formed in January 1938. Some of the original members included Holland Douglas, &ldquoOzzie&rdquo Stowell, Edward Dunklee, Dr. Richard Stevens, Bruce Buchanan, Madeline Messenger, &ldquoBenny&rdquo Zakauskas, Floyd Messenger and Clyde Benedict. This group functioned as an independent patrol until 1941, when it formally became affiliated with the National Ski Patrol System. Today the Brattleboro Ski Patrol is the second oldest, continuous NSPS Ski Patrol in the Easter Division. In 2001 the Brattleboro Ski Patrol celebrated 60 years of service within the National Ski Patrol System and 63 years as a ski patrol.

Our family lived just across the Creamery Bridge at 125 Western Avenue and from all the windows facing the avenue we had an excellent view of the ski area. My mother had a pair of Northland double groove skis and with those skis I had the good fortune to ski at the Guilford Street Ski Tow in 1938. After the tow closed for the day, I would shovel snow into the ruts, and then pack the towline with my skis. They paid me in lift tickets, which was fine with me.

It recently came to our attention, thanks to Nick Collins, that skiing at what is now Living Memorial Park, began back in the 30&rsquos and was one of the first three ski areas in the US with a lift east of the Mississippi. Bus loads of skiers from Connecticut and New York would come on weekends to ski here. Some report up to a thousand people would be lined up for the winter sport.

In 1957 the current Dopplemeyer T-bar lift was installed and the town began running the operation. Due to undependable snowfall (and other factors) the town ceased operating the hill in 1995. A private group of citizens banded to re-open the hill in 1997, knowing there was no money from the town. We hated to see this treasure sit idle and fall apart.

We called our newly formed not-for-profit operation: Living Memorial Park Snow Sports, Inc.


John Carnahan and the Brattleboro Historical Society Origins Story

John Carnahan is a founding member and current President Emeritus of the Brattleboro Historical Society. Filmed August . . .

Keeping Abenaki Culture Alive

Jesse and Joseph Bruchac talk about the Abenaki way of life. Filmed at the Brattleboro Union High School Auditorium by . . .

Robin Dinda at First Baptist Church 11/17/19

A presentation by Robin Dinda at First Baptist Church on 11/17/19 for the Brattleboro Historical Society's annual . . .

Oral History: Celebrating the Stephen Daye Press

Recorded on Sept. 8, at the Brattleboro Historical Society History Center at 196 Main St.Founded in 1932 by John S. . . .

Remembering Vietnam: Brattleboro's Fallen Sons

The burial flag of United States Marine, John Blake flies atop the flagpole at Brattleboro Union High School on the . . .

Oral History: Brattleboro's Main Street Through the Years

Joe Rivers presents his slideshow, Brattleboro's Main Street Through the Years, at the Brattleboro Historical . . .

Oral History: Dr. Robert Tortolani, Vietnam War

Longtime area doctor Robert Tortolani, MD talks about his experience serving as a US Army Physician in Vietnam from . . .

Oral History: David Rohn, Vietnam War Era

Former Windham College Art Dept Chair David Rohn talks with BUHS Social Studies teacher Bill Holiday as part of the . . .

Oral History: Bill Fleming, Vietnam Vet

BUHS Class of 1964 Alumn and Vietnam War Veteran Bill Fleming talks about his experience in the war, returning home, . . .

Dr. Sergie Khrushchev: BUHS Student Skype Talk

Dr. Sergei Khrushchev, son of Soviet Premier Nikolai Khrushchev, spoke with Bill Holiday's Brattleboro Union High . . .