Clara Barton

Clara Barton


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Clara Barton jedna je od najpriznatijih heroja američkog građanskog rata. Svoju slavnu karijeru započela je kao odgojiteljica, ali je svoj pravi poziv našla u brizi ranjenih vojnika na krvavim ratištima iz građanskog rata i izvan njih. Kad je rat završio, Barton je radio na identifikaciji nestalih i umrlih vojnika, te je na kraju osnovao američki Crveni križ. Njezin je život bio posvećen brizi drugih, a Barton je imala presudan i dugotrajan utjecaj na skrb i pomoć u katastrofama u Americi i cijelom svijetu.

Rani život Clare Barton

Rođena je kao Clarissa Harlowe Barton 25. prosinca 1821. u Oxfordu u Massachusettsu, u obitelji koja je bila abolicionistkinja. Izvijestilo se da je njezina ljubav prema njezi započela kada je njezin najstariji brat doživio ozbiljnu ozljedu glave i marljivo ga je njegovala dvije godine.

Nakon što je stekla formalno obrazovanje, Barton je postala učiteljica sa 15 godina. Dvanaest godina kasnije osnovala je i bila ravnateljica besplatne škole u New Jerseyju u koju je na kraju upisano 600 učenika. Napustila je školu nakon što je školski odbor izglasao njezinu zamjenu za ravnateljicu s muškarcem.

Barton se tada preselila u Washington, DC, i postala referentica u američkom Uredu za patente, zarađujući plaću jednaku svojim muškim kolegama. "Možda sam ponekad spreman podučavati ni za što, ali ako mi je uopće plaćeno, nikada neću raditi muški posao za manje od muške plaće", rekao je kasnije Barton.

Počinje služba građanskog rata

Barton je radio za Patentni ured kada je izbio građanski rat 12. travnja 1861. Tjedan dana kasnije, vojnici 6. pješaštva Massachusettsa napali su simpatizeri Juga, a ranjenici su preplavili ulice Washingtona, D.C.

U nedovršenoj zgradi Kapitola stvorena je improvizirana bolnica. Iako se često opisuje kao sramežljiv, Barton je osjetio hitnu skrb za ozlijeđene i donio im je hranu, odjeću i druge potrepštine.

Kako je potreba za njegom i medicinskim potrepštinama rasla, Barton je prikupljala namirnice od svoje kuće i vodila kampanju kako bi od prijatelja i javnosti tražila dodatne potrepštine.

Što je još važnije, provodila je sate s domovima, trpjela vojnike, njegovala ih, liječila, pisala pisma i nudila lijepe riječi, molitve i utjehu. Bez formalne obuke, njezina je medicinska stručnost proizašla iz zdravog razuma, hrabrosti i suosjećanja.

"Anđeo bojnog polja"

Nakon što je svjedočio tužnom stanju vojnika umornih u bitkama u Washingtonu, Barton je shvatio da je najveća potreba za njegom i zalihama u improviziranim poljskim bolnicama u blizini linija bojišnice. 1862. dobila je dopuštenje da ponese zavoje i druge potrepštine u bolnicu na bojnom polju nakon bitke na planini Cedar u Sjevernoj Virginiji. Od tada je putovala s vojskom Unije.

17. rujna 1862. Barton je stigao na sada zloglasno polje kukuruza Antietam tijekom bitke kod Antietama. Nakon što je ostavila svoj sanitetski pribor zahvalnim kirurzima koji su se borili da naprave zavoje od ljuske kukuruza, dugo je radila pomažući kirurzima, kuhajući hranu za vojnike i njegujući ranjenike, unatoč obližnjoj topovskoj vatri i mecima koji su letjeli iznad glave.

Jedan nesretni vojnik ustrijeljen je i ubijen dok ga je Barton njegovao. Kasnije je Barton rekao: „Lopta je prošla između mog tijela i desne ruke koja ga je podupirala, probijajući mu prsa od ramena do ramena. Više se nije moglo učiniti za njega i prepustio sam mu odmor. Nikada nisam popravio tu rupu u rukavu. Pitam se je li vojnik ikada popravio rupu od metka u kaputu? "

Barton je ostavio dubok dojam na kirurge vojske Unije u Antietamu. Jedan kirurg, dr. James Dunn, rekao je za Barton: "Po mojoj slaboj procjeni, general McClellan, sa svim lovorikama, tone u beznačaj pored prave heroine tog doba, anđela na bojnom polju."

Barton je nastavio pomagati vojsci Unije u Petersburgu, Virginiji i Fredericksburgu te Fort Wagoneru, Južna Karolina, između ostalog. Ali čak ni njezini najbolji napori nisu mogli pobijediti bolest i infekciju koja je bila tako raširena u ratu.

U Charlestonu u Južnoj Karolini teško se razboljela i prevezena je na otok Hilton Head, zatim u Washington, DC, na oporavak. Tražila je još zaliha i, kad se oporavila, vratila se na bojno polje.

Organiziranje kampanje bez presedana

Kad god je bilo moguće, Barton je bilježila osobne podatke vojnika o kojima je brinula. Kako je rat odmicao, često su je pozivali da se dopisuje s članovima obitelji nestalih, ranjenih ili mrtvih vojnika. Nakon povratka u Washington, DC, u siječnju 1865., nakon smrti svog brata, nastavila je svoju kampanju pisanja pisama iz svoje kuće.

Bartonovi napori nisu prošli nezapaženo, a predsjednik Abraham Lincoln odabrao ju je za glavnog dopisnika Prijatelja uvjetno otpuštenih zatvorenika. Njezin je posao bio pronaći nestale vojnike i, ako je moguće, obavijestiti njihove obitelji o njihovoj sudbini.

Bio je to zastrašujući, ali važan posao koji nije mogla obaviti sama. Formirala je Biro za evidenciju nestalih ljudi vojski Sjedinjenih Država i - zajedno s dvanaest službenika - istražila je status desetaka tisuća vojnika i odgovorila na preko 63.000 pisama.

Do trenutka kada je Barton napustila svoju dužnost i podnijela svoje konačno izvješće Kongresu 1869. godine, ona i njezini pomoćnici identificirali su 22.000 nestalih vojnika, ali je vjerovala da je najmanje 40.000 još uvijek nestalo.

Osnivanje američkog Crvenog križa

Godine 1869. Barton je otputovao u Europu na odmor i naučio o Međunarodnom crvenom križu u Ženevi u Švicarskoj, koji je uspostavio međunarodni sporazum poznat kao Ženevski ugovor (sada dio Ženevske konvencije), koji je postavio pravila o skrbi za bolesni i ranjeni u ratu.

Kad je 1870. izbio Francusko-pruski rat, Barton-koji nikada nije sjedio sa strane-nosio je crveni križ od crvene vrpce i pomagao u isporuci zaliha potrebitim građanima ratne zone.

Nakon što se Barton vratila u Sjedinjene Države, tražila je političku podršku za ulazak Amerike u Ženevski ugovor. Predsjednik Chester A. Arthur konačno je potpisao ugovor 1882. godine i rođena je Američka udruga Crvenog križa (kasnije nazvana američki Crveni križ) s Bartonom na čelu.

Vodeći američki Crveni križ

Kao čelnik američkog Crvenog križa, Barton se uglavnom usredotočio na pomoć u katastrofama, uključujući pomoć žrtvama smrtonosne poplave Johnstown u Pennsylvaniji te razorne uragane i plimne valove u Južnoj Karolini i Galvestonu u Teksasu. Također je slala humanitarne zalihe u inozemstvo žrtvama rata i gladi.

Barton je odigrao integralnu ulogu u donošenju "američkog amandmana" na Ženevski ugovor 1884. koji je proširio ulogu Međunarodnog crvenog križa na pomoć žrtvama prirodnih katastrofa.

No, u Bartonovom Crvenom križu nije sve bilo ružičasto. Navodno je bila neovisna radoholičarka koja je žestoko štitila njezinu viziju onoga što bi Crveni križ trebao biti. Patila je i od depresije, iako je ništa nije okupilo više od hitnog poziva u pomoć. Njezin autoritarni pristup vodstvu i navodno loše upravljanje sredstvima na kraju su je natjerali da podnese ostavku na svoje mjesto 1904. godine.

Godine 1905. Barton je osnovao Američko nacionalno udruženje prve pomoći koje je izradilo pribore prve pomoći i blisko surađivalo s lokalnim vatrogasnim i policijskim odjelima radi stvaranja brigada hitne pomoći.

Nasljedstvo Clare Barton

Barton je tijekom građanskog rata služio na šesnaest ratišta. Bez obzira na to što je neumorno radila iza kulisa kako bi nabavila zalihe, pripremila obroke i uredila improvizirane bolnice ili njegovala ranjenike tijekom nekih od najljepših bitaka u američkoj povijesti, zaslužila je poštovanje bezbroj vojnika, časnika, kirurga i političara. Gotovo je samostalno promijenila uvriježeno stajalište da su žene preslabe da bi pomogle na ratištima.

Američki Crveni križ ne bi postojao kao što je danas bez Bartonovog utjecaja. Vjerovala je u jednaka prava i pomagala svima bez obzira na rasu, spol ili ekonomsku pripadnost. Skrenula je pozornost na veliku potrebu žrtava katastrofe i pojednostavila mnoge postupke prve pomoći, pripravnosti u hitnim slučajevima i reagiranja u hitnim slučajevima koje još uvijek koristi američki Crveni križ.

Clara Barton umrla je 12. travnja 1912. godine u svojoj kući u Glen Echou u Marylandu u 91. godini. Spomenik njoj u čast stoji na Antietamskom nacionalnom bojnom polju.

Izvori

Osnivačica američkog Crvenog križa Clara Barton. Američki Crveni križ.

Biografija: Clara Barton. Građanski ratni fond.

Clara Barton. Ured za muzeje nestalih vojnika Clare Barton.

Clara Barton i američki Crveni križ. Muzej rođenja Clara Barton.

Clara Barton u Antietamu. Služba Nacionalnog parka.


Clara Barton

Poznat po: Osnivač službe građanskog rata američkog Crvenog križa

Datumi: 25. prosinca 1821. - 12. travnja 1912. (Božić i Veliki petak)

Okupacija: medicinska sestra, humanitarka, učiteljica

Clara Barton bila je najmlađe od petero djece u poljoprivrednoj obitelji u Massachusettsu. Bila je deset godina mlađa od sljedećeg najmlađeg brata i sestre. Kao dijete, Clara Barton je od oca slušala priče o ratnim vremenima, a dvije godine je njegovala brata Davida kroz dugu bolest. S petnaest godina Clara Barton počela je podučavati u školi u kojoj su joj roditelji počeli pomagati da nauči nadići svoju sramežljivost, osjetljivost i oklijevanje u djelovanju.

Nakon nekoliko godina poučavanja u lokalnim školama, Clara Barton započela je školu u North Oxfordu i služila je kao školska nadzornica. Otišla je studirati na Liberal Institute u New Yorku, a zatim je počela predavati u školi u Bordentownu, New Jersey. U toj je školi uvjerila zajednicu da školu učini slobodnom, što je u to vrijeme bila neobična praksa u New Jerseyju. Škola je narasla sa šest na šest stotina učenika, a ovim uspjehom utvrđeno je da bi školu trebao voditi muškarac, a ne žena. Ovim imenovanjem Clara Barton dala je ostavku, nakon ukupno 18 godina poučavanja.

Godine 1854. njezin kongresnik iz njezinog grada pomogao joj je u imenovanju Charlesa Masona, povjerenika za patente, da radi kao prepisivač u Uredu za patente u Washingtonu, DC. Ona je bila prva žena u Sjedinjenim Državama koja je imala takvo imenovanje u vladi. Za vrijeme svog rada kopirala je tajne papire. Tijekom 1857. do 1860., s administracijom koja je podržavala porobljavanje, čemu se protivila, napustila je Washington, ali je na svom poslu za prepisivanje radila poštom. Vratila se u Washington nakon izbora predsjednika Lincolna.


Sadržaj

Clarissa Harlowe Barton rođena je 25. prosinca 1821. u North Oxfordu u Massachusettsu, a ime je dobila po naslovnom liku romana Samuela Richardsona Clarissa. Otac joj je bio kapetan Stephen Barton, pripadnik lokalne milicije i izbornik (političar) koji je svoju kćer nadahnuo domoljubljem i širokim humanitarnim interesom. [2] Bio je vojnik pod zapovjedništvom generala Anthonyja Waynea u svom križarskom pohodu protiv Indijanaca na sjeverozapadu. Također je bio vođa progresivne misli na području sela Oxford. [4] Bartonova majka bila je Sarah Stone Barton.

Kad je imala tri godine, Barton je poslana u školu s bratom Stephenom, gdje se istaknula u čitanju i pravopisu. U školi je postala bliska prijateljica s Nancy Fitts, koja je jedina poznata prijateljica koju je Barton imala kao dijete zbog svoje iznimne plašljivosti. [5]

Kad je Barton imala deset godina, zadala si je zadatak da njeguje svog brata Davida nakon što je pao s krova staje i zadobio tešku ozljedu glave. Naučila je kako podijeliti propisane lijekove svom bratu, kao i kako staviti pijavice na njegovo tijelo da bi mu iskrvarilo (u to vrijeme standardno liječenje). Nastavila se brinuti za Davida dugo nakon što su liječnici odustali. Potpuno se oporavio. [5]

Roditelji su joj pokušali pomoći u liječenju plašljivosti upisom u srednju školu Colonel Stones, ali njihova se strategija pokazala katastrofom. [6] Barton je postao plašljiviji i depresivniji te nije htio jesti. Vraćena je kući kako bi povratila zdravlje.

Nakon njezinog povratka, njezina se obitelj preselila kako bi pomogla članu obitelji čiji je Clarin rođak po ocu umro i ostavila suprugu s četvero djece i farmu. Kuću u kojoj je obitelj Barton trebala živjeti potrebno je okrečiti i popraviti. [5] Clara je bila uporna u pružanju pomoći, na veliku zahvalnost svoje obitelji. Nakon obavljenog posla bila je u gubitku jer nije imala ništa drugo za pomoći, kako se ne bi osjećala kao teret za svoju obitelj. [6]

Počela se igrati sa svojim rođacima i na njihovo iznenađenje, uspjela je pratiti te aktivnosti kao što je jahanje. Tek nakon što se ozlijedila, Clarina majka počela ju je ispitivati ​​kako se igra s dječacima. Njezina je majka odlučila da bi se trebala usredotočiti na više ženskih vještina. Pozvala je jednu od Clarinih djevojčica da joj pomogne razviti ženstvenost. Od svog rođaka stekla je i odgovarajuće socijalne vještine. [7]

Barton je počeo biti sramežljiv. Kako bi pomogli Barton u prevladavanju sramežljivosti, roditelji su je nagovorili da postane učiteljica. [8] Svoj prvi učiteljski certifikat postigla je 1839. godine, sa samo 17 godina. Ovo zanimanje Barton je jako zainteresiralo i pomoglo joj u motiviranju te je na kraju provela učinkovitu kampanju preraspodjele koja je djeci radnika omogućila obrazovanje. Uspješni projekti poput ovog dali su Barton povjerenje potrebno kada je zahtijevala jednaku plaću za nastavu.

Barton je postao pedagog 1838. i 12 godina služio u školama u Kanadi i Zapadnoj Georgiji. Barton se dobro snašla kao učiteljica s kojom je znala postupati s razuzdanom djecom, osobito s dječacima, budući da je kao mala uživala u društvu svojih rođaka i braće. Naučila je ponašati se poput njih, što joj je olakšalo odnos prema dječacima i njenu kontrolu. [6] Nakon majčine smrti 1851. obiteljska se kuća zatvorila. Barton se odlučila za daljnje školovanje baveći se pisanjem i jezicima na Clinton Liberal Institute u New Yorku. Na ovom fakultetu razvila je mnoga prijateljstva koja su proširila njezino gledište na mnoga pitanja koja su se u to vrijeme slagala. Ravnateljica instituta prepoznala je njezine goleme sposobnosti i divila se njezinu radu. Ovo prijateljstvo trajalo je mnogo godina, da bi se na kraju pretvorilo u romansu. [4] Kao spisateljica, njezina je terminologija bila netaknuta i lako razumljiva. Njezini spisi i djela mogli bi poučiti lokalne državnike. [4]

Dok je predavao u Hightstownu, Barton je saznao za nedostatak javnih škola u Bordentownu, susjednom gradu. [4] Godine 1852. dobila je ugovor o otvaranju besplatne škole u Bordentownu, koja je bila prva ikada besplatna škola u New Jerseyju. [9] Bila je uspješna, a nakon godinu dana zaposlila je drugu ženu koja je podučavala više od 600 ljudi. Obje su žene zarađivale 250 dolara godišnje. Ovo postignuće natjeralo je grad da prikupi gotovo 4.000 dolara za novu školsku zgradu. Nakon što je završio, Bartona je na mjestu ravnatelja zamijenio čovjek kojeg je izabrao školski odbor. Smatrali su da je mjesto šefa velike institucije neprikladno za ženu. Degradirana je u "žensku pomoćnicu" i radila je u teškom okruženju sve dok nije doživjela živčani slom zajedno s drugim zdravstvenim tegobama, te je prestala. [10]

Godine 1855. preselila se u Washington D.C. i počela raditi kao referentica u američkom patentnom uredu [11], što je bio prvi put da je žena dobila značajnu činovničku službu u saveznoj vladi i po plaći jednakoj plaći muškarca. Tri godine primala je mnogo zlostavljanja i klevete od muških službenika. [12] Nakon toga, pod političkim protivljenjem ženama koje rade u vladinim uredima, njezin je položaj sveden na mjesto prepisivača, a 1856. godine, pod upravom Jamesa Buchanana, otpuštena je zbog svog "crnog republikanizma". [12] Nakon izbora Abrahama Lincolna, nakon što je tri godine živjela s rodbinom i prijateljima u Massachusettsu, vratila se u patentni ured u jesen 1861. godine, sada kao privremeni prepisivač, u nadi da će moći ustupiti mjesto više žena u državnu službu.

19. travnja 1861. pobuna u Baltimoru rezultirala je prvim krvoprolićem američkog građanskog rata. Žrtve unutar pukovnije Massachusetts prevezene su u Washington DC nakon nasilja, koje se u to vrijeme dogodilo Bartonovoj kući. Želeći služiti svojoj zemlji, Barton je otišla na željezničku stanicu kad su stigle žrtve i dojila 40 muškaraca. [12] Barton je pružio ključnu, osobnu pomoć ljudima u uniformi, od kojih su mnogi bili ranjeni, gladni i bez ikakvih potrepština osim onoga što su nosili na leđima. Počela im je pomagati tako što je osobno odnijela zalihe u nedovršenu zgradu Capitol gdje su bili smješteni mladići 6. milicije Massachusettsa, koji su napadnuti u Baltimoreu, Maryland.

Barton ih je brzo prepoznala jer je s nekima odrasla, a nekima je čak i predavala. Barton je, zajedno s još nekoliko žena, osobno osigurala odjeću, hranu i zalihe za bolesne i ranjene vojnike. Naučila je skladištiti i distribuirati medicinske potrepštine te je vojnicima pružala emocionalnu podršku održavajući im raspoloženje. Čitala bi im knjige, pisala pisma njihovim obiteljima za njih, razgovarala s njima i podržavala ih. [13]

Tog dana se identificirala s radom u vojsci i započela svoje napore u prikupljanju sanitetskog materijala za vojnike Unije. Prije nego što je distribuirala namirnice izravno na bojno polje i stekla daljnju potporu, Barton je koristila vlastite stambene prostore kao spremište i distribuirala zalihe uz pomoć nekoliko prijatelja početkom 1862., unatoč protivljenju u Ratnom ministarstvu i među kirurzima na terenu. [2] Društva za pomoć ženama pomogla su u slanju zavoja, hrane i odjeće koje će kasnije biti podijeljene tijekom građanskog rata. U kolovozu 1862. Barton je napokon dobio dozvolu od intendanta Daniela Ruckera za rad na prvim crtama bojišnice. Podršku je stekla od drugih ljudi koji su vjerovali u njezinu stvar. Ti ljudi su joj postali pokrovitelji, a podrška joj je bio senator Henry Wilson iz Massachusettsa. [14]

Nakon prve bitke za Bull Run, Barton je u novinama u Massachusettsu dao oglas za zalihe, odgovor je bio veliki priliv zaliha. [15] Radila je na distribuciji trgovina, čišćenju poljskih bolnica, stavljanju obloga i posluživanju hrane ranjenim vojnicima u neposrednoj blizini nekoliko bitaka, uključujući Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam i Fredericksburg. [16] Barton je pomagao vojnicima Unije i Konfederacije. [15] Opskrba ipak nije uvijek bila lako dostupna. U bitci kod Antietama, na primjer, Barton je umjesto zavoja koristio ljuske kukuruza. [17]

1863. započela je romantičnu vezu s časnikom, pukovnikom Johnom J. Elwellom. [18]

Godine 1864. postavio ju je general sindikat Benjamin Butler za "gospođu zaduženu" za bolnice na frontu vojske James. Među njezinim strašnijim iskustvima bio je i incident u kojem joj je metak probio rukav na haljini, a da je nije udario i ubio čovjeka kojem je bila naklonjena. Bila je poznata kao "Florence Nightingale of America". [19] Bila je poznata i kao "Anđeo bojnog polja" [13] nakon što je pritekla u pomoć preplavljenom kirurgu na dužnosti nakon bitke na planini Cedar u Sjevernoj Virginiji u kolovozu 1862. Stigla je u poljsku bolnicu u ponoć s velikim brojem zaliha za pomoć teško ranjenim vojnicima. Ovo imenovanje došlo je iz njezine česte pravovremene pomoći dok je služila trupe u bitkama na kolodvoru Fairfax, Chantilly, Harpers Ferry, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Charleston, Petersburg i Cold Harbour. [9] [20]

Nakon završetka američkog građanskog rata, Barton je otkrio da na tisuće pisama izbezumljene rodbine upućenog Ministarstvu rata nije odgovoreno jer su vojnici o kojima su ispitivali pokopani u neoznačenim grobovima. Mnogi od tih vojnika označeni su kao "nestali". Motivirana da učini više o ovoj situaciji, gospođica Barton kontaktirala je predsjednika Lincolna u nadi da će joj biti dopušteno službeno odgovoriti na ove neodgovorene upite. Dobila je dopuštenje i započela je "Potraga za nestalim muškarcima". [21]

Nakon rata vodila je Ured za nestale vojnike u 437 ½ Sedmoj ulici, sjeverozapadno, Washington, DC, u četvrti Gallery Place. [22] Svrha ureda bila je pronaći ili identificirati vojnike poginule ili nestale u akciji. [23] Barton i njezini pomoćnici napisali su 41.855 odgovora na upite i pomogli u lociranju više od dvadeset i dvije tisuće nestalih muškaraca. Barton je ljeto 1865. proveo pomažući pronaći, identificirati i propisno pokopati 13.000 pojedinaca koji su umrli u logoru Andersonville, konfederacijskom logoru za ratne zarobljenike u Georgiji. [24] Nastavila je ovaj zadatak tijekom sljedeće četiri godine, pokopavši još 20.000 vojnika Unije i označivši njihove grobove. [21] Kongres je na kraju dodijelio 15.000 dolara za njezin projekt. [25]

Barton je postigla široko priznanje držeći predavanja diljem zemlje o svojim ratnim iskustvima 1865–1868. Za to vrijeme upoznala je Susan B. Anthony i započela suradnju sa ženskim pokretom za pravo glasa. Upoznala se i s Frederickom Douglassom te postala aktivistica za građanska prava. Nakon turneje po cijeloj zemlji bila je i psihički i fizički iscrpljena te je pod liječničkim nalogom otišla negdje što bi je odvelo daleko od trenutnog posla. Zatvorila je Ured za nestale vojnike 1868. godine i otputovala u Europu. 1869., tijekom njezina putovanja u Ženevu u Švicarskoj, Barton je upoznat s Crvenim križem, a dr. Appia kasnije će je pozvati da bude predstavnica američke podružnice Crvenog križa i pomoći joj u pronalaženju financijskih dobrotvora za početak Američki Crveni križ. Upoznala se i s knjigom Henryja Dunanta Sjećanje na Solferina, koji je pozvao na formiranje nacionalnih društava kako bi dobrovoljno pružili pomoć na neutralnoj osnovi.

Na početku Francusko-pruskog rata, 1870., pomagala je velikoj vojvotkinji od Badena u pripremi vojnih bolnica i davala je Društvu Crvenog križa veliku pomoć tijekom rata. Na zajednički zahtjev njemačkih vlasti i Strasbourg Comité de Secours, nadzirala je opskrbu rada siromašnih u Strasbourgu 1871., nakon opsade Pariza, a 1871. bila je zadužena za javnu raspodjelu zaliha siromašnima iz Pariza. Krajem rata primila je časna odlikovanja zlatnog križa u Badenu i pruskog željeznog križa. [26]

Kad se Barton vratila u Sjedinjene Države, pokrenula je pokret kojim je stekla priznanje Međunarodnog odbora Crvenog križa (ICRC) od strane vlade Sjedinjenih Država. [27] 1873. godine započela je rad na ovom projektu. Godine 1878. sastala se s predsjednikom Rutherfordom B. Hayesom, koji je izrazio mišljenje većine Amerikanaca u to vrijeme o tome da se SAD više nikada neće suočiti s katastrofom poput građanskog rata. Barton je napokon uspio tijekom administracije predsjednika Chestera Arthura, koristeći argument da bi novi američki Crveni križ mogao odgovoriti i na druge krize osim ratnih, poput prirodnih katastrofa poput potresa, šumskih požara i uragana.

Barton je postala predsjednica američkog ogranka društva koje je održalo prvi službeni sastanak u svom stanu u I ulici u Washingtonu, 21. svibnja 1881. Prvo lokalno društvo osnovano je 22. kolovoza 1881. u Dansvilleu, okrug Livingston, New York , gdje je održavala ladanjski dom. [28] [29]

Uloga društva promijenila se dolaskom Španjolsko -američkog rata tijekom kojeg je pomagala izbjeglicama i zarobljenicima građanskog rata. Nakon što je završio španjolsko -američki rat, zahvalni ljudi u Santiagu izgradili su kip u čast Bartona na gradskom trgu, koji tamo stoji i danas. U Sjedinjenim Državama Barton je bio hvaljen u brojnim novinama i osobno je izvještavao o operacijama Crvenog križa. [30]

U zemlji je 1884. pomogla u poplavama na rijeci Ohio, opskrbila Teksas hranom i zalihama tijekom gladi 1887. te odvela radnike u Illinois 1888. nakon tornada i iste godine na Floridu zbog epidemije žute groznice. [31] Nekoliko dana nakon poplave u Johnstownu 1889., ona je predvodila svoje izaslanstvo od 50 liječnika i medicinskih sestara. [31] 1897., odgovarajući na humanitarnu krizu u Osmanskom Carstvu nakon pokolja u Hamidijanu, Barton je otplovio u Carigrad i nakon dugih pregovora s Abdul Hamidom II, otvorio prvo sjedište američkog Međunarodnog Crvenog križa u srcu Turske. Sama Barton putovala je zajedno s pet drugih ekspedicija Crvenog križa u armenske pokrajine u proljeće 1896. pružajući pomoć i humanitarnu pomoć. Barton je također radio u bolnicama na Kubi 1898. u sedamdeset i sedmoj godini života. [32] Bartonova posljednja terenska operacija kao predsjednika američkog Crvenog križa pomagala je žrtvama uragana Galveston 1900. Operacija je osnovala sirotište za djecu.

Kako su se pojavile kritike zbog njezinog miješanja profesionalnih i osobnih resursa, Barton je bila prisiljena dati ostavku na mjesto predsjednice američkog Crvenog križa 1904. godine, u 83. godini života, jer se njezin egocentrični stil vodstva loše uklopio u formalnu strukturu organizacijske dobrotvorne organizacije. [9] Nova generacija znanstvenih stručnjaka isključivo muškog spola prisilila ju je na dužnost koja je odražavala realnu učinkovitost progresivne ere, a ne njezin idealistički humanitaritet. [33] U spomen na hrabre žene građanskog rata, osnovan je Stožer Crvenog križa. Tijekom posvete niti jedna osoba nije rekla ni riječ. To je učinjeno kako bi se odale počast ženama i njihovim uslugama. [34] Nakon što je dao ostavku, Barton je osnovao Nacionalno društvo prve pomoći.

Nastavila je živjeti u svom domu Glen Echo u Marylandu koji je služio i kao sjedište Crvenog križa po dolasku u kuću 1897. Barton je 1908. objavila svoju autobiografiju pod naslovom Priča o mom djetinjstvu. [20] 12. travnja 1912. umrla je u svom domu u 90. godini života. Uzrok smrti bila je upala pluća.

Iako formalno nije članica Univerzalističke crkve Amerike, [35] u pismu iz 1905. udovici Carla Normana Thrashera, identificirala se s crkvom svojih roditelja kao "univerzalist". [36]

Moja draga prijateljica i sestra:

Vaše uvjerenje da sam univerzalist ispravno je koliko i vaše veće uvjerenje da ste i sami jedan, uvjerenje u kojem se raduju svi koji imaju privilegiju da ga posjeduju. U mom slučaju, to je bio veliki dar, poput svetog Pavla, ja sam se "rodio slobodan" i spasio bol da ga dosegnem kroz godine borbe i sumnje.

Moj je otac bio vođa u izgradnji crkve u kojoj je Hosea Ballow održao svoju prvu propovijed posvete. Vaši povijesni zapisi pokazat će da je stari hugenotski grad Oxford, Mass., Podigao jednu, ako ne i prvu univerzalističku crkvu u Americi. U ovom gradu sam rođen u ovoj crkvi i odgajan sam. Ja sam sudjelovao u svim njegovim rekonstrukcijama i preuređenjima i sa strepnjom gledam u blisku budućnost kada će mi užurbani svijet dopustiti da još jednom postanem živi dio svog naroda, hvaleći Boga za napredak u liberalnoj vjeri religijama u današnjem svijetu, uvelike zahvaljujući učenjima ovog uvjerenja.

Molim te, draga sestro, najiskrenije čestitam članovima svog društva. Moje najbolje želje za uspjeh vašeg godišnjeg sastanka i najiskrenije zahvaljujem što ste mi pisali.

Bratski vaša, (s potpisom) Clara Barton.

Iako nije bila aktivna članica crkve svojih roditelja, Barton je pisala o tome koliko je njezina obitelj bila poznata u njezinom rodnom gradu i koliko je odnosa njezin otac uspostavio s drugima u njihovom gradu putem njihove crkve i religije. [6]

1975. Nacionalno povijesno mjesto Clara Barton, koje se nalazi na adresi 5801 Oxford Road, Glen Echo, Maryland, osnovano je kao jedinica Službe za nacionalne parkove u Bartonovoj kući, gdje je provela posljednjih 15 godina svog života. Kao prvo nacionalno povijesno mjesto posvećeno postignućima žene, čuva ranu povijest američkog Crvenog križa, budući da je dom služio i kao rano sjedište organizacije. Kuća u North Oxfordu, Massachusetts, u kojoj je rođena, sada je također muzej.

Služba Nacionalnog parka obnovila je jedanaest soba, uključujući urede Crvenog križa, salone i Bartonovu spavaću sobu. Posjetitelji Nacionalnog povijesnog mjesta Clara Barton mogu steći osjećaj o tome kako je Barton živio i radio. Vodiči vode turiste kroz tri razine, ističući kako je Barton koristila svoj neobičan dom. 2018. mjesto je na neodređeno vrijeme zatvoreno zbog popravaka. [37]

Godine 1869. Barton je zatvorio Ured za nestale vojnike i uputio se u Europu. [38] Treći kat njezina starog pansiona bio je zatvoren 1913. godine i mjesto je zaboravljeno. Mjesto je "izgubljeno" dijelom jer je Washington, DC, 1870 -ih preuredio svoj sustav adresiranja. Pansion je postao 437 ½ Seventh Street Northwest (ranije 488-1/2 Seventh Street West).

1997. stolar uprave općih službi Richard Lyons angažiran je da provjeri rušenje zgrade. Našao je na potkrovlju riznicu Bartonovih predmeta, uključujući znakove, odjeću, čarape vojnika iz građanskog rata, vojni šator, novine iz doba građanskog rata i mnoge dokumente koji se odnose na Ured nestalih vojnika. [39] Ovo otkriće dovelo je do toga da je NPS spasio zgradu od rušenja. Međutim, bile su potrebne godine da se mjesto obnovi. [40] Ured za nestale vojnike Clare Barton, koji vodi Nacionalni muzej medicine građanskog rata, otvoren je 2015. [41] [42]

  • Numeriranje svih kostiju autorice Ann Rinaldi sadrži zatvor Barton i Andersonville, zatvor građanskog rata s užasnim uvjetima.
  • Anđeo milosrđa (MGM, 1939.) biografski je kratki film koji je režirao Edward L. Cahn, a Sara Haden glumi Barton, a Ann Rutherford kao žena čiji ju je brat u bici u građanskom ratu potaknuo da se pridruži Bartonu u svom poslu. [43]
  • U TV seriji NBC Voyagers! (1982–1983), Phineas Bogg i Jeffrey Jones putuju kroz vrijeme kako bi bili sigurni da povijest napreduje ispravno. U epizodi "Putovanja Marca i prijatelja", sezona 1, epizoda 9, izvorno emitirano 3. prosinca 1982., Phineas i Jeffrey spašavaju Barton (Patricia Donahue) iz zapaljenog vagona, ali ona je na rubu da podlegne pušenju udisanje. Jeffrey (dječak iz 1982.) primjenjuje oživljavanje usta na usta (tehnika nepoznata u Bartonovo doba) i spašava joj život, omogućavajući joj tako da nastavi s osnivanjem američkog Crvenog križa. glumi Bartona u epizodi Drunk History koja sadrži sažetak Bartonovih postignuća tijekom i nakon građanskog rata kako je pripovijedala Amber Ruffin.

Škole Uređivanje

  • Osnovna škola Clara Barton u Levittownu, Pennsylvania
  • Barton Hall na Sveučilištu Montclair State u Upper Montclair, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Elementary na bulevaru Del Amo u Long Beachu u Kaliforniji
  • Osnovna škola Clara Barton u Altonu, Illinois
  • Osnovna škola Clara Barton u Redmondu, Washington
  • Osnovna škola Clara Barton u Milwaukeeju, Wisconsin
  • Osnovna škola Clara Barton u Anaheimu u Kaliforniji
  • Osnovna škola Clara Barton u Bronxu
  • Osnovna škola Clara Barton u Cherry Hillu, New Jersey
  • Osnovna škola Clara Barton u Chicagu
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Corona, California
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in San Diego (now San Diego Cooperative Charter School)
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Rochester NY [44]
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania
  • Clara Barton Junior High School in Royal Oak, Michigan for Health Professions in Brooklyn
  • Clara Barton House, a residence hall at Towson University, Towson, Maryland
  • Clara Barton Open School in Minneapolis
  • Clara Barton School, in Cabin John, Maryland, now the Clara Barton Community Center
  • Clara Barton School in Bordentown, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton School in Fargo, North Dakota in Philadelphia
  • Barton Academy in Mobile, Alabama

Streets Edit

  • Clara Barton Road in Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Clara Barton Lane in Galveston, Texas
  • Barton Boulevard in Rockledge, Florida
  • Clara Barton Drive in Albany, New York
  • Clara Barton Drive in Fairfax Station, Virginia in Maryland
  • Clara Barton Street in Dansville, NY
  • Clara Barton Boulevard in Garland, TX
  • Clara Barton Circle in Sylacauga, AL
  • Clara Bartonstraat in Amsterdam

Ostalo Uređivanje

    , a crater on Venus , North Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Barton House in Towson University
  • Barton Towers, in Royal Oak, Michigan, on the former site of Clara Barton Junior High School
  • Barton's Crossing, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, a homeless shelter [45]
  • Clara Barton, a Norwegian Air Boeing 737-8MAX (part of Norwegian's "Tailfin Heroes" series) , an unincorporated community located within Edison Township
  • Clara Barton Auditorium, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Alexandria, Virginia
  • Clara Barton Community Center, Cabin John, Maryland
  • Clara Barton District, a regional association of Unitarian Universalist Association member congregations
  • Clara Barton First Aid Squad, Edison, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Home and Gardens, Johnstown, PA
  • Clara Barton Hospital and Clinics, Hoisington, Kansas
  • Clara Barton Memorial Forest in Lake Clear, New York, planted in 1925
  • Clara Barton Post Office Building, at 14 Walnut Street in Bordentown, New Jersey [46]
  • Clara Barton Service Area, on the New Jersey Turnpike in Oldmans Township, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Shelter, Stony Brook State Park, Dansville, NY
  • Clara Barton Tree, a giant sequoia tree in the Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park[47]
  • Heritage of Clara Barton, Edison, NJ, an Assisted Living Community
  • Lake Barton in Burke, Virginia
  • The House of Clara Barton at The King's College (New York City)[48]

A stamp with a portrait of Barton and an image of the American Red Cross symbol was issued in 1948. [49]

Barton was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973. [3]

Barton was featured in 1995 in a set of stamps commemorating the Civil War. [50] [51]

In 2019, Barton was announced as one of the members of the inaugural class of the Government Executive magazine's Government Hall of Fame. [52]

Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, of the National Museum of American History are focused on the United States at war. The Clara Barton Red Cross ambulance was at one point the signature artifact there but is no longer on display.


Barton's father was Captain Stephen Barton, a member of the local militia and a selectman. Barton's mother was Sarah Stone Barton, a homemaker.

When three years old, Clara was sent to school with her brother Stephen where she excelled in reading and spelling. At school, she became close friends with Nancy Fitts this is the only known friend Clara Barton had as a child due to her extreme timidness. Her parents tried to help cure her of this shyness by sending her to Col. Stones High School, but their strategy turned out to be a disaster. Clara became more timid and depressed and would not eat. She was immediately removed from the school and brought back home to regain her health.

Upon her return, her family relocated to help a family member, as the nephew of Captain Stephen Barton had died and left his wife with four children and a farm. The house that the Barton family was to live in needed to be painted and repaired.Clara was persistent in offering her assistance, for which the painter was very grateful. After the work was done, Clara felt at a loss because she had nothing else to do to help and not feel like a burden to her family. She began to play with her male cousins, and to their surprise, she was good at keeping up with such tasks as horseback riding. It was not until after she had injured herself that Clara's mother began to question her playing with the boys. Clara's mother wanted her to become acquainted with her feminine side. She invited one of Clara's female cousins over to help develop her femininity. Upon learning from her cousin, she gained proper social skills as well.

She was just ten when she assigned herself the task of nursing her brother David back to health after he fell from the roof of a barn and received a severe injury.She learned how to distribute the prescribed medication to her brother, as well as how to place leeches on his body to bleed him. (This was a regular treatment during this time.) She continued to care for David long after doctors had given up. Her brother made a full recovery.

Clara Barton became an educator in 1838 for 12 years in schools in Canada and West Georgia. Barton fared well as a teacher and knew how to handle rambunctious children, particularly the boys, since as a child she enjoyed her male cousins' and brothers' company. She learned how to act like them, making it easier for her to relate to and control the boys in her classroom since they respected her. In 1850, Barton decided to further her education by pursuing writing and languages at the Clinton Liberal Institute in New York. Following these studies, Barton opened a free school in Bordentown, New Jersey, the first free school to be opened in the state. The attendance under her leadership grew to 603, but instead of hiring Barton to head the school, the board hired a man. Frustrated, in 1855 she moved to Washington D.C. and began work as a clerk in the US Patent Office,and she met John Brown and they began working togetherthis was the first time a woman had received a substantial clerkship in the federal government and at a salary equal to a man's salary. Subsequently, under political opposition to women working in government offices, her position was reduced to that of copyist, and in 1856, under the administration of James Buchanan,during some reunions , she accompanied John Brown because he separated from his wife,in a beautiful morning, they met Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau,after the execution of John Brown , she was missing for a few weeks , but ended up having to assume all responsibility he had.After the election of Abraham Lincoln, having lived with relatives and friends in Massachusetts for three years, she returned to the patent office in the autumn of 1861, now as temporary copyist, in the hope she could make way for more women in government service. She was probably the first woman to hold a government job in the US.

Before her father died, Clara Barton was able to talk to him about the war effort. Her father convinced her that it was her duty as a Christian to help the soldiers. In the April following his death, Barton returned to Washington to gather medical supplies. Ladies' Aid societies helped in sending bandages, food, and clothing that would later be distributed during the Civil War. In the August of 1862, Barton finally gained permission from Quartermaster Daniel Rucker to work on the front lines. She gained support from other people who believed in her cause. These people became her patrons, her most supportive being Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts.

She worked to distribute stores, clean field hospitals, apply dressings, and serve food to wounded soldiers in close proximity to several battles, including Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg.


In 1864 she was appointed by Union General Benjamin Butler as the "lady in charge" of the hospitals at the front of the Army of the James. Among her more harrowing experiences was an incident in which a bullet tore through the sleeve of her dress without striking her and killed a man to whom she was tending. She is known as the "Angel of the Battlefield."

After the war, she ran the Office of Missing Soldiers, at 437 Seventh Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. in the Gallery Place neighborhood. The office's purpose was to find or identify soldiers killed or missing in action.Barton and her assistants wrote 41,855 replies to inquiries and helped locate more than twenty-one thousand missing men. She traveled to the Andersonville prison camp in Georgia to help identify the dead and missing and install grave markers for thirteen thousand graves, and Congress eventually appropriated $15,000 toward her project.

Barton then achieved widespread recognition by delivering lectures around the country, which lasted well over a year, about her war experiences. After her country wide tour she was both mentally and physically exhausted and under doctor's orders to go somewhere that would take her far from her current work. She closed the Missing Soldiers Office in 1868 and traveled to Europe. She met Susan B. Anthony and began a long association with the woman's suffrage movement. She also met Frederick Douglass and became an activist for civil rights. In 1869, during her trip to Geneva, Switzerland, Barton was introduced to the Red Cross and Dr. Appia who later would invite her to be the representative for the American branch of the Red Cross and even help her find financial beneficiaries for the start of the American Red Cross. She was also introduced to Henry Dunant's book A Memory of Solferino, which called for the formation of national societies to provide relief voluntarily on a neutral basis.


Clara Barton collided with the first official bloodshed of the Civil War

The American Civil War officially started on April 12, 1861, with the attack on Fort Sumter. A week later, the 6th Massachusetts Infantry was attacked in Baltimore while traveling through the city to Washington, D.C. Four soldiers were killed, 36 were wounded, and dozens of civilians died.

When the beleaguered regiment arrived in D.C., the unfinished Capitol Building was turned into a makeshift hospital to accommodate them. Clara Barton heard about the riot and the wounded men: according to the Washington Post, they included former students and people she'd grown up with. She also heard the people treating them had very few supplies. Not easily daunted, Barton collected essentials, including medical supplies, clothes, bedding, and food, and traveled to the Capitol. Given that there was no official training for nurses at the time, she had to learn on the job, as well as drawing on her experience caring for her brother David.

In addition to bringing the supplies, she recruited members of the public to send more, which she collected at her house. But possibly the most significant contribution she made to those on the wards was that she took the time to sit with them, talking and reading to them, praying with them, and helping them write letters home.


Povijest

C larissa Harlowe “Clara” Barton was born in a small Oxford farmhouse on Christmas day 1821. She was raised in the Universalist tradition and attended the Oxford Universalist Church founded by the Rev. Hosea Ballou. A timid, bashful child, Clara grew into a courageous, compassionate leader known the world over for her work as a Civil War battlefield nurse and founder of the American National Red Cross – yet ironically she did not recognize her own selfless bravery. Two hundred years after her birth, the incredible stories of this great humanitarian continue to draw people to Clara Barton’s birthplace to learn about her life of boundless mercy and commitment.

Capt. Stephen Barton purchased the land in 1818 and built the home and a horse farm the family sold the Oxford property in 1836. Several individuals owned the land until in 1921 the Women’s National Missionary Association of the Universalist Church purchased the home and surrounding acreage with help and support from the Legion of Loyal Women, the Clara Barton Memorial Association, and members of the Barton extended family. Shortly after, they opened the Clara Barton Birthplace Museum filled with period artifacts to tell their heroine’s story.

“I think it usually occurs in small communities that there is one family, or one house, to which all strangers or new comers naturally gravitate. Nothing was plainer than that ours was that house…” – Clara Barton (1821-1912), Founder of the American Red Cross

Concurrently they began a fresh air camp for inner-city youth on the surrounding property, as a living memorial to Clara Barton’s philosophy of helping others. Then, during the winter of 1932, they read a newspaper article by fellow Oxford native Dr. Elliott P. Joslin, a leading physician in diabetes treatment, in which he asked people to create “islands of safety” for children living with diabetes where they could learn to develop healthy life skills, use the then-new treatment, insulin, and build a support network of others with the same disease. That summer the Universalist women began the first camp program in the U.S. for girls with diabetes, in the spirit of their heroine teaching those in need how to help themselves, much as Clara’s American National Red Cross offered people a hand up, not a “handout.”

The health education programs answered a pressing need and grew as word of them spread. Seven campers came to North Oxford in 1932 by 1959 that number swelled to almost 400. In 1962 the Universalist Church and the Unitarian Church merged to form the present Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) with its many affiliated organizations, including the former WNMA. A separate independent corporation was created two decades later to administer the increasingly complex health education programs offered on the site as well as the museum – The Barton Center for Diabetes Education, Inc.

The Clara Barton Birthplace Museum is owned by The Barton Center for Diabetes Education, Inc.


Clara Barton Broke Barriers for Nineteenth Century Women

Most people, if they have heard of Clara Barton, know she was a nurse during the Civil War and/or she founded the American Red Cross. People often forget she was so much more than that. In this series of posts we will highlight what people should know about Barton from her extensive nursing career, to her time as an educator, and as an international relief organizer – just to name a few things. The goal is for these posts is to demonstrate just how amazing and multifaceted Clara Barton was in a way modern history textbooks just don’t capture.

For many reasons, Clara Barton is considered a trailblazing activist for women’s rights and by both her contemporaries and modern people worldwide. She was hired as a clerk at the Patent Office in 1854, at the same rate of pay as the men. Barton’s job at the patent office made her one of the very first women to be employed by the federal government, and the equal pay with men was unheard of at the time. While her position was subject to the vagaries of politics, and she encountered harassment from her male coworkers, she persevered and worked at the Patent Office until 1865.

The US Patent Office c 1846 where Clara Barton worked.

Barton’s work as a Civil War nurse was somewhat atypical as well. At the time it was very unusual for women to be caring for strange men in intimate situations that hospitals demanded. Clara Barton took things a step further than most women by going directly to the battlefields to help wounded soldiers, something only a few women were able to do.

Barton was keenly aware what she was doing was uncommon. Looking back with years of hindsight, she commented that, not only were her battlefield nursing duties challenging for her, but they would be for any man. “When our armies fought at Cedar Mountain, I broke the shackles and went into the field. Five days and nights with three hours’ sleep—a narrow escape from capture—and some days of getting the wounded into hospitals at Washington…And if you chance to feel that the positions I occupied were rough and unseemly for a žena—I can only reply that they were rough and unseemly for muškarci. ” Ultimately, that was how Barton thought of herself – the equal of any man.

Barton was also an early lobbyist, tirelessly pushing influential politicians to adopt the Treaty of Geneva and establish the American Red Cross. She pursued these causes throughout the 1870s until she was finally successful in 1882. She was one of three delegates from the United States sent to the Third International Red Cross Conference in Geneva in 1884—and the only female delegate present. What is known as the “American Amendment,” which broadened the scope of the work of the Red Cross to include natural disasters, was passed at the conference, mainly due to success of Barton’s disaster relief work in America and her advocacy of the amendment.

The rights of women were important to Barton, specifically “the right [of a woman] to her own property, her own children, her own home, her just individual claim before the law, to her freedom of action, to her personal liberty” as she put it. She supported her friends Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances D. Gage, and other suffragists in their cause to win the right to vote for American women.

Clara Barton, 1904. Even in her later years, Barton was an advocate for women’s rights.

Barton very publically spoke in favor of equal rights for women. For example, in 1882 Barton delivered a lecture extoling the role Anthony, Stanton, and others played in allowing her to be such a public figure during the Civil War. “You glorify the women who made their way to the front to reach you in your misery, and nurse you back to life. You called us angels. Who opened the way for women to go and make it possible? … For every woman’s hand that ever cooled your fevered brows, staunched your bleeding wounds, gave food to your famished bodies, or water to your parching lips, and called back life to your perishing bodies, you should bless God for Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances D. Gage and their followers.”

Barton’s accomplishments can perhaps best be summed up in a letter she wrote to a friend after the war. “The door that nobody else will go in at, seems always to swing open widely for me.”

This is the second in a series of posts about the many facets of Clara Barton’s career. Click below to be directed to the others.

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3 Major Accomplishments of Clara Barton

When you look back on the accomplishments of people throughout history, some have made more of an impact than others. There have even been those that have overcome more obstacles to do so. Clara Barton was a woman living during a period of time when the rights of women were suppressed to a degree, but this did not stop her from making big contributions to society. It is time that you learned about the major accomplishments of Burton. Here are some of the major accomplishments of Clara Burton:

1. Civil War Contribution

When the Civil War took place in 1861, Burton was working in Washington DC at the time. There was an infantry that was attacked in the area and Burton did not waste any time providing aid. She brought supplies from her home to take care of those that were injured. This was something that cam naturally to her and she quickly determined that providing aid to others was her calling. Helping people that were in need gave her a sense of fulfillment and allowed Burton to feel that she was needed in some way. Providing aid during the civil war was just the beginning of her long career.

2. Red Cross

The Red Cross is still in existence today and provides medical supplies and care to those that are most in need. When a disaster strikes, it is the Red Cross that helps provide the aid that is given. Clara Barton’s biggest accomplishment is creating and establishing the Red Cross. When she started the Red Cross is was not the same organization that it is today, but she was the one that built it up to what it has become over the years. She became the president of the Red Cross when it was formed and was the person that helped to establish local chapters of the red Cross all over the country. This helps to provide more aid in the event of disaster.

3. Speaking on Aid

When Barton was growing up she was extremely shy, but she was able to overcome this shyness as time went along. She spent a good portion of her life traveling and speaking on the topic of aid and how organizations can work together to provide the aid that is required in the event of a disaster. She dedicated her life to those that were in need and those that needed a helping hand along the way.


Clara Barton ( Founder Of American Red Cross)

Biography Of Clara Barton:
Profession: Nurse
Birthdates: December 25, 1821
Birth Place: North Oxford, Massachusetts
Died date: April 12, 1912
Died Place: Glen Echo, Maryland
Best acquainted: Founder of the American Red Cross

Sažetak:
Clara Barton’s birthplace
Clara Barton’s childhood
The first step in the human paradigm
When she is a Teacher and a Establisher
Memorable actions were taken during the Civil War
“Angel of the Battlefield”
Brightest impressions of her work
Founder at American Red Cross
Clara resigns from the American Red Cross

Clara Barton’s Birthplace:
Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts on December 25, 1821, on a beautiful historic day (Christmas). Her childhood did not go very well. She was the youngest of four siblings. Even her mother was never sincere to her. Because the number of parents was far greater than the number of her siblings.

Clara Barton’s Childhood:
In addition to her studies at school, she gained a reputation for acquiring various skills at work. But sadly no one treated her well at school. When Clara was at home, she almost listened intently to the war stories in her father’s mouth, which was her favorite.

The First Step In The Human Paradigm:
When Clara was only eleven, her older brother, David, fell violently from the roof of a barn and took on almost the full responsibility of her service. And for the next two years, Clara became a nurse in her full service while her brother was in bed. Which is an example of human experience in later life, including gaining experience.

When She was A Teacher And A Establisher:
Clara Barton created an organization called The American Red Cross to provide services to the helpless, destitute, poor, and needy people. Today, the organization continues to assist needy people. David relied on her brothers for help after she was involved in an accident, but eventually, her sister Clara brought her back. As a teenager, she received an outlet for her humanitarian work, and at the age of 15, she was hired as a teacher and later started a free public school in New Jersey on her initiative.

Memorable Actions Were Taken During The Civil War:
Clara Barton helped the Army during the Civil War in many ways. At an early stage, she concentrated on collecting supplies and after being able to collect them she distributed them to the Union Army. Burton works as a nurse on her initiative for the welfare of humanity.

Angel Of The Battlefield :
The first battle she fought in Fredericksburg, Virginia, lasted 1862 years. She served the wounded soldiers in Antioch with great care and responsibility. She received a well-known reputation for this service, for which she was awarded the “Angel of the Battlefield” . President Lincoln put her in charge of locating missing men from the union army and she found thousands.

Brightest Impressions Of Her Work:
One of the brightest impressions of her work can be seen when she worked in 1865 to find the missing soldiers and reunite them with their families. After becoming a lecturer, she used to have a large crowd to listen to the narration of the experience of war.

Getting supplies to the troops was not easy. But Clara Barton tried as hard as she could to deliver. She was terrified and wondered how the soldiers would treat her. Different names were hanging next to the camp built for women, the names were not beautiful. Claire Cedar continued her service at the camp, including troop searches, in the context of permission to supply troops to a field hospital set up outside the battlefield. She has been working continuously for as long as possible. Then she returned home tired.

During the war, Clara established a tradition:
Collect supplies,
Visit field hospitals (and then the battlefields themselves),
Work hard
Then break down,
Get tired,
Get sick
And be frustrated at different times. Running.

Barton Is The Founder Of The American Red Cross:
The Franco-Prussian War lasted from 1870 to 1871, during which time Clara Barton was associated with a relief organization called the International Red Cross, collecting, distributing, and volunteering for relief, and during this time she was on a tour of Europe. Back in the United States, she vigorously pursued and advocated for the establishment of the American Red Cross Society. As a result, the American Red Cross Society was founded in 1881.

Clara Barton was later appointed president for the first time and retained his place of honor by honestly behaving humanely. During her tenure as leader, John Stone was instrumental in the relief and relief work for the people affected by the Floods of 1889 and the Galveston Floods of 1900.

Clara Resigns From The American Red Cross:
Clara Barton resigned from the American Red Cross in 1904 to attend lectures, after a time of honorable service to the public. The reason was financial mismanagement and internal power struggles. She had a reputation as an authoritarian leader, she never took any money for work. She never raised funds to raise her funds. She played an active role in lectures after leaving the Red Cross. She also authored a book, The Story of “My Childhood” which was published in 1907. Barton died on April 12, 1912, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland.


Clara Barton ( Founder Of American Red Cross)

Biography Of Clara Barton:
Profession: Nurse
Birthdates: December 25, 1821
Birth Place: North Oxford, Massachusetts
Died date: April 12, 1912
Died Place: Glen Echo, Maryland
Best acquainted: Founder of the American Red Cross

Sažetak:
Clara Barton’s birthplace
Clara Barton’s childhood
The first step in the human paradigm
When she is a Teacher and a Establisher
Memorable actions were taken during the Civil War
“Angel of the Battlefield”
Brightest impressions of her work
Founder at American Red Cross
Clara resigns from the American Red Cross

Clara Barton’s Birthplace:
Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts on December 25, 1821, on a beautiful historic day (Christmas). Her childhood did not go very well. She was the youngest of four siblings. Even her mother was never sincere to her. Because the number of parents was far greater than the number of her siblings.

Clara Barton’s Childhood:
In addition to her studies at school, she gained a reputation for acquiring various skills at work. But sadly no one treated her well at school. When Clara was at home, she almost listened intently to the war stories in her father’s mouth, which was her favorite.

The First Step In The Human Paradigm:
When Clara was only eleven, her older brother, David, fell violently from the roof of a barn and took on almost the full responsibility of her service. And for the next two years, Clara became a nurse in her full service while her brother was in bed. Which is an example of human experience in later life, including gaining experience.

When She was A Teacher And A Establisher:
Clara Barton created an organization called The American Red Cross to provide services to the helpless, destitute, poor, and needy people. Today, the organization continues to assist needy people. David relied on her brothers for help after she was involved in an accident, but eventually, her sister Clara brought her back. As a teenager, she received an outlet for her humanitarian work, and at the age of 15, she was hired as a teacher and later started a free public school in New Jersey on her initiative.

Memorable Actions Were Taken During The Civil War:
Clara Barton helped the Army during the Civil War in many ways. At an early stage, she concentrated on collecting supplies and after being able to collect them she distributed them to the Union Army. Burton works as a nurse on her initiative for the welfare of humanity.

Angel Of The Battlefield :
The first battle she fought in Fredericksburg, Virginia, lasted 1862 years. She served the wounded soldiers in Antioch with great care and responsibility. She received a well-known reputation for this service, for which she was awarded the “Angel of the Battlefield” . President Lincoln put her in charge of locating missing men from the union army and she found thousands.

Brightest Impressions Of Her Work:
One of the brightest impressions of her work can be seen when she worked in 1865 to find the missing soldiers and reunite them with their families. After becoming a lecturer, she used to have a large crowd to listen to the narration of the experience of war.

Getting supplies to the troops was not easy. But Clara Barton tried as hard as she could to deliver. She was terrified and wondered how the soldiers would treat her. Different names were hanging next to the camp built for women, the names were not beautiful. Claire Cedar continued her service at the camp, including troop searches, in the context of permission to supply troops to a field hospital set up outside the battlefield. She has been working continuously for as long as possible. Then she returned home tired.

During the war, Clara established a tradition:
Collect supplies,
Visit field hospitals (and then the battlefields themselves),
Work hard
Then break down,
Get tired,
Get sick
And be frustrated at different times. Running.

Barton Is The Founder Of The American Red Cross:
The Franco-Prussian War lasted from 1870 to 1871, during which time Clara Barton was associated with a relief organization called the International Red Cross, collecting, distributing, and volunteering for relief, and during this time she was on a tour of Europe. Back in the United States, she vigorously pursued and advocated for the establishment of the American Red Cross Society. As a result, the American Red Cross Society was founded in 1881.

Clara Barton was later appointed president for the first time and retained his place of honor by honestly behaving humanely. During her tenure as leader, John Stone was instrumental in the relief and relief work for the people affected by the Floods of 1889 and the Galveston Floods of 1900.

Clara Resigns From The American Red Cross:
Clara Barton resigned from the American Red Cross in 1904 to attend lectures, after a time of honorable service to the public. The reason was financial mismanagement and internal power struggles. She had a reputation as an authoritarian leader, she never took any money for work. She never raised funds to raise her funds. She played an active role in lectures after leaving the Red Cross. She also authored a book, The Story of “My Childhood” which was published in 1907. Barton died on April 12, 1912, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland.


Gledaj video: Clara Barton: Angel of the Battlefield feat. Mandy Moore and Alexander Skarsgård - Drunk History


Komentari:

  1. Erskine

    Well, so-so...

  2. Scandy

    Riziram da se činim laikom, ali ipak ću pitati, odakle to i tko je uopće napisao?

  3. Mac Ailean

    Authoritative point of view

  4. Stanweg

    Hm... dobro će doći...



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